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Full text of "The geography of Strabo. With an English translation by Horace Leonard Jones. Based in part upon the unfinished version of John Robert Sitlington Sterrett"

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E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 











Printed in Great Britain 










1. Ta TTepiXenTOfjbeva t>}9 'Acrta? earl ra eVro? 
Tov Tavpov, irXrjV KiX^/cta? koX YlafX(^v\ia<; koX 
AvKiw;, TCL ^ aiTO r?)? 'Iz^St /ct}? j-i^XP^ NelXov fiera^v 
TOV Tavpov Kol T^9 efo) OaXaTrrjf; t^? votlov 
K€L/jL6va. jieTCL §€ Tj;!/ 'Adiav T) Aiffur] earl, irepl 
779 epovfiev VGTepov, vvv K diro Trj<; ^JvBi,Krj<; 
dpKriov irpcoTT) <ydp e/CKCLTai tt/jo? rat? dvaTo\aL<; 
Kal /jL6yi(7Tr}. 

2. Aet 8' euyvcofiovo)^ uKoveiv irepl avrrj^i' koX 
yap dircoTdra) ean, koI ov ttoWol tmv rjfi€T€p(op 
KarooTrTevaav avrrjv ol he kol l86vt€<; fieprj rivd 
elBov, TO, Be ifkeiw Xiyovaiv e'f dKor)<;' kol a elBov 
Si, ev irapoBu) arparicoTLKy kol Spofia) KareixaOov 
hioirep ovSe rd avrd irepl rayp avroiv i^ayyeX- 
Xovai, Kal ravra avyypdylravTe<; ft)9 dv irecjypovTLar- 
fjLei'co<; e^r]Tacr/j,eva, rive^ 8' avrcjv Kal crvarparev- 
aavre^i dXXrjXoL<; Kal avve7riBr}fiyaavT€<;, KaOdirep 
ol ^AXe^dvhp(p o-vyKaTaarpeylrd/jievoL ttjv 'Aalav 
dX\* eKacTO^ eKaarw rdvavria Xeyei TroXXaKi^. 

^ 5', before 0,^6, the editors omit. 
^ i.e. the Indian Ocean. 


1. The parts still left of Asia are those outside 
the Taurus except Cilicia and Pamphylia and Lycia, 
I mean the parts extending from India as far as 
the Nile and lying between the Taurus and the 
outer sea on the south. ^ After Asia one comes to 
Libya, which I shall describe later, but I must now 
begin with India, for it is the first and largest 
country that lies out towards the east. 

2. But it is necessary for us to hear accounts of 
this country with indulgence, for not only is it 
farthest away from us, but not many of our people 
have seen it; and even those who have seen it, 
have seen only parts of it, and the greater part of 
what they say is froxn Jiearsay ; and even what they 
saw they learned on a hasty passage with an army 
through the country. Wherefore they do not give 
out the same accounts of the same things, even 
though they have written these accounts as though 
their statements had been carefully confirmed. 
And some of them were both on the same 
expedition together and made their sojourns 
together, like those who helped Alexander to sub- 
due Asia; yet they all frequently contradict one 



OTTOV Se Trepi tojv opaOevrcov ovrca Bia^ipovrai, n 
Bel vofiL^eiP irepl tmv ef clkotj^ ; 

3. Kat fJLr]v ovS* ol ttoWoI ^ ttoXXoZ? %poi'Oi9 
varepov (Tvy<ypd'\lravT6<; n irepl tovtwv, ovK ol vvv 
iT\eovre<; eKelae, cnro^aivovTai ri aKpi^e^. 

C 686 ^ AiroW6Baipo<; yovv 6 ra YlapOiKa iroirjcra^y 
fie/j,vr}fjLepo(; teal reov rrjv ^a/crpiavrjv airoo-rijadv- 
Tcov 'EWijvcov Trapa tmv '^.vpiaKcov ^aaiXicov 
TMV aTTo XeXevKov tov NiKdTopo<;, <l>r)(Tl fiev 
avTOv^ av^7]devTa<i eTridiaOai /cal ry ^IvSiKrj' 
ovSev Be TT po(TavaKa\v7rT€L tojv Trporepov iyvcoa- 
fievcov, dXXa koI ivavrioXoyei, ifkeiay Trj<; ^\vBLf€7J<; 
eKeivovf; rj MafceBovw^ Karaarpe'^aaOai Xiycov. 
EvKpariBav jovv iroXet^ ')(^tXla<; vcp' eavTw 6")(€lv* 
eKelvoi Be ye avra ra /jbera^v eOvrj tov re 
'TBdo-TTov Kal rov 'TTrdvLo^ rov dptdfjLOV ivvea, 
TToXei^; re a-^etv 7revraKLa')(^t\La<;, o)v iJbr)Be[xiav 
elvat K(w T^9 Mepo7rlBo<; ekdrrw ravrrjv Be 
rraaav rrjv x^P^^ Karacrr pe-y^dp.evov ^ AXe^avBpov 
irapaBovvai Ucopo). 

4. Kai ol vvv Be e^ AlyvTrrov rrXeovre<; 
ifiTToptKol ra> NetX,a) Kal r5) ^ApajSicp koXttch 
fjiexpt 7"^? ^lvBtKrj<; arrdvLOL jjuev Kal ^ rrepnreTrXev- 
Kaat fie'Xpf' tov Tdyyov, Kal ovrot 8' IBccorai Kal 
ovBev 77/90? laropiav roiv roircov XPW^f^^^- 
KUKelOev Be d^' evo^ roirov Kal rrap evo<i 
^aaiXe(o<i, lIapBiovo<;, Kal dXXov^ HoopoVy rjKev 
0)9 K.aiaapa rov Xe^aarbv Bcopa Kal TrpeajSela 

^ iroWoi, which Corais and the later editors eject, Jones 

2 Kai, omitted by Cmoxz. 

^ Before /coi 6.\\ov Groskurd inserts ij, at the same time 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 2-4 

another. But if they differ thus about what was 
seen, what must we think of what they report from 
hearsay ? 

3. Moreover, most of those who have written any- 
thing about this region in much later times, and 
those who sail there at the present time, do not pre- 
sent any accurate information either. At any rate, 
Apollodorus, who wrote The Parthica, when he 
mentions the Greeks who caused Bactriana to revolt 
from the Syrian kings who succeeded Seleucus 
Nicator, says that when those kings had grown in 
power they also attacked India, but he reveals 
nothing further than what was already known, and 
even contradicts what was known, saying that those 
kings subdued more of India than the Macedonians ; 
that Eucratidas, at any rate, held a thousand cities 
as his subjects. Those other writers, however, say 
that merely the tribes between the Hydaspes and 
the Hypanis were nine in number, and that they had 
five thousand cities, no one of which was smaller 
than the Meropian Cos, and that Alexander subdued / 
the whole of this country and gave it over to Porus. I 

4. As for the merchants who now sail from Aegypt 
by the Nile and the Arabian Gulf as far as India, 
only a small number have sailed as far as the Ganges ; 
and even these are merely private citizens and of 
no use as regards the history of the places they 
have seen. But from India, from one place and 
from one king, I mean Pandion, or another Porus, 
there came to Caesar Augustus presents and gifts 

conjecturing /cot' &\\ovs, which latter is followed by Kramer 
and Meineke ; but the &\\ov seems needed in view of the 
Porus mentioned in § 3 above. 


/cat 6 KaraKavaa^ eavrov ^AOtjutjcti aocpLO-Tr]^ 
'lvB6<;, KaOdirep /cal 6 KdXavo^i ^AXe^dvBpo) rrjv 
Toiavrrjv Oeav iirLSei^dfjLevo';. 

5. Et Toivvv TavT d(f)€L<; tl^ ttjv irpo tP]<; 
^AXe^dvBpov (jTpareia^ iin^XeiToi pbvrjpLrjVy iroXv 
av evpOL TOVTCov TvcpXorepa. ^ AXi^avBpov jxev 
ovv inaTeveLv to2<; tolovtoi<; €Ik6<;, TeTV(f)cop.6Vov 
ral^ ToaavTat<; €VTV)(^iat<;, (prjcrl yovv N€apxo<; 
(piXovei/crjaai avrov Bta ttJ? FeBpcoaLa^; dyayelp 
TTjp aTparidv, ireTrvo-fievov Biori koX '2,€/JLipa/jLi<; 
iarpdrevaev eirl ^IvBov^ Koi K.vpo<;, aXX' rj fiev 
dve^rpeyjre, (f^evyovaa fiera ecKoat dvdpcoTrwv, 
iK6Lvo<; Be fieO* eTrrd' to? (T6/jlvov to} ifceiPODV 
Toaavra iraOovTcoVy ayrov Kal ^ arparoireBov 
Biaacoaai ixera viKr]<^ Bia to)v avrwv eOvSiv re Kal 
TOTTcov €KetPO(; fxev Br) iirLa-revaev. 

6. ^H/jlIp Be Tt9 ciP BiKaia yepouro iridrt^i irepl 
Tcov ^IpBlkmp etc t?)? TOiavTr]<; (TTpaTeia^ rod 
Kvpov rj rr}? X€/xipdfjaBo<i ; avpaTTOcpalperac Be 
7rft)9 fcal M.€ya(TOepr)<; rat Xoyw tovtw, KeXevcop 
aTnarelp TaL<; dp^aiaL^ irepl ^\vBo)P la-Topiai^' ovre 
yap Trap' ^IpBcjp e^co cnaXripaL irore arparidp, 
ovr eireXOelp e^coOep Kal Kparijo-ai, ttXtjp t/J? 
/jued^ 'HpaKXeov^; Kal Atopvaov Kal r?)? pvp jiera 
^laKeBopcop. KaiTOL Xeacoarpip fxep top AlyvTTTWv 
Kal TedpKoypa top AlOloTra eo)? Fivpconrjf; irpoeX- 

C 687 OetP' Na^OKoBpoaopop Be top irapd ^aXBaL0t<i 

^ For (Tfixvov t6 Capps conj. cefivSv ri. 
2 Kal, omitted by Cmoz. 

1 See 15. 1. 73. 

* For a similar statement, see 15. 2. 5. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 4-6 

of honour and the Indian sophist who burnt him- 
self up at Athens,^ as Calanus had done, who made 
a similar spectacular display of himself before 

5. If, however, one should dismiss these accounts 
and observe the records of the country prior to the 
expedition of Alexander, one would find things still 
more obscure. Now it is reasonable to suppose that 
Alexander believed such records because he was 
biinded by his numerous good fortunes ; at any 
rate, Nearchus says that Alexander conceived an 
ambition to lead his army through Gedrosia when 
he learned that both Semiramis and Cyrus had 
made an expedition against the Indians, and that 
Semiramis had turned back in flight with only 
twenty people and Cyrus with seven ; and that 
Alexander thought how grand it would be, when 
those had met with such reverses, if he himself 
should lead a whole victorious army safely through 
the same tribes and regions.^ Alexander, therefore, 
believed these accounts. 

6. But as for us, what just credence can we 
place in the accounts of India derived from such an 
expedition made by Cyrus, or Semiramis ? And 
Megasthenes virtually agrees with this reasoning 
when he bids us to have no faith in the ancient 
stories about the Indians; for, he says, neither 
was an army ever sent outside the country by the 
Indians nor did any outside army ever invade their 
country and master them, except that with Heracles 
and Dionysus and that in our times with the 
Macedonians. However, Sesostris, the Aegyptian,' 
he adds, and Tearco the Aethiopian advanced as far 
as Europe ; and Nabocodrosor, who enjoyed greater 


evhoKtfxtjaavra 'H/ja/cXeof? fiaXkov /cal eo)? 
^rifKoyv eXdar fji€)(pt, /xev Br) Bevpo koI Tedpfcwva ^ 
d<f)LKea6aL' iKclvov he fcal eV tt}? ^l^rjpia^ els ttjv 
SpaKTjv /cal Tov Tlovrov dyayelv rrjv arpaTidv 
^Ihdvdvpaov Be tov Xfcvdrjv einhpapielv rrjs ^Kaiwi 
P'^XP^ -^lyviTTOV' rr}<; Be ^IvBck}]<; p,7jBeva tovtcdv 
dy^aaOar Kal Sep^ipap^cv 8* diroOavelv irpo tt}? 
eTTix^cpijaecos' Uepaas Be pnaOo^opovs p^ev e/c rrjs 
'IpBlktjs peTairepLyjraaOaL ^'TBpafcas, eKel Be p,rj 
(JTparevaai, dX)C iyyv<; eXOelv povov, r)VLKa Kvpos 
TjXavev enl MaaaayeTas. 

7. Kal ra irepl HpuKXeovs Be koX Atopvaov 
MeyaaOevrjs p-ev pier oXlycov Triard rjyelrai,, tmv 
K dXXcov ol irXelovs, wv eari koI ^EparoaOevijs, 
aTnara Kal pivOcoBrj, KaOdirep /cal rd irapd roi? 
'EXXrjaiv. 6 pLev yap ev rats Bd/c^ais rais 
KvpiTTtBov Aiovvaos roiavra veavieverat' 

Xiircbv Be AvBcov rds ttoXv'xp^o'ovs yvaf; 
^pvycov re Uepaoop 6^ tjXwjSXtjtovs 7rXdKa<; 
J^d/crpid re relxv '^W '^^ Bua)(eLpLOV x^ova 
yirjBcDv eTTTJXdov 'Apafflav evBalpuova 
^ Aaiav re irda-av. 

rrapd Xo(f)o/cXel Be Tt9 eVri rrjv ^vaav^ Ka6vpiV03V, 
ft)? TO Alovv(T(p KaOiepwpevov opos' 

oOev KarelBov rrjv ^e^a/cy^ia)p,ev7)p 
fipoTolai, KXeivr]v Nvaav,^ rjv 6 fiov/C€pco<; 
"la/cxos avT(p pLalav rjBiaTrjv vepuec, 
oTTov Tt9 opvis ov)(l /cXayydvec ; 

/cal rd ef/;?. Kal MrjpoTpa(pr)s Be Xeyerat,'^ Kal 

^ TedpKou, F. 2 NQtrav, C, "Nixraav other MSS. 

^ Nvaav, the editors, for Nva-aau. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 6-7 

repute among the Chaldaeans than Heracles, led an 
army even as far as the Pillars. Thus far, he says, 
also Tearco went ; and Sesostris also led his army from 
Iberia to Thrace and the Pontus ; and Idanthyrsus 
the Scythian overran Asia as far as Aegypt ; but no 
one of these touched India, and Semiramis too died 
before the attempt; and, although the Persians 
summoned the Hydraces as mercenary troops from 
India, the latter did not make an expedition to 
Persia, but only came near it when Cyrus was 
marching against the Massagetae. 

7. As for the storied of Heracles and Dionysus, 
Megasthenes with a few others considers them 
trustworthy; but most other writers, among whom 
is Eratosthenes, consider them untrustworthy and 
mythical, like the stories current among the Greeks. 
For instance, in the Bacchae ^ of Euripides Dionysus 
says with youthful bravado as follows : " I have left 
behind me the gold-bearing glades of Lydia and 
of Phrygia, and I have visited the sun-stricken 
plains of Persia, the walled towns of Bactria, the 
wintry land of the Medes, and Arabia the Blest, Jh- 
and the whole of Asia." ^ In Sophocles, also, there 
is someone who hymns the praises of Nysa as the 
mountain sacred to Dionysus: "Whence I beheld 
the famous Nysa, ranged in Bacchic frenzy by 
mortals, which the horned lacchus roams as his 
own sweetest nurse, where — what bird exists that 
singeth not there ? " And so forth. And he is 
also called ** Merotraphes." And Homer says of 

1 13 £f. 

2 Quoted also in 1. 2. 20. 

^ KoX . . . \eyeTai, Meineke ejects. 


7roir]Tr]<; Trepl AvKovpyov rov ^HBcovov <^r]aLV 

0? TTore fiaivofxivoio AicovvaoLo riOijva^ 
aeve Kar rj'ydOeov ^varjiov. 

Toiavra fjiev ra wepl Aiovvaov irepl Be ^Hpa/cXeov^ 

01 fiev iirl ravavria povov p^e^po twv eairepiwv 
Trepdrcov laTopovaiVy ol 8' e<^' e/cdrepa. 

8. 'E^ Be Twv TOCovTwv Nuo-atof? By Ttva<i 
eOvo^ irpocrcovopacrav koI ttoXlv Trap" avTol<; 
^vaav} Aiopvaov Krlap^a, xal O/009 to virep r/}? 
7roX6&)9 M.rjp6v, alnaadpievoL koL tov avroOi 
Kiaaov KOL dpLTreXov, ovBe ravrijv reXecTiKapirov' 
diroppel yap 6 ^orpv; irplv irepKdaat Bid tov<; 
6p^pov<^ TOL'? dBriv Aiovvaov B^ d7roy6vov<i Tov<i 
SvBpd/ca^;,^ diro t^? dpLireXov r?}? Trap" avrol^ xal 
T&v TToXvreXwv i^oBcov, ySa/c%i«:co? rd^ re exarpa- 
C 688 reta? iroiovpLevayv rcov ffaaiXecop koX ra? dWa^ 
€^6Bov<; p^erd TvpuravicFpiOV koI €vavOov<; cttoXt}?* 
OTrep eTTLTTokd^eL koX irapd toI<!; dWoi<; ^IvBol<;. 
"Aopvov Be TLva irerpav, ^9 Ta9 pl^a<i 6 ^lvBo<; 
vTTOppel TrXrjaiov tmv Trrjycov, ^AXe^dvBpov Kajd 
piiav irpoaPoXrjv e\6vT0<;, aepivvvovre^ e(f)aaav, 
TOV 'Hpa/c\ea Tpl<; puev Trpoa/SdXeiv rfj irerpa 
TavTTj, rpl<; 8' dTTOKpovadrjvai. tmv Be Koivwvrj- 
advTwv avT& Tr]<i arpareia'; diroyovov^ eivai 
TOL'9 ^t/3a9, GvpfioXa rov yevov^ aoa^ovTa^iy to re 
Bopd^ dp^Trex^adat, /caOdirep rov 'HpaKXea, fcal 
TO aKUTa\7]cl)opeiv /cat eTrt/ce/cavaOai ^oval Kal 
7]pii6voi^ poiraXov. ^e^aiovurat, Be tov pivdov 

^ "Hxiffffav D. 

2 2v5p(£Kas, C, *0|u5paKas SvSpaKay, S, '0|u5po/cas other MSS, 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 7-8 

Lycurgus the Edonian as follows : " who once drove 
the nurses of frenzied Dionysus down over the 
sacred mount of Nysa.''^ So much for Dionysus. 
But, regarding Heracles, some tell the story that 
he went in the opposite direction only, as far as the 
extreme limits on the west, whereas others say that 
he went to both extreme limits. 

8. From such stories, accordingly, writers have - 
named a certain tribe of people " Nysaeans," and 
a city among them " Nysa," founded by Dionysus; 
and they have named a mountain above the city 
** Merus," alleging as the cause of the name the 
ivy that grows there, as also the vine, which latter 
does not reach maturity either; for on account of 
excessive rains the bunches of grapes fall off before 
they ripen; and they say that the Sydracae are 
descendants of Dionysus, judging from the vine in 
their country and from their costly processions, since 
the kings not only make their expeditions out of their 
country in Bacchic fashion, but also accompany all 
other processions with a beating of drums and with 
flowered robes, a custom which is also prevalent 
among the rest of the Indians. When Alexander, 
at one assault, took Aornus, a rock at the foot of 
which, near its sources, the Indus River flows, his 
exalters said that Heracles thrice attacked this rock 
and thrice was repulsed; and that the Sibae were 
descendants of those who shared with Heracles in 
the expedition, and that they retained badges of 
their descent, in that they wore skins like Heracles, 
carried clubs, and branded their cattle and mules 
with the mark of a club. And they further confirm this 

1 Iliad 6. 132. 



TOVTOV Kol CK TO)v TTCpl Tov Kavfcaaov KoX rov 
T{pofX7]6ea' koX 'yap ravra fierevrjvoxci'O'iv €k rov 
HoVTOV SeVpO OLTTO fXiKpOL^ 7rpo(f)da€Ct)<;, lS6vT€<i 
(TTTrfkaLOV ev rol^ T[apo7ra/iiLadSai<; lepov tovto 
yap ivehei^avTO UpofirjOico^; Becr/jbcoTijpiov, /cal 
Sevpo dcjicyfievov tov 'HpaKXea iirl ttjv iXevOepco- 
aiv TOV YlpofirjOico^;, Kat tovtov elvac tov 
K.avKa(7ov, ov "EWt]V6<; Yipofi'r]6e(o<; BeaficoT^piov 

9. "Oti 3' io-TL TrXdafxaTa ravTa tmv KoXa- 
KeuovTwv ^AXi^avBpov, irpcoTOv fiev ifc tov firj 
6fMoXoy€?v dXXi]XoL<; tov<; (Tvyypa^€a<; BrjXov, dXX^ 
Tou? /lev Xeyeiv, tov<; Be fxr^B^ aTrXw? fMe/jLvrjadai' 
ov yap eUo^;, Ta ouro)? evBo^a /cal Tvcpov TrXypr} 
fir) ireTTvaOai, r) TreTTvaOai fiev, /jlt) a^ia Be fivt]/jLr}<; 
vTToXafiecv^ koI Tavra tou? TTio-TOTttTOf? avTMV 
eireiTa €k tov fJirjBe tou? fieTa^v, Bi* cov exp^iv ttjv 
€9 ^IvBoix; a<j)i^iv yevecrOat, to2<; ire pi tov Aiovvaov 
KaX TOV 'HpaxXea, fjLrjBev ex^cv TeK/iiijpLOv Beifcvv- 
vai T?}9 eKelvcov oBov Bta t/}? cr^eTepa^ yrj<i. /cal 
r) TOV *Hpa/cXeov<; Be aToXrj rj Toiavrrj iroXv 
vecoTepa r/}? Tp(oi,K7]<; fivyj/Jirj^ €(ttl, irXdcrfia tojv 
TTJV Hpd/cXecav iroLrjadvTwv, ecTe UeiaavBpo<i rjvt 
€iT dXXo<; Ti?* TO, B' dpxaia ^oava ou% ovtco 

10. 'n? ev Tot? TOLovTOL^ ovv aTToBexea-Oac Bei 
irdv TO eyyvTdTCt) TrtcrTeo)?. iiroirjadp.eOa B' rjixel^^ 
/cal ev TOL^ 7rpcoTOi<; Xoyoi^ tol<; irepl yewy pa(f>La<i 
BlaiTav, Tjv BvvaTov rjVy irepl tovtcov koI vvv 
eKelvoL^ re ef eToLfiov xPV^o/jueda, /cal erepa 

^ Adventures of Heracles. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 8-10 

myth by the stories of the Caucasus and Prometheus, 
for they have transferred all this thither on a slight 
pretext, I mean because they saw a sacred cave in 
the country of the Paropamisadae ; for they set 
forth that this cave was the prison of Prometheus 
and that this was the place whither Heracles came 
to release Prometheus, and that this was the Caucasus 
the Greeks declared to be the prison of Prometheus. 

9. But that these stories are fabrications of the 
flatterers of Alexander is obvious ; first, not only 
from the fact that the historians do not agree with/^ 
one another, and also because, while some relate 
them, others make no mention whatever of them ; 
for it is unreasonable to believe that exploits so 
famous and full of romance were unknown to any 
historian, or, if known, that they were regarded as 
unworthy of recording, and that too by the most 
trustworthy of the historians ; and, secondly, from 
the fact that not even the intervening peoples, 
through whose countries Dionysus and Heracles 
and their followers would have had to pass in order 

to reach India, can show any evidence that these 
made a journey through their country. Further, 
such accoutrement of Heracles is much later than 
the records of the Trojan War, being a fabrication 
of the authors of the Heracleia,^ whether the author 
was Peisander or someone else. The ancient statues 
of Heracles are not thus accoutred. 

10. So, in cases like these, one must accept every- 
thing that is nearest to credibility. I have already 
in my first discussion of the subject of geography 2 
made decisions, as far as I could, about these matters. 
And now I shall unhesitatingly use those decisions 

» 2. 1. 1 ff. 



7rpoaOi]cro/jL€V, oacav av helv So^rj tt/jo? rrjv cracj)^- 
veiav. /jLoXtara 8' ck ^ r?;? SLauTrjf; iSoKec Trj<; 
T0T6 Tnarorara elvat ra vtto tou ^^paroa6evov<; 
iv Tco TpLTO) Tcov yecjjpu^LKMV ixTeOivTa K€(j)a- 
\ai(i)Bco<; Trepl tt}? rore vop,i^ofi€vr)<; ^IvBtKrjf;, 
rjvLKa ^A\e^av8po<; iTrrjXOe' koX rjp 6 ^IvBo<; opLOV 
ravrr)<; re koI t?}? ^Apiavrjf;, rjv icj)6^r]<; 7rpo<; rfj 
C 689 eairepa^ /ceifJLevrjv Yiepaat KaTelypv vcrrepov yap 
St) fcal TTJ^ ^Apiavrj^ ttoWtjv ecrxov ol '\vhol 
\a^6pT€<i irapa tcov MuKeSovoyv. eari Be roiavra, 
a Xeyec 6 'EpaToa-OevTj<;. 

11. 'YrjV ^lvBtKr]V 7r€pL(t)pLK6V CLTTO p.€V TMV 

apKTcov Tov Tavpov to, ecrxara oltto T'fj<; ^ApLavr]<; 
fiexpt T^? ecJa? Oa\dTTrj<;, airep ol iir 1^(^00 pioi 
Kara /JLepo<i Tiapoirdjjbidov re koi ^H/jLoyBov koX 
"l/jLaop ^ KoX aXKa ovofid^ovai, Ma^eSoi^e? Be 
K.avfcaaov drro Be t^? eairepa'^ 6 'Iz^So? 7roTap,6<;' 
TO Be voTLov Kal TO irpocrewov ifKevpov, ttoXv 
fiei^co rcjp erepcov ovra, irpOTreTrrco/cev eh to 
'ArXavTi/cov 7re\ayo<;, Kal yiverai pofi^oeiBh to 
T^? ^ft)/3<x? G')(i)pLa, T(ov jiei^ovayv rrXevpMV €Ka- 
repov irXeoveicTovvro^ irapa to direvavTiov irXev- 
pov Kal rpLo-'X^iXiot'i araBtoL^;, oawv^ earl to 
KOLvov ciKpov TJ79 Te ecodivrj^; 7rapaXia<; Kal t^? 
fi€ar]/ii^pi,vr}<i, e^co 7rp07re7rTC0K0<; ef tar]^; e(f>' eKa- 
Tepov Trapa rrjv dXXrjv rjiova. rrj^; jxev ovv eaTre- 
plov TTXevpa<i diro rcov J^avKaalcov opcov iwl ttjv 
VOTLOV OdXaTTav aTdBtoL pudXtaTa XeyovTai jjuvpioi 

1 5'e/c, Corais, for ^k ; so Meineke. 

2 ((nrepa F, e<nrepla other MSS. 

^ ''ifiaov, E, Maou CF, Maoi' Dhxz. 
* '6ao}v, F, '6(Tov other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. lo-ii 

as accepted, and shall also add anything else that 
seems required for the purpose of clearness. It was 
particularly apparent from my former discussion 
that the summary account set forth in the 
third book of his geography by Eratosthenes of 
what was in his time regarded as India, that is, 
when Alexander invaded the country, is the most 
trustworthy ; and the Indus River was the boundary 
between India and Ariana, which latter was situated 
next to India on the west and was in the possession 
of the Persians at that time ; for later the Indians 
also held much of Ariana, having received it from 
the Macedonians. And the account given by 
Eratosthenes is as follows : 

11. India is bounded on the north, from Ariana 
to the eastern sea, by the extremities ^ of the Taurus, 
which by the natives are severally called " Paro- 
pamisus " and " Emodus " and " Imaus " and other 
names, but by the Macedonians "Caucasus"; on 
the west by the Indus River ; but the southern and 
eastern sides, which are much greater than the 
other two, extend out into the Atlantic sea, and 
thus the shape of the country becomes rhomboidal, 
each of the greater sides exceeding the opposite 
side by as much as three thousand stadia, which 
is the same number of stadia by which the cape ^ 
common to the eastern and southern coast extends 
equally farther out in either direction than the 
rest of the shore. Now the length of the western 
side from the Caucasian Mountains to the southern 
sea is generally called thirteen thousand stadia. 

1 See 11. 8. 1 and footnote 3. 

2 i.e. Cape Comorin. 



TpiayiXioi, rrapa tov ^IvBov Trora/jLov fiexpc tcop 
eicpo\(hv avTOv' coar airevavTiov rj eco6tvr) Trpocr- 
Xa^ovaa tou? ri}? arcpaf; TpL(T')(^L\iov<; earai 
fivpiwv Kol e^aicLcr')(^LX'tj(i)v aTaSucov. tovto jxev 
ovv ifKcLTO^ T^9 ')((i)pa<; to t iXd^^iarov koX to 
lxe<yiaTOV. /j.7]ko<; Se to airo Trj<; etrTrepa? iirl ttjp 
€0)' TOVTOV Se TO fjulv P'iy^pL HaKifiodpoyv e%Of 
Ti9 av ^e^aLOTepca elirelvy KaTafie/uueTpTjTac yap 
(jj(OivioLfi,^ KoX eaTLV oBo^i ffacrikiKr) aTaBiwv 
fjLvpicop'^ TO, S' iireKeiva aTox^orp'O) Xapu^dveTai 
hta TOiv dvdirXcov tmv iic OaXdTTr]<; Bed tov 
Tdyyov iroTajiov /jtexpi' TLaXi^odpcov eir) 8' dv 
TL ^ (TTaBiMv i^aKKTX^Xicov. eaTai Be to rrdv, 
rj ^pa')(VTaTOVy fivpiwv e^a/ctaxiXlcov, co? 6k t€ 
Tfj<s dvaypa(f)7]<; tcop (TTadfiMP t^9 7r€7ri(rT€V/jiepr)<; 
fidXtaTa Xa^elp'l^paToaOepr}'; (fyrjai' Kal 6 Meya- 
(t06P7)<; ovtco crvpa7ro<f>acP€Tai, TlaTpoKXr]^; Be 
')(^iXL0L<i eXaTTOP (f)r}ai. tovtw Brj irdXiP tw Bia- 
(TTYJixaTL irpoaTeOep to Trj<; aKpa^ Bid(TTr)fia to 
TrpOTTLTTTOP^ iwl irXeop Trpo^; Ta^; dpaToXd<;, ol 
Tpiax^Xioi (TTdBioi iroLTja-ovaL to jxeyiaTOP fjL7]K0<i' 
e(TTL Be tovto to diro tmp eK^oXcop tov 'IpBov 
TTOTa/JLOV Trapd ttjp e^fj^ r^LOPa, yLte^pt tt)? Xe')(deiari<i 
aKpa^i Kal tcop dpaToXcKCOP avTrj^; Tepfiopcop' oIkov(ti 
S' ipTavda ol KcopiaKol KaXovfMepoi. 

12. ^E/c Be TovTcop irdpeaTLP opdv oaop Biacfye- 
povcTLP at TCOP dXXcDp d'7ro(j>d(Tei<^, J^tijctlov fxep 
ovK eXdTTco rr}? dXXr)<; 'Acrta? t^p ^IpBiKrjv Xe- 

1 ffXo^^^ois, Corais emends to <rxoivois. 

2 ixvpicov, Casaubon, for di(rfxvpiwv ; so the later editors. 

3 S' avTi, CDFh ; T» omitted by moxz. 

* irpoTrlnTov, Corais, for irpoa-irlnToy ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 11-12 

I mean along the Indus River to its outlets, so that 
the length of the opposite side, the eastern, if one 
adds the three thousand of the cape, will be sixteen 
thousand stadia. These, then, are the minimum 
and maximum breadths of the country. The lengths 
are reckoned from the west to the east ; and, of 
these, that to Palibothra can be told with more con- 
fidence, for it has been measured with measuring- 
lines,^ and there is a royal road of ten thousand 
stadia. The extent of the parts beyond Palibothra 
is a matter of guess, depending upon the voyages 
made from the sea on the Ganges to Palibothra; 
and this would be something like six thousand 
stadia. The entire length of the country, at its 
minimum, will be sixteen thousand stadia, as taken 
from the Register of Days' Journeys that is most 
commonly accepted, according to Eratosthenes ; 
and, in agreement with him, Megasthenes states 
the same thing, though Patrocles says a thousand 
stadia less. If to this distance, however, one adds 
the distance that the cape extends out into the 
sea still farther towards the east, the extra three 
thousand stadia will form the maximum length ; ^ 
and this constitutes the distance from the outlets 
of the Indus River along the shore that comes next 
in order thereafter, to the aforesaid cape, that is, to 
the eastern limits of India. Here live the Coniaci, 
as they are called. 

12. From this one can see how much the accounts 
of the other writers differ. Ctesias says that India 
is not smaller than the rest of Asia ; Onesicritus that 

1 Or, by a slight emendation of the text, '* in terms of the 
schoenus " (see critical note and cf. 11. 14. 11), 

2 i.e. 19,000 stadia. 



yOVTO<;, ^OvTJCTLKpLTOV Be TpLTOV yU.e/309 T>}9 ol/COV- 

/jL€vr]<;, Nea/9;^oi' Be fxrjvcov oBov rerrdpcov ttjv Bt 
C 690 avTOv ^ Tov ireBiov, MeyaaOevov; Be koI Atjifid-^ov 
/jLeTpiaadvTcov fiaWov, virep yap Bc(T/jLvpiov<; 
nOiacTL (TraBiov<i to airb tt)? votlov 6a\dTTr]<; 
iirl TOV K^avKaaov, Ai]Lp,a')(0(; 5' virep tov<; 
Tpicrp^vpiov^; kut eviov^ tottov^' 7rpb<; 01)9 iv rot? 
7rpa>TOf9 \6yoi<; etprjTai. vvv Be ToaovTov elirelv 
iKavov, OTL Koi TavTa avvrjyopel T0t9 alTov/j.evoi,<; 
avyyv(ofi7]v, edv tl irepl tcjv ^IvBlkmv XeyovT€<; firj 

13. " Kiraaa 5* etrrt KaTdppVT0<; iroTa/noU r] 
'IvBlkt], Tot9 fiev €t9 Bvo Toi'9 pLeyi(TT0V<^ crypp-qyvv- 
fiepoL^i, TOV Te 'IvBov koI tov Tdyyrjv, Tot9 Be /caT 
llBia aTOfiaTa eKBiBovaiv et9 tt^v OdXaTTav 
diravTe^; S* aTrb tov KavKdaov Tr)v dp)(^r]V e-^ovai 
Kol (f)epovTai fxev eirl ttjv fMearjp./Splav to irpcoTOV, 
el6^ ol jxev fievovaiv eVl T779 avrfjf; <fiopa<;, koi 
fidXiaTa ol el<; tov ^IvBbv avp^dXkovre^;, ol 8* 
€7no-Tpe(j)0VTat, 7r/309 eco, KaOdirep koI 6 Tdyyrj<! 
7roTa/xo9. ovTO<; p.ev ovv KaTa^a<; etc ttj^; opeivijf; 
iireiBdv dyjrrjTat tcov Trehicov, eTTLaTpeyjraf; irpb^ eco 
Koi pveU irapd tcl liaXi^oOpa, fjueylaTrjv iroXiv, 
irpoeiatv eVt ttjv TavTrj OdXaTTav koI jiiav 
ifc^oXrjv iTOLelTai, /jLeyi(TTo<; wv tmv fcaTo, Tr]v 
^IvBiKTjV TTOTa/jLCOv. 6 Be 'lvBb<; Bval aTop^aaiv eh 
TTJV /jLecn]p.l3pi.vr)v eKTrLTTTec OdXaTTUv, i/jLTrepi- 
XafjL^dvwv TTjV Y[aTaXrjvr]v KaXov/jievrjv 'y^copav, 
TrapaTrXrjaLav T(p KaT A'tyvnTov AeXra. ix Be 
T»)9 dvaOv jiidaeo)^ tmv ToaovTcov iroTa/JLcbv koI 
eK Twv €Trj(7icov, ft)9 ^l^paToaOevi]^ (prjal^ ^pe-x^STai 

^ avTov, Meineke omits, 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 12-13 

it is a third part of the inhabited world : Nearchus 
that the march merely through the plain itself takes 
four months ; but Megasthenes and Deimachus are 
more moderate in their estimates, for they put the 
distance from the southern sea to the Caucasus at 
*' above twenty thousand stadia," although Dei- 
machus says that " at some places the distance is 
above thirty thousand stadia; " but I have replied 
to these writers in my first discussion of India.^ At 
present it is sufficient to say that this statement of 
mine agrees with that of those writers who ask our 
pardon if, in anything they say about India, they 
do not speak with assurance. 

13. The whole of India is traversed by rivers. 
Some of these flow together into the two largest 
rivers, the Indus and the Ganges, whereas others 
empty into the sea by their own mouths. They 
have their sources, one and all, in the Caucasus ; and 
they all flow first towards the south, and then, 
though some of them continue to flow in the same 
direction, in particular those which flow into the 
Indus, others bend towards the east, as, for example, 
the Ganges. Now the Ganges, which is the largest 
of the rivers in India, flows down from the moun- 
tainous country, and when it reaches the plains bends 
towards the east and flows past Palibothra, a very 
large city, and then flows on towards the sea in that 
region and empties by a single outlet. But the 
Indus empties by two mouths into the southern sea, 
encompassing the country called Patalene, which is 
similar to the Delta of Aegypt. It is due to the 
vapours arising from all these rivers and to the 
Etesian winds, as Eratosthenes says, that India is 

1 2. 1. 4 ff. 



TOL<i OepiVol'^ OfJb^pOl^ T) 'IvSlKT], KOI \CfJLvd^€t TO, 

irehia' iv fxev ovv rourot? roi? ofi/Spotf; Xlvov 
GireipeTai koL /ciy^P^^' '^po^ tovtol^ aijcrafiov, 
opv^a, p6(TfiopoV' ToU Se ')(^6i/JL€pi,vol<; Kaipol^ irv- 
poi, KpiOai, oairpia fcal aWoi Kapirol iScoSi/iot., 
ojv r/z^et? arreipoi. ax^Bov Be tv rot? eV AWioirla 
Kol Kar Aiyvirrov ra avra (pverai /cal iv rrj 
*Iv8iKfj, Kol T(>iv iv T0fc9 TTora/jLOi^;, ttXtjv XiTirov 
TTorafjiiov, TO, dXXa ^epovcri kol ol ^IvBiKol* 
^OvijcrLKpiTOfi Be kol tov<; 'lttttov^ yLveaOai (jyrjai, 
TO^v B' avdp(i)TTa)v ol /JL6V /jLea-rjfijSpivol rot? 
AWioyjrLV elaiv 6/iioiOL Kara Tr]v ')(poLdv, Kara Be 
TTjv oyjnv Koi rr^v Tyot^cocrti/ T0t9 akXoi^ (ovBe yap 
ovXoTpLXoixTt, Bia TT)v vypoTrjra rod depo^), ol Be 

jSopeLOl TOfc? KlyVTTTlOL^. 

14. Tr)v Be Ta7rpo^dvr]v ireXaylav elvai (jiacri 
VTjCToVy dire'Xpvaav twv voTLCoraTcov rrj<; ^JvBi/crjf; 
rcov Kara tou? KcovLaKov^; 7r/309 pLearjp.^piav 
rj/nepwv eiTTa ttXovv, /xtJ/co? /juev &)? oKTaKLa^iXicdv ^ 
araBlcov iirl rrjv AWioTTLaV e')(eLV Be kol eXe(f>av- 
ra?. Toiavrai [xev al rod ^EipaToa6evov<; diro- 
(fidaeL^. TrpoareOetaac Be koX al tmv dXXcov, ei 

C 691 irov TL Trpoaafcpi^ovaiv, IBioiroirjcrovai ^ ttjv 

15. Olov irepl TTJ^ Ta7rpo^dvr)(; ^Ovrjal/cpirpfi 
(j)rjo-L, fieyeOof; fiev elvai irevraKia-'y^iXicov o-raBicov, 
ov Biopiaa<; /mrjKOf; ovBe ttXcito?, Biex^tv Be t^? 
rjTTelpov ttXovv rjfjLepcov etfcocrr dXXa Ka/coTrXoetv 

1 oKTaKiaxi^i(^v, Meineke, following Groskurd, emends to 
'nevraKi(TX'-'^''^v (see Groskurd, Vol. Ill, p. 117, note 2). 

2 For ISioTToi-fio-ovfft, Corais and Meineke read elSovoi-fj- 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 13-15 

watered by the summer rains and that the plains 
become marshes. Now in the rainy seasons flax 
is sown, and also millet, and, in addition to these, 
sesame and rice and bosmorum,i and in the winter 
seasons wheat and barley and pulse and other edibles 
with which we are unacquainted. I might almost say 
that the same animals are to be found in India as 
in Aethiopia and Aegypt, and that the Indian rivers 
have all the other river animals except the hippo- 
potamus, although Onesicritus says that the hippo- 
potamus is also to be found in India. As for the 
people of India, those in the south are like the 
2^;^fniopians in colour, although they are like the rest 
in respect to countenance and hair (for on account 
of the humidity of the air their hair does not curl), 
whereas those in the north are like the Aegyptians. 

14. As for Taprobane,2 it is said to be an island 
situated in the high sea within a seven days' sail 
towards the south from the most southerly parts of 
India, the land of the Coniaci ; that it extends in 
length about eight thousand stadia ^ in the direction 
of Aethiopia, and that it also has elephants. Such 
are the statements of Eratosthenes; but my own 
description will be specially characterised by the 
addition of the statements of the other writers, 
wherever they add any accurate information. 

15. Onesicritus, for example, says of Taprobane 
that it is " five thousand stadia in size," without 
distinguishing its length or breadth ; and that it is a 
twenty days' voyage distant from the mainland, but 

1 See§ 18 following. 

2 On Taprobane (Ceylon), cf. Pliny 24 (22) S. 

3 See 2. 1.14, whereotrabo says five thousand (see critical 



ra? vav<;, (f)av\(o<; /nev IdTLoireiroLrifieva^, Kare- 
aKevaa-fxeva^ 8e a/ji(j)OTepa)0€V ^ eyKOiXicov /jbrjTpoov ^ 
'y^(opL<;' elvai Be koL aXXa? vrjaov^ avT7J<; fiera^v 
/cal Trj<; 'Ii^8i/crJ9, voTKordrrjv 8' i/c6ivrjv. Krjrr] 8* 
a/jL(j)i/3ca irepl avrr)v ylveaOai, ra jaev ^ovai, ra 
8' linroL^y TO, 5' aWoL<^ %epcratoi9 iocKora. 

16. Neapxo^ 3e irepl t?}? i/c twv TToraficov iiri' 
^or}? irapaSeiyfiara (f)ep6i ra TOiavra, on, koX to 
"Epfiov, KoX Kavarpov irehiov /cal IS/laidvBpov Kal 
l^atKOV 7rapa7r\'t]aLQ)<^ etprjrai, 8ia to ^ rrjv iirtipo- 
povjiievijv TOL<; 7r€8iOL<; x^^^ av^eiv avrd, fxaXkov Be 
yevpdv, etc twv opcov Kara(t)€pov/jLevr]v, oar) evyeco^ 
Kal fiaXaKt]' Kara^epeiv Be tov<; TroTa/AOu?, Mare 
TOVTcov ct)? au yevvijp^ara VTrapx^tv to, ireBia, Kal 
ev Xeyeadat, on tovtcov earl rd ireBia. rovro Be 
ravTov ean toG vtto rod ^HpoBorov Xex^^i^^t eirl 
rov NeiXov Kal t?)? eV * avrat yrj<;, ore eKeivov 
Bcjpov ean' Bid rovro S' 6p0(o<; Kal ofxcovvfiov ry 
Klyvirrcp (j)rjal Xex^'^^CLt rov NelXov 6 Neapxo^- 

17. Kpiar6^ov\o<; Be jxova Kal veaOai Kal 
vi(j)ea9aL rd oprj Kal rd<; viraipeia'^ (fyijat, rd ireBia 
Be Kal ofippcov Ofioiw^ diTifkXdxOaL Kal VKpercjv, 
eTTLKXy^eaOai Be fiovov Kard Ta? dva0da€L<; 
rcov TToraficov' vi(f)€aOaL fiev ovv rd oprj 
Kara ;^e^/icoi^a, toO Be eapo^ dpxofievov Kal 

^ Before iyKoiXicav Meineke inserts irpwpais. 

^ r6, Corais inserts ; so tlie later editors. 
^ €7r', Kramer, for vv ; so the later editors. 

^ Pliny (6. 24 [22]) says, "navibus utrimque prorae, ne per 
angustias alvei circumagi sit necesse " (" the ships have prows 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 15-17 

that it is a difficult voyage for ships that are poorly 
furnished with sails and are constructed without 
belly-ribs on both sides ; ^ and that there are also 
other islands between Taprobane and India, though 
Taprobane is farthest south ; and that amphibious 
monsters are to be found round it, some of which 
are like kine, others like horses, and others like 
other land-animals. 

16. Nearchus, speaking of the alluvia deposited by 
the rivers, gives the following examples : that the 
Plain of the Hermus River, and that of the Cayster, ' 
as also those of the Maeander and the Caicus, are so 
named because they are increased, or rather created, 
by the silt that is carried down from the mountains 
over the plains — that is all the silt that is fertile 
and soft ; and that it is carried down by the rivers, 
so that the plains are, in fact, the offspring, as it 
were, of these rivers ; and that it is well said that 
they belong to these. This is the same as the state- 
ment made by Herodotus in regard to the Nile and 
the land that borders thereon, that the land is the 
gift of the Nile ; ^ and for this reason Nearchus rightly 
says that the Nile was also called by the same name 

as the land Aegyptus. ^■^j^^ 

17. Aristobulus says that only the mountains and 
their foothills have both rain and snow, but that the 
plains are free alike from rain and snow, and are 
inundated only when the rivers rise ; that the moun- 
tains have snow in the winter- time, and at the 

at either end, in order that it may not be necessary to tack 
while navigating the narrow passages of the channel "). 
Meineke, following the conjecture of Kramer, emends the 
words of Strabo to make them more in accord with those of 
Pliny (see critical note). 
2 Cp. 1. 2. 29. 



Tov<; 6fjL^pov<; ivdp)^eaOai, koI aeX koI fxaWov 
Xa/xffdv€iv eTriBoaLv, TOi<; B' irijaiai^i ^ Kal 
dBiaXeLTTTO)^ vvKTcop Kol fieO^ ^fiepav eK^elaOai 
Kol \dfipov<; e«9 eVtroX'^? ^Ap/crovpoV €k re 
Br) Twv '^lovwv KoX T&v vejoiv 7r\7}pov/jLevov<; 
7roTaijLOv<;^ Troru^eiv ra TreBia. KaravorjOrjvat Be 
ravra koX vcf)^ eavrov koX vtto tmv dWrov (prjalv, 
wpfirjKOTcov /jb€V eh rrjv ^IvBiktjv diro UapoTra/JLiaa- 
Bcov fierd Bv<T/uLa<; YiXrjidBcov, kol BiarpLyfrdprcov 
Kara ttjv opetvrjv ev re tj} 'TiraaLcov koX rfj 
^AcraaKavov^ yfj rov 'x^eificova, tov B* €apo<; 
dp^Ofievov Karate fir] KOToyp eh rd ireBia koI ttoXiv 
Td^iXa €v/jL€yeOr}, evTevdev B' eirl 'TBdairrjv fcal 
Tr}v TLcopov ')(^ctipav' tov fxev ovv ')(^€c/Ji(ovo<i vBcop 
ovK IBelv, aXXd '^i6va<} fxovov" ev Be roh Ta^iXoi^; 
TTpMTOV xjaOrjvaL, kol iireiBr} Karafiacnv iirl tov 
'TBdaTTTjv Kol viKrjaaai TLcopov 6Bo<i rjv iirl tov 
"TiravLV 7rpo<; eco fcdxeWev iirl tov 'TBdaTrrjv 
irdXiVy veadai avvexco'^, fcal pdXtaTU tol<; eTrj- 
crlai<;, eTTLTeiXavTOf; Be ^ApKTovpov, <yeve(T6aL 
TravXaV Bi,aTp(,yjravTa<; Be irepl Trjv vavTrrjyCav 
€7rl TM ^TBdairrj koX irXelv dp^ap.evov<; irpo Bvaeco^ 
TLXy]idBo(: ov TToXXah r)fJiepat,<;, /cal to (pdivOTTcopov 
irdv KoX TOV ')(eipi(ava /cat to iirtov eap kol Oepo^ 
C 692 ev T(p KaTdirXcp 7rpayfjLaTevOevTa<; eXOetv eh Trjv 
IlaTaXr)vr]v irepl Kvvb<; eTnToXijv BeKa fiev Br) 
TOV fcardirXov yeveaOai p.7Jva<;, ovBafiov S' v€tmv 
alaOeadai, ovS* ot€ eTnjK/iiaaav ol eTrjaiai, tcov Be 
TroTUfiojv 7rXr)povjuLevcov Ta TreBia KXv^ea6at, Tr)v 

^ roLs 5' iTTjo-iais, Tyrwhitt, for ro7s Se ttjs aaias ; so the 
later editors. 

iroraixovs, inserted by Groskurd ; so the later editors. 
^ 'Ao-ffaKapov, Corais, for Mova-iKavov ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 17 

beginning of spring-time the rains also set in and 
ever increase more and more, and at the time of 
the Etesian winds the rains pour unceasingly and 
violently from the clouds, both day and night, until 
the rising of Arcturus ; and that, therefore, the 
rivers, thus filled from both the snows and the rains, 
water the plains. He says that both he himself and 
the others noted this when they had set out for 
India from Paropamisadae, after the setting of the 
Pleiades, and when they spent the winter near the 
mountainous country in the land of the Hypasians 
and of Assacanus, and that at the beginning of 
spring they went down into the plains and to Taxila, 
a large city, and thence to the Hydaspes River and 
the country of Porus ; that in winter, however, no 
water was to be seen, but only snow ; and that it 
first rained at Taxila; and that when, after they 
had gone down to the Hydaspes River and had 
conquered Porus, their journey led to the Hypanis 
River towards the east and thence back again to 
the Hydaspes, it rained continually, and especially 
at the time of the Etesian winds ; but that when 
Arcturus rose, the rain ceased ; and that after tarry- 
ing while their ships were being built on the Hydaspes 
River, and after beginning their voyage thence only 
a few days before the setting of the Pleiades, and, 
after occupying themselves all autumn and winter 
and the coming spring and summer with their 
voyage down to the seacoast, they arrived at Pata- 
lene at about the time of the rising of the Dog Star ; 
that the voyage down to the seacoast therefore took 
ten months, and that they saw rains nowhere, not 
even when the Etesian winds were at their height, 
and that the plains were flooded when the rivers 



oe dakaTTav airXovv elvai rcov aveficov avrt- 
TTveovTcov, aTToyaiaf; ^ Be /jLifBejULid^; 7rporj<; e/cSef a- 

18. TouTo fiev ovv avro ^ kol 6 ^eap^(p<^ Xeyei, 
irepl Be roiv deptvoov ofjL^pwv ov-^ ofioXoyel, aXXd 
(fyrjo-iv veadat to, ireBia 6epov<;, %e£yLiwi^09 B^ 
dvofji^pa elvai, Xeyovai 5' dfKporepoi koX to.? 
duaffdaeL<; tcoij irorafiMV. 6 fxev ye Neap')(^o<; rov 
^A/ceaiPov ttXtjo-lov aTpaTOireBevovTa^; ^ (f^rjaiv 
dvayKaaOrjvai /JLeraXafieiv tottov dXXov virepBe^iov 
Kara rrjv dvd^aaiv, yeveaOai Be tovto Kara 
6epLva<; Tpoird^' 6 S' ^ApiaT6^ov\o<; koX jjuerpa 
Trj<; dval3daew<; iKTiOeraL rerrapd/covra Tnjxec^, 
wp Toiy? /Li€P eUocjLP virep to irpoiJTrdpx^op ^d0o<; 
'jrXrjpovp fiexpt xetXou? to peWpov, rot? 8' * eiKoaip 
virepxycTLP elpai eh rd ireBia. ojxoXoyovai Be koI 
BioTL avjjLJSalpeL prjat^eLP rd^i iroXei^; eirdpw x^l^^' 
Tcop lBpvfjLepa<i, Kaddirep kol ep AlyvTrro) koI 
AlOtoTTia, /juerd Be *ApKTOvpop iraveaOai Tr)P 
TrX^fifjLvpap, diro/SaCpoPTO'; rov i/Saro?' ere 
T^fii'yjrvKTOP cnreipeaOaL ttjp yrjp, vrro ^ rov rv^- 
6pto<;^ opvKTOv x^pax^delaap, kol 6/ico<; ^veaOat 
TOP Kapirop reXeiop koI koXop. rr)p 8' opv^dp 
<f)7jcnp 6 ^ApL(7T6^ovXo<; eardvat, ep vBari /cXeiaro), 
irpaa-id^i 8* elpai Ta9 eXov(Ta<; avrrjp' v'\jro<; Be tou 
(f)VTOv Terpdirrjxv, TroXvaraxv t6 /cal TroXv/cap- 
TTOP' Oepl^eaOai Be irepl Bvatp TiX7]LdBo<; kol 

1 aiToyaias, Corais, for airh yaias ; so the later editors. 

2 avT6, Xylander, for avroi ; so the later editors. 

' (TTpaTOTreBevovras, Tzschucke, for cnpaTevovra E, (TTparo- 
ireSeuovTos other MSS. ; so the later editors. 
* Tovs 5e F{'i)xz Tzschucke and Corais. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 17-18 

were filled, and the sea was not navigable when the 
winds were blowing in the opposite direction, and 
that no land breezes succeeded them. 

18. Now this is precisely what Nearchus says too, 
but he does not agree with Aristobulus about the 
summer rains, saying that the plains have rains in 
summer but are without rains in winter. Both 
writers, however, speak also of the risings of the 
rivers. Nearchus says that when they were camping 
near the Acesines River they were forced at the time 
of the rising to change to a favourable place higher 
up, and that this took place at the time of the 
summer solstice ; whereas Aristobulus gives also the 
measure of the height to which the river rises, forty 
cubits, of which cubits twenty are filled by the 
stream above its previous depth to the margin and 
the other twenty are the measure of the overflow 
in the plains. They agree also that the cities 
situated on the top of mounds become inlands, as 
S is the case also in Aegypt and Aethiopia, and that 
the overflows cease after the rising of Arcturus, 
when the waters recede ; and they add that although 
the soil is sown when only half-dried, after being 
furrowed by any sort of digging-instrument ,1 yet 
the plant comes to maturity and yields excellent 
fruit. The rice, according to Aristobulus, stands in 
water enclosures and is sown in beds ; and the plant 
is four cubits in height, not only having many ears 
but also yielding much grain; and the harvest is 
about the time of the setting of the Pleiades, and 

^ Cf. 7. 4. 6 and footnote on " digging-instrument." 

^ vTr6, Corais, for ottJ ; so the later editors. 
^ Tvx^vTos, E, rpvxovTos other MSS. 



inicTaea-Oai^ ct)9 ra? fefa?* cfyvea-Oai Be koI iv tjj 
BaKTpiavy KOi ^a/3v\a)VLa kol XovcriSt, koL t) 
Kcirct} Be XvpCa (fyvei. M.6yLWo<; he ttjv opv^av 
(TTreipeadaL fjLev irpo tmv ofijSpcov ^rjcriv, apBeia^ 
Be Koi (pvrela^;^ BelaOai, airo tmv KXeio-rcov 
TTOTt^o/jLevrjv vBdrcjv. irepX Be rov poarjjLOpov ^ 
(f>rj(Tlv 'Ovi]o-iKpiT0<;, Biori crtro? ^ eaTt p^ticpoTepo^ 
rov TTVpov' yevvdrat B' iv rat? fxeaoTroTafxiai*;, 
<l)pv<y€TaL B\ eirav aXorjOrj, Trpoo/jLVvvrcov firj 
airoiaeiv dirvpov eic Trj<i aXco rov fir) e^dyeaOai 

19. T^i; 8* ofioioTTjra r^? X^P^^ ravTrjf; 7Tp6<; 
T€ Tr)v AXyvirrov Koi rrjv AWiOTTiav Koi itoXlv 
Tr)v evavTiorrjTa 7rapaOel<; 6 ^ApLaroffovXof;, Biori 
Tw Net\cf) fiev e/c rcbv votlcov o/j.^po)v earlv ?; 
7r\r]pa)ai<;, roU ^IvBlkol<; Be Trora/AOt? drro tmv 
C 693 dpKTLKoyv, ^rjrel, ttw? ol fxera^v tottol ov /caTO/ju- 
^povvrat' ovre yap rj Sr]fia't<; /le^pi' Xv'^vrj<; Kal 
TO)v iyyv<; Mep6T)<;, ovre t7}9 ^IvBi,Krj<; rd drro rrj<; 
JJaraXrjvrjf; P'^XP^ '^^^ 'TBdaTTOv. rrjv S* virep 
ravTa rd p^epr] '^copav, iv y Kal op^ffpoL kol 
vt<p€TOi, TrapairXr} a 10) (; ecfyrj yeuypyetadat rfj dWy 
rfj efft) T% ^\vBiKrj<^ X^P^' '^ori^eaOai yap e/c ro)V 
opL^pwv Kal %t6z^Q)i^. elKo<; S' ol<i etprjKev ovro^ 
Kal evaecarov elvat rrjv yr}v, x^^^ovpevrjv vtto t?)? 
iToXkr)'^ vypaaia<i Kal iKprjypaTa Xap^^dvovaav, 
Mare Kal peWpa 7roTap,(ov dWdrreaOaL. 7rep>(f)0el<; 
yovv iiTL Tiva XP^^^^ IBelv (j)7jaiv ipj^pLwdelaav 

^ TTTlffffeaOai, sec. man. in D, for ini^ea-Qai CFiFxz, irlCfadai 
S2V, ^avrlC^aOai m. 

2 Corais inserts ;utj before Se^a-eai ; so Meineke. 

^ ov, after fiocriJ.6pov, Corais ejects ; so later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 18-19 

the grain is winnowed like barley; and rice grows 
also in Bactriana and Babylonia and Susis, as also 
in Lower Syria. Megillus says that rice is sown 
before the rains, but requires irrigation and trans- 
plan ting,i being watered from tanks. Bosmorum, 
according to Onesicritus, is a smaller grain than 
wheat; and it grows in lands situated between 
rivers. It is roasted when it is threshed out, since 
the people take an oath beforehand that they >vill 
not carry it away unroasted from the threshing- 
floor, to prevent the exportation of seed. 

19. Aristobulus, comparing the characteristics of 
this country that are similar to those of both Aegypt ^ 
and Aethiopia, and again those that are opposite 
thereto, I mean the fact that the Nile is flooded 
from the southern rains, whereas the Indian rivers 
are flooded from the northern, inquires why the 
intermediate regions have no rainfall; for neither 
the Thebais as far as Syene and the region of Meroe 
nor the region of India from Patalene as far as the 
Hydaspes has any rain. But the country above 
these parts, in which both rain and snow fall, are 
N cultivated, he says, in the same way as in the rest 
of the country that is outside India ; for, he adds, 
it is watered by the rains and snows. And it is 
reasonable to suppose from his statements that the 
land is also quite subject to earthquakes, since it 
is made porous by reason of its great humidity and 
is subject to such fissures that even the beds of 
rivers are changed. At any rate, he says that when 
he was sent upon a certain mission he saw a country 

1 See critical note. 

* (r?Tos, Epit,, o-eTTT^j other MSS. ; so the editors. 



')(^a)pav ifKeiovwv ?') ')(^ikiwv irokeoav avv KcofiaL^;, 
eKXiiTovTO^ Tov ^IvSov TO oLKelov pelOpov, eKTpaiTO- 
fjLevov 8' €i9 TO erepov iv apto-repd fcoiXorepov 
iroXv, Kol olov Karappd^avTO^, o)? t^i^ uirdXeL^' 
Oelaav ev Be^ia ^copav /nrjKeri irori^eaOaL rat<; 
v'TT€p')(v(Te<JL, fierecoporepav ovaav ov tov peiOpov 
TOV Kaivov pLovov, dWa kol to)v virepx^aewv. 

20. Tat? he tcov iroTap^cov TrXrjpaxTeo-i koX tq) 
TOL'9 diroyaiovf; pLVj irvelv opoXoyel kol to Xe^Oev 
VTTo TOV ^OvT]<TLKpLTOV' TevaycoBi] yap (prjaiv elvau 
TTjv TTapaXiaVy koX pidXiaTa KaTcu tcl GTopaTa tmv 
TTOTa/uLOJv, Bid T€ Tr)v XoOi/ Kal Ta9 TrXr)p.pivpiBa<; 
fcal T^i/ Tcov TreXayiwv dvi/xcov iiTLKpdTeiav. 
MeyaaOevr}^; Be Tr)V evBaipbovlav t?)? 'Ii^St/tr)? 
eTTcarjfiaiveTai tw BiKapirov elvai Kal Bi(f>opov' 
KaOdirep Kal ^FipaToadii/i/f! ecjyr], tov fiev eliroDV 
aiTopov %etytie/9£i/w, tov Be OepLVOv, Kal 6pL/3pov 
opoiw<i' ovBev yap €to<; eupiaKeadai ^rjai tt/oo? 
dp,(poTepov<; Kaipov^; dvopL^pov' a>aT eveTrjpiav eK 
TOVTOv avpi^alveiVy d^opov p,rjBe7roTe t^9 yPj<i 
ovari<i' Tov^ t€ ^vXlvov<; Kapirov^ yevvdadai 
7roXXov<; Kal ra? /St fa? twz^ ^fTwz^, Kal pdXiaTa 
TMv peydXwv KaXdpcov, yXvKeia^ Kal (pvaec Kal 
e'y\rrj(jeLy ^(XiaLVOfievov tov vBaT0<; rot? r)Xi0t,<; tov 

T eKTrllTTOVTOf; €K At09 Kal TOV TTOTapioV, TpOTTOV 

Brj TLva Xeyetv ^ovXeTaL, Biotl tj irapd rot? dXXoi<; 
Xeyopievrj 7re\ln<; Kal Kapircov Kal 'xypciyv Trap 
eKeivoL^ €'\ln]a-L<; eVrt, Kal KaTepyd^eTai ToaovTov 
€t9 evaTopLiav, oaov Kal rj Bid 7rvp6<;' Bio Kal toi"? 
KXdBov^ (j)T]alv evKapL7r€L<i ehac tmv BevBpcov, ef 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 19-20 

of more than a thousand cities, together with 
villages, that had been deserted because the Indus 
had abandoned its proper bed, and had turned aside 
into the other bed on the left that was much deeper, 
and flowed with precipitous descent like a cataract, 
so that the Indus no longer watered by its overflows 
the abandoned country on the right, since that 
country was now above the level, not only of the 
new stream, but also of its overflows. 

20. The flooding of the rivers and the absence of 
land breezes is confirmed also by the statement of 
Onesicritus ; for he says that the seashore is covered 
with shoal-water, and particularly at the mouths of 
the rivers, on account of the silt, the flood-tides, and 
the prevalence of the winds from the high seas. 
Megasthenes indicates the fertility of India by say- 
ing that it produces fruit and grain twice a year. 
And so says Eratosthenes, who speaks of the winter 
sowing and the summer sowing, and likewise of 
rain; for he says that he finds that no year is 
without rain in both seasons ; so that, from this fact, 
the country has good seasons, never failing to pro- 
duce crops ; and that the trees there produce fruits 
in abundance, and the roots of plants, in particular 
those of large reeds, which are sweet both by nature 
and by heating, since the water from the sky as 
well as that of the rivers is warmed by the rays of 
the sun. In a sense, therefore, Eratosthenes means 
to say that what among other peoples is called " the 
ripening," whether of fruits or of juices, is called 
among those people a " heating," and that ripening 
is as effective in producing a good flavour as heating 
by fire. For this reason also, he adds, the branches 
of the trees from which the wheels of carriages are 



(t)V ol rpoyoi' eK Be Tr)<^ avri]<; atrta? ipiot<; /cal 
iiravOelv epiov. Ik tovtov Be ^€apx6<; <f)r}(Ti Ta<; 
ev7]TpLov<; v^aiveaOat aivhova^, rov^ Be Mukg- 
Bova^ dvrl Kva(j)dXX,a)v ^ avToU XPV^^^^ '^^^ '^^^^ 
C 694 (TayfjuaaL adyrj^;'^ roiavra Be /cat ra XripiKdy eK 
TivcDv <j)\oLa)v ^acpo/JLevr]<i ^vaaov. etprjKe Be Kal 
irepl rcov KaXdficov, on iroLovai jjueki, fieXiaaoiv 
fir) ov(T(OV' Kal^ jap^ BevBpov elvai Kapirocpopov, 
€K Be Tov KapTTOv avvTiOeaOai, fieXi, rou? Be 
(f)ay6vTa<; oi/nov tov Kapirov^ p,e6veLV. 

21. IloXXa yap Br) Kal BevBpa irapdBo^a rj 
'IpBiKr) rpecpeCf mv €(ttl Kal to KdTco vevovTa<i 
exov T0U9 KXdBov<;, to, Bk (l>vXXa daTriBo^ ovk 
iXdTTco. ^Ovrj(TiKpLTO<i Be Kal irepLepyorepov tcl 
ev Tfi MovaiKavov Bie^icov, a <f)r]aL voTLcoraTa 
elvai T/}9 ^IvBlkyi^^, BirjyelTaL pueydXa BevBpa Tivd, 
b)v T0v<; KXdBovf; av^rj6evTa<i errl 7r?;^et9 Kal 
BooBeKa, eireiTa Trjv Xonrrjv av^rjatv KaTa(j)epr] 
XafM^dveiv, o)? av KaTaKafiTTTojuLevovq, ew? au 
dyjrcovTai Trjf; 77)9* eirecTa KaTcu yr}<^ Bt,aBoOevTa<; 
pi^ovaOai oyLtot&)9 Tat9 KaTcopv^tv, cIt dvaBodevTa<; 
areXexovadaL' t'f ov irdXiv o/jlolco^ Trj au^yjo-ei 
KaTaKajjb^OevTa^i^ dXXrjv KaTwpvya iroielv sIt* 
aXXrfv, Kal ovtci)<; e^e^rj^;, mctt a(/>' evo^ BevBpov 
aKidBiov yiveadai "^ paKpov, iroXva-TvXo) a-Kijvf} 

1 KuacpdWcov, CF, KPacpiXocv other MSS. 

2 adyris, Tzschucke, for adyriv ; so the later editors. 

3 Kai, EFic, ob other MSS. 

* ydp X omits ; so Tzschuoke and Corals. 

^ avvTidfo-dai . . . Kap-Kov omitted by all MSS. except EF, 
but quoted by Eustathius (note on Dionysius 1125). 

* KaraKafjL(pdepTas, Corais, for KaTaKaix<pQiVTa. 

' yiveffdai, Corais, for yeviadai ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 20-21 

made are flexible; and for the same reason even 
wool ^ blossoms on some. From this wool, Nearchus 
says, finely threaded cloths are woven, and the 
Macedonians use them for pillows and as padding 
for their saddles. The Serica ^ also are of this kind, 
Byssus ^ being dried out of certain barks. He states 
also concerning the reeds,* that they produce honey, 
although there are no bees, and in fact that there is 
a fruit-bearing tree from the fruit of which honey 
is compounded, but that those who eat the fruit raw 
become intoxicated. 

21. In truth, India produces numerous strange 
trees, among which is the one whose branches bend 
downwards and whose leaves are no smaller than a 
shield. Onesicritus, who even in rather superfluous 
detail describes the country of Musicanus, which, he 
says, is the most southerly part of India, relates that 
it has some great trees whose branches have first 
grown to the height of twelve cubits, and then, after 
such growth, have grown downwards, as though 
bent down, till they have touched the earth ; and 
that they then, thus distributed, have taken root 
underground like layers, and then, growing forth, 
have formed trunks ; and that the branches of these 
trunks again, likewise bent down in their growth, 
have formed another layer, and then another, and 
so on successively, so that from only one tree there 
is formed a vast sunshade, like a tent with many 

^ i.e. cotton. 

2 i.e. the threads of which the Seres make their garments 
(see Pausanias 6. 26. 4 and Frazer's note thereon). 

2 By " Byssus " Strabo undoubtedly means silk, supposing 
it to be a kind of cotton (see Miss Richter's article on " Silk 
in Greece," Am. Jour. Arch., Jan.-March, 1929, pp. 27-33). 

* i.e. sugar-cane. 



ofJLOLOv. Xiyei Be kol iMS'yeOrj BivSpwv, Mare irevre 
dvOpcoTTOLf; Svo-TreplXiiTTTa elvav ra areXixV' Kara 
Be rov ^AKcaivyjv koI ttjv av/jL^dXriV rrjv TTyoo? 

'TdpCOTLV KoX ' Kpi(TT6^0VK0<i etpTJKG TTepl T&V 

KaTaKapbTTTO/jLevov; i'X^ovTcov tov<; fcXd8ov<; /cal 
irepl Tov pL€yeOov<i, a>aO' v(j)* eul BeuBpo) fieo-rj/ju- 
ffpl^eiv aKca^op^evov^; fTTTrea? Trevrrj/covra' ovto<; 
Be T€TpaKoaiov^. Xeyei Be 6 ^Apicno^ovXo^ koI 
dXXo BevBpov ov pLeya,Xo7rov<;^ ^'x^^» ^"» ^ Kvafio<;, 
BeKaBaKTvXov<i to pLr]Ko<;, TrX'^pet'i fieXiTO<;' Tov<i 
Be <j)ay6vTa<; ov paBiw<; aco^eadai,. diTavra^i K 
virep^e/SXrivTaL irepl rov pueyedov^ tojv BevBpcov 
ol <f>rjaavTe<^ ewpaaOai, Trepav rov 'TapcorcBo<i 
BevBpov iTOLOvv (TKidv ral<; p,earjpL^piai<; irevra- 
GTaBiov. Kol TMV ipLo^opcov BevBpcov (prjalv outo<; 
TO dvOo<; e')(eiv irvprjva' i^aLpeOevTO<; Be tovtov, 
^aiveadai to Xolttov 6pLoi(o<; TaL<; epeac<;. 

22. ^Eiv Be Trj MovaL/cavov icaX aiTOv avTocbvrj 
Xiyec irvpw TrapaTrXrjaiov kol apureXov, o}(tt 
olvocjiopeiv, TMV aXX(ov doivov XeyovTcov ttjv 
^IvBiK^v M(TTe firjB' avXbv elvai fcaTa tov *Avd- 
^(apa-iv, p^rjT dXXo ^ tcjv pLovaLKoov opydvcov pur^Bev 
7rXr]v KvpbffdXcov kol TvpuTrdvcov kol KpoToXcov, a 
TOL*? Oavp.aTOTTOiov'i KeKTTjaOai. koI iroXvcpdp- 
pia/cov Be KOL TroXvppi^ov tmv re (TcoT7]pi(ov koL 
Tojv evavTiwv, coairep /cal TroXv^poapiaTOv Kal 
OUTO? etprjKe, Kal dXXoi ye. Trpoa-Tidrjai, 5' avTO<i, 
OTi Kal v6pio<; etr) tov dvevpovTa ti twv oXedplcov, 
iav piT) TTpoaavevpr) Kal to clko^ avTov, Oava- 
C 695 TovaOar dvevpovTa Be Tipbrj<; Tvy^dveiv irapd tol<; 

^ ov ^^yaKoXiTtiff ixarairovs CDF A.. 
2 F reads n after 6.\\o. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 21-22 

supporting columns. ^ He says also of the size of the 
trees that their trunks could hardly be embraced by 
five men. Aristobulus also, where he mentions the 
AcQsines and its confluence with the Hyarotis, speaks 
of the trees that have their branches bent down- 
wards and of such size that fifty horsemen — accord- 
ing to Onesicritus, four hundred — can pass the noon 
in shade under one tree. Aristobulus mentions also 
another tree, not large, with pods, like the bean, 
ten fingers in length, full of honey, and says that 
those who eat it cannot easily be saved from death. 
But the accounts of all writers of the size of the trees 
have been surpassed by those who say that there 
has been seen beyond the Hyarotis a tree which 
casts a shade at noon of five stadia. And as for the 
wool-bearing trees, Aristobulus says that the flower 
contains a seed, and that when this is removed the 
rest is combed like wool. 

22. Aristobulus speaks also of a self-grown grain, 
similar to wheat, in the country of Musicanus, and 
of a vine from which wine is produced, although the 
other writers say that India has no wine ; and there- / 
fore, according to Anacharsis, it also has no flutes, 
or any other musical instruments except cymbals 
and drums and castanets, which are possessed by 
the jugglers. Both he and other writers speak 
of this country as abounding in herbs and roots 
both Quratiye and po^ongus, and likewise in plants 
of many colours. And Aristobulus adds that they ^^ 
have a law whereby any person who discovers 
anything deadly is put to death unless he also dis- 
covers a cure for it, but if that person discovers a 

* The banyan tree {Ficiis Bengalensis). 



jSaaiXevaiv. ex^iv Be koL KiwdficofMov Kal vdpSov 
/cat ra aXXa dpcofiara ttjv votlov yrjv ttjv ^ivSi/crjp^ 
ofioico^ oxTirep ttjv 'Apa^iav fcal rrjv AWiOTTLav, 
e^ova-dv ri e/x^epe? i/ceivai^; Kara T01/9 ^Xiqu?* 
Bia(f>ep€iv Be rat ifKeovaa fiw tcop vBdrtov, mar 
evLKjjLov elvai top depa koX rpodnfiwrepov Trapa 
TOVTO Kal yovi/iop fiaXXop, cu? B avrcof; kol ttjp 
yrjp Kal to vBcop' y Brj^ Kal fiei^o) rd re ')(^ep<Tala 
T(OP ^(pcop Kal TO, KaO^ vBaTO<; rd ip 'Ii/Sot? tcjp 
Trap' dWoi^ evpiaKecrOaL' Kal top NecXop B' elpai 
f^opniop p.dWop €T€pa)P Kal p.eya\o<f>vrj ^ yeppdp 
Kal ToXKa Kal Ta dp,<f>Lj3ia, Ta9 re yvpalKa'i 
ead^ 0T€ Kal TcrpdBvfia tlktcip Td<; Xlyv'TTTia<;. 
*ApiaT0T€\7j<; Be TLPa Kal enTdBufia^ laTopel 
TeTOKepaif Kal avT0<; iroXvyopop KaXcop top NelXop 
Kal Tp6<j)ifiop Bid T7]p eK Tcjp rfkicop fieTpiap eyjrrjaip, 
avTo KaTaXeiTToPTWP ^ to Tpo^ifiop^To Be TrepiTTOp 


23. Wtto Be Trj<; avTrj<; aiTLa^ Kal tovto avfi- 
^alpeip eLKo^i, oirep cfyrjalp 0UT09, oti tw ^filaei 
irvpl eyjrei to ^ tov NelXov vBcop rj Ta dXXa. o(ra> 
Be ye (firjcri to /jlcp tov NetXou vB(op Bi* evOeia^; 
eireiat ttoXXtjp 'x^copap Kal aTCPrjp Kal fieTalSdXXet, 
iroXXd KXifiaTa Kal iroXXov^i depa<it Ta 5' ^IpBiKa 
pevfULTa €9 ireBia dpaxelTai p,€L^o) Kal TrXaTVTcpa, 
ipBiaTpl^opTa iToXvp xpopop toU avToU KXifiaai, 

^ f 8^, Corais, for ^Jh} ; so the later editors. 

* H€yciXo<f>v7J, Xy lander, for neyaXoipvtiy ; so the later 

* For h-rrahvfjM, Corais reads rfyrd^vfia, following Gellins 
10. 2, and Aristotle's Hist. An. 7. 4 and De Generat. 4. 4. 

* Kara\€ix6vTa>», Corais, for Kar(t\t'r6vTuy ; so the later 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 22-23 

cure he receives a reward from the king. And he 
says that the southern land of India, Uke Arabia 
and Aethiopia, bears cinnamon, nard, and other 
aromatic products, being similar to those countries 
in the effect of the rays of sun, although it surpasses 
them in the copiousness of its waters; and that 
therefore its air is humid and proportionately more 
nourishing and more productive; and that this 
applies both to the land and to the water, and there- 
fore, of course, both land and water animals in India 
are found to be larger than those in other countries ; 
but that the Nile is more productive than other 
rivers, and produces huge creatures, among others 
the amphibious kind ; and that the Aegyptian women 
sometimes actually bear four children. Aristotle 
reports that one woman actually bore seven ; and 
he, too, calls the Nile highly productive and nourish- 
ing because of the moderate heat of the sun's rays, 
which, he says, leave the nourishing element and 
evaporate merely the superfluous. 

23. It is probably from the same cause, as Aristotle 
says, that this too takes place — I mean that the water 
of the Nile boils with one-half the heat required by 
any other. But in proportion, he says, as the water 
of the Nile traverses in a straight course a long and 
narrow tract of country and passes across many 
*' climata " ^ and through many atmospheres, whereas 
the streams of India spread into greater and wider 
plains, lingering for a long time in the same 
" cUmata," in the same proportion those of India 
are more nourishing than those of the Nile ; and on 

1 i.e. "belts of latitude " (see Vol. I, p. 22, footnote 2). 

* irupl e\\/fi t6, Kramer, for trepnipe'iTo F, irvpl e\l/€'iro Di 
irvpl ci^etTOi Other MSS. 




ToamBe €Kelva tovtov rpocpcficoTepa, Bioti /cat to, 
Kijrrj /jLel^co re koX irXeid)' koI Ik tojv v6(I)cov Se 
e(J36ov TjBrj )(^€ta6aL to vScop. 

24. ToOto 8' ol fjL€v rrepl 'Apio-roffovXov ouk 
av (Tvy^copotev ol (jxiaxovre^ p,r) veaOai ra irehia. 
^Ovi]ai,KpLT(p 8e BoKel roSe to vScjp atriov elvai 
TCdV iv Tot? ^(x>oc<; ISiCtifidrcov, Kal (l)6pec arj/necov 
TO Kal Ta? %/ooa9 tcov ttlvovtcov BoaKijfjbdrcov 
^evLKwv dWoLTTeadai tt/jo? to i'm')((opiov. tovto 
fjL€v ovv €V' 0VK6TI 8e KoX TO Tov fie\ava<i elvav 
Kal ovKoTpixa^i tov^ AWloTra^; iv -^lXol^; toI<; 
vSacTL TTjv aiTiav Tidevai, /jie/jLcpeaOaL Be tov @eo- 
BeKTTfv eh avTov tov rfKiov dva(pepovTa to acTiov, 
09 (prjaLV ouTft)?* 

0I9 dyxi'T^PP'^1^ i]\io<; Bi^prfKaTOdV 
(TK0T6LV0V dvdo<; e^expwae \iyvvo<; 
et? aoofiaT dvBpoyv, Kal avveaTpeyjrev Kop^a^i 
fiop(l>aL<i dvav ^tJT o to- i a-vvTrj^a^ iTvpo^, 

exoL B' dv Ttva Xoyov (f)r]al yap p^rjTe eyyvTepw 
TOfc? AWioyjnv elvai tov rfkiov rj toI<; dWoL<;, dWd 
fjidWov KaTa KddeTov elvai Kal Bid tovto eVt- 
KaUaOat, irXeov, co(tt ovk ev XeyeaOac dy^i'Tep- 
pLOva avTOL<; tov tjXiov, taov irdvrcou BtexovTa, 
p,r}T€ TO OdXiroq elvai tov tolovtov 7rddov<; acTiov' 
C 696 /A^^e yap toU ev yaaTpl, o)v ovx diTTeTai rjXio^, 
ySeXTtou? Be ol tov tjXlov aLTi.d)p.evot Kal ttjv ef 
avTOv ^ eTTiKavaiv, KaT eTTLXetyfrLV a^oBpdv tt)? 
eTniToXri^ lKp.dBo<i' KaO^ o Kal tou? ^IvBov^ pur] 

1 tV e$ avrov^ Casaubon, for tV kavTov, CDFhiw, ttju avrov 



GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 23-24 

this account their river animals are also larger and 
more numerous ; and further, he says, the water 
is already heated when it pours from the clouds. 

24. To this statement Aristobulus and his followers, 
who assert that the plains are not watered by rain, 
would not agree. But Onesicritus believes that rain- 
water is the cause of the distinctive differences in 
the animals ; and he adduces as evidence that the 
colour of foreign cattle which drink it is changed to 
that of the native animals. Now in this he is correct ; / 
but no longer so when he lays the black complexion f 
and woolly hair of the AethiopiaYis on merely the \ 
waters and censures Theodectes,i who refers the \ 
cause to the sun itself, saying as follows : " Nearing 
the borders of these people the Sun, driving his 
chariot, discoloured the bodies of men with a murky 
dark bloom, and curled their hair, fusing it by 
unincreasable forms of fire." But Onesicritus might 
have some argument on his side ; for he says that, in > 
the first place, the sun is no nearer to the Aethiopians ^ 
than to any other people, but is more nearly in a 
perpendicular line with reference to them and on 
this account scorches more, and therefore it is incor- 
rect to say, " Nearing the borders . . . the sun," 
since the sun is equidistant from all peoples ; and 
that, secondly, the heat is not the cause of such a 
discoloration, for it does not apply to infants in the 
womb either, since the rays of the sun do not touch 
them. But better is the opinion of those who lay 
the cause to the sun and its scorching, which causes 
a very great deficiency of moisture on the surface 
of the skin. And I assert that it is in accordance 

1 ** Theodectas " is probably the correct spelling (see I. G. 
II, 977). 



ov\oTpi')(elv (f)afi€v, /jltjS' ovtco awe^eKT/xivcot;^ 
€7riK€Kava0ai rrjv ')(^p6av, on vypou kolv(ovov(tiv 
depo<;, ev he rfj yaa-rpl ijB-)] Kara aTrepfiariKrjv 
hidhoaiv ^ Toiavra ylverai, ola rd yevvMvra' Kal 
yap irdOr) avyyevifcd ovt(o Xiyerat Kal dXXai 
o/jLotorrjre^. Kal to irdvTcov 8' icrov d7ri)(^6tv top 
tjXlov TTyoo? ataOrjaiv Xeyerai, ov tt/oo? Xoyov Kal 
7rpo<i diadrj(TLVy ou% «09 eTv^^ev, dX>C w? (pafiev 
(Tr}p.€Lov Xoyov eX'^iv ttjv yrjv 7rpo<; t^i^ tov tjXlov 
a^alpav eirel irpo^ ye tyjv ToiavTi]v ata6rj<nv, 
Ka&* fjv 9dXiT0v<; dpTiXa/jL/Savofieda, iyyvdev fiev 
fidXXov, iroppcoOev he rjTTOV, ovk taov ovtco B' 
dy')(^iTep/jL(ov 6 7jXlo<; Xeyerai to2<; AWLoyjrLV, ov^ 
to? ^OvrjaiKpLTfp BeBoKTac.^ 

25. Kat TOVTO Be Toyv ofioXoyovfievwv earl Kal 
tS)v aco^oi'Tcov rrjv irpo^ rrjv AtyviTTOP ofiOLOTrjTa 

Kal TTJV AWlOTTLaV, OTC, T(bv TTeBlcdV Oaa /JLT) 

eirUXva-Ta, aKapird eaTi Bid ttjv dvvBpiav. 
Neapxo'i Be to ^rjTOv/jLevov irpoTepov errrl tov 
NelXov, TTodev t] iTXrjp(i)(TL<; avTov, BcBdaKeiv e(f>r] 
Tov^ ^IvBiKov<; 7roTa/jLov<;, on €k tcov Oepivwv 
ofx^pwv avjjL^aivei' ^AXe^avBpov B^ iv fiev tw 
'TBd(T7rrj KpOKoBeiXovf; IBovTa, iv Be tm ^ AKeaivr) 
KvdjJLOv; AlyvTTTiov^, evpi-jKevai Bo^ai ra? tov 
NeiXov 7r>;7a9, xal irapaaKevd^eaOai (ttoXov eh 
Tr)v AXyvTTTOv, CO? Tft) TTorafiw tovtw fiexpi' eKelcre 

^ d'jr€</)e/tr/i€Va)s, Meineke, for ireirvfffx^voiis T)h, irfirfKTfifvovs 
xz, mirei<Tix4va}s other MSS. 

2 ^idhoaiv, F, hiieiffiv other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 24-25 

with this fact that the Indians do not have woolly 
hair, and also that their skin is not so unmercifully 
scorched, I mean the fact that they share in an 
atmosphere that is humid. And already in thc^ 
womb children, by seminal impartation, become like 
their parents in colour ; for congenital affections and 
other similarities are also thus explained. Further, 
the statement ^ that the sun is equidistant from all 
peoples is miade in accordance with observation, not 
reason; and, in accordance with observations that 
are not casual, but in accordance with the observa- 
tion, as I put it, that the earth is no larger than a 
point as compared with the sun's globe ; since in 
accordance with the kind of observation whereby we 
feel differences in heat — more heat when the heat is 
near us and less when it is far away — the sun is not 
equidistant from all ; and it is in this sense that the 
sun is spoken of ^ as " nearing the borders " of the 
Aethiopians, not in the sense Onesicritus thinks. 

25. The following, too, is one of the things agreed \ 
upon by all who maintain the resemblance of India 
to Aegypt and Aethiopia : that all plains which are j 
not inundated are unproductive for want of water. / 
Nearchus says that the question formerly raised in 
reference to the Nile as to the source of its floodings 
is answered by the Indian rivers, because it is the 
result of the summer rains ; but that when Alexander ^ 
saw crocodiles in the Hydaspes and Aegyptian beans / 
in the Acesines, he thought he had found the sources 
of the Nile and thought of preparing a fleet for an 
expedition to Aegypt, thinking that he would sail as 

1 i.e. of Onesicritus. 2 j- g ^y Theodectes. 

' SeSe/CTot, CDhigvxz. 



7r\€V(T0/JL€V0V, fliKpOV S* VCTTCpOV yVWPai BlOTl ov 

Bvparai b rfXiriae' 

fiiaaqy^ yap fieydXoi Trora/jLol kol Beiva 

^flK€avo<; fjb€V TrpwTOv, 

eZ? OP eKSiBoaaiv ol ^IvBiKol irdvTe^ iroraixoi' 
eireiTa rj ^Apiavrj kuI 6 HepaLKo^; koXtto^; koI 6 
^Kpd^LO^ KOL avTT) r) 'Ayoa/Sta Kal rj TpcoyXoSv- 


Td fiev ovv irepl rcop dvi/mcov /cal tcjv ofi^pcov 
TOiavra Xeyerav Kal Trj<; 'irXrjpoi)ae(o<; t(op irora- 
fxoiv Kal T^9 i7nKXva€(o<; rwv nrehioiv. 

26. Aei Se Kal rd Kad' eKaara irepl tcov 
iroTa/iwv elirelv, oaa tt/jo? ttjv yeayypa^iav XPV' 
(Ttfia Kal oacov laropiav irapeLXri^a^ev. dXXo)<; 
T€ yap ol TTorafioi, (j)vaiKoi rcve^ opoi Kal jmeyeOcov 
Kal a'X^yjfjidrcou ttJ? p^co/^a? 6vt€<;, iTrtTrjSeiorrjTa 
iroXXrjv Trapexovat tt/^o? 6X7]v ttjv vvu viroOecTLV' 
C 697 he NelXoq Kal ol Kara ttjp ^IvSiktjv irXeoveKTrj/jid 
ri exovai irapd tov<; dXXov^ 8id to rrjv x^P^^ 
doLKTjTov elvat %&)/3l9 avTCOv, TrXcorrjv d/jua Kal 
yewpyrjaifiov ovaav, Kal fxrjT ec^oheveaOai Bvva- 
fievrjv d\Xco<;, pr)T olKelaOai to Trapdirav. Tov<i 
fiev ovv eh tov ^Ivhov KaTacpepo/jievov^i laTopov/xeu 
TOL"? d^lov<; fjLVi]/ubr)<; Kal ra? ^^co^a?, Bi* o)V tj (ftopd, 
TMV 8' dXXcov iaTlv dyvoia rrXeiwv rj yvwa-L^, 
^AXe^avSpo^ yap 6 /jLoXiaTa TavT dvaKaXvyjra<; 
KaT dp^d^ fJbev, rjvLKa ol Aapelov hoXo<^ovrjaavTe<i 
copjuLTjcrav eVl ttjv ttj? BaKTpiavrj<; diroaTacTtVy 
eyvco TTpovpycaLTaTOv ov BicoKeiv Kal KaTaXvetv 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 25-26 

far as there by this river, but he learned a Httle later 
that he could not accomplish what he had hoped; 
** for between are great rivers and dreadful streams, 
Oceanus first," ^ into which all the Indian rivers 
empty ; and then intervene Ariana, and the Persian 
and the Arabian Gulfs and Arabia itself and the 
Troglodyte country. 

Such, then, are the accounts we have of the winds 
and the rains, and of the flooding of the rivers, and 
of the inundation of the plains. 

26. But I must tell also the several details con- 
cerning the rivers, so far as they are useful for the 
purposes of geography and so far as I have learned 
their history. For the rivers in particular, being a 
kind of natural boundary for both the size and the 
shape of countries, are very convenient for the pur- 
poses of the whole of our present subject; but the 
Nile and the Indian rivers offer a certain advantage 
as compared with the rest because of the fact that 
apart from them the countries are uninhabitable, 
being at the same time navigable and tillable, and 
that they can neither be travelled over otherwise nor 
inhabited at all. Now as for the rivers worthy of 
mention that flow down into the Indus, I shall tell 
their history, as also that of the countries traversed 
by them ; but as for the rest there is more ignorance 
than knowledge. For Alexander, who more than any 
other uncovered these regions, at the outset, when 
those who had treacherously slain Dareius set out to 
cause the revolt of Bactriana, resolved that it would 
be most desirable to pursue and overthrow them. 

1 Odyssey 11. 157. 

^ fxfiracp, Corais, for fxecrov moxz, fi4<T(p other MSS. 



€K€Lvov<;. rJK€ [xev ovv TTjq ^Iv8i/C7]<; TrXrjaLov Si 
*Api,av(ov, d(f)€U 3' avTTjv iv Se^ca virepe^T] rbv 
TlapoTrd/jLicrov et? rd irpoadpiCTia fxeprj koX ttjv 
BaKTpiavTjv KaraaTpe'^dfjievo^ he raKel irdvTa, 
oca rjv VTTO Ile/oo-at?, koX en ifKeio), tot r^hif) koI 
TTJ^ 'IvBi,Kf]<; a)pex,07), XeyovTcov ptev irepl avTrj^ 
TToWcov, ov aa<^ci)<; he, dvecTpeyfre S' ovv virepdeX^ 
Ta avTa opt] /caT dXXa<; 6Bov<; eViTO/u-wTe/oa?, ev 
dpKTTepd ex^yv ttjv 'IvhiKijv, eZr' iiretTTpey^rev ev6v<; 
iir. avTTjv kol tov^ 6pov<; tov<; ecr7repLov<; avTTj^ 
Kot ^ TOP Koocjyrjv iroTapiov koI tov ^odaTrijv, 09 

€69 TOV Kcb(f>7]V ipL^dWei TTOTa/JLOV KUTa ITA,?;- 

fivpLov ^ iroXiv, pvel<; irapd ToopvBa,^ dW7]v ttoXlv, 
/cat hie^icov ttjv re l^avhoffijvrjv koI ttjv TavBa- 
pLTiv. eiTVvddveTO 8' olKrjcTtpLov elvac pdXiaTa 


Kcu T€Xe(0<; eKirvpov, 6ripiOL<s t€ p^dXXov rj dvOpco- 
TTot? crv/jL/jieTpov. MpfiTja-ev ovv ttjv eiraLvovpLevqv 
KaTUKTaaOai irpoTspov, dfia Kal tou? 7roTa/jLov<; 
evTrepaTorepov; vop,Laa<; t(ov Trrjycjv TrXyalov, oi)? 
dvajKalov rjv Bia^auveiv, €TTLKapaL0V<; 6vTa<^ kol 
TepivovTa<; rjv eirrjeL yr]v. dpua Be koX rjKovaev 
eh €v irXeiovfi avviovTa^ pelv, koX tovt del /cal 
fidXXov avpL^alvov, ocrcp irXetov eh to irpoaOev 
TTpotoiev,^ WGT elvai BvairepaTOTepav, Kal TavTa 
iv irXoLcov dTTopLa. BeBiQ)<; ovv tovto BUffrj tov 
K.d>(t)'rjv, /cal KaTeaTpe<^eT0 ttjv opeivrjv, oarj 
eTeT paiTTO irpo^ eoo. 

1 Kara, after Kal, Corais ejects ; so the later editors. 

2 TlKiyvpiov s and on margin of CF, UKtjxhp^ov moxz. 

3 rcipi/80 i, Tupvli other MSS. ; so Corais and later editors 
* irpoioify, Corais, for irpoiri E, TrpoiSeiv other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 26 

He therefore approached India through Ariana, and, 
leaving India on the right, crossed over Mt. Paro- 
pamisus to the northerly parts and Bactriana ; and, 
having subdued everything there that was subject 
to the Persians and still more, he then forthwith 
reached out for India too, since many men ^ had 
been describing it to him, though not clearly. 
Accordingly he returned, passing over the same 
mountains by other and shorter roads, keeping India 
on the left, and then turned immediately towards 
India and its western boundaries and the Cophes 
River and the Choaspes, which latter empties into 
the Cophes River near a city Plemyrium, after 
flowing past Gorys, another city, and flowing forth 
through both Bandobene and Gandaritis. He learned 
by inquiry that the mountainous and northerly part 
was the most habitable and fruitful, but that the 
southerly part was partly without water and partly 
washed by rivers and utterly hot, more suitable for 
wild beasts than for human beings. Accordingly, 
he set out to acquire first the part that was com- 
mended to him, at the same time considering that 
the rivers which it was necessary to cross, since they 
flow transversely and cut through the country which 
he meant to traverse, could more easily be crossed 
near their sources. At the same time he also heard 
that several rivers flowed together into one stream, 
and that this was always still more the case the 
farther forward they advanced, so that the country 
was more difficult to cross, especially in the event of 
lack of boats. Afraid of this, therefore, he crossed 
the Cophes and began to subdue all the mountainous 
country that faced towards the east. 

1 Historians and geographers who accompanied him. 



27. ^Hv Be jxeTCL rbv K.(t)(prjv 6 *Ii^So?, eW* 6 
'TSa<77r^9, eW 6 ^ Kiceaivri<; /cal 6 'TdpcoTC^;, vara- 
T09 8' "T'jravL<;. Trepairepo) yap irpoeXdelv 
i/ccoXvdrf, TOVTO jiev /jbavT€iOL<; nal irpocrex^Vi 
TOVTO 8' VTTo T?}9 (TTpaTioL^; d7rr)yopevKVia<; ^8?; 
7r/)09 T0U9 TTovov^ dvayfcaaO el<i' /jidXicrra 8' eV 
Twi' vSdrcov exa/jivov, avvex^'^ vo/xevoi. ravT ovv 
iyevero yvcopi/jLa tj/jllv tmv ecodcv&v t^9 'Iv8iKr]<; 

C 698 fiepcbv, oca ivTO<i tov 'Tirdvio^;, koI et riva 
TTpoaicTToprja-av ol ixer i/ceivov Trepanepo) tov 
*T7rdvio<; 'jTpoe\66vTe<; p^^xpt tov Tdyyov koX 
UaXL^oOpcov. fierd aev ovv tov K(t>^r)v 6 ^lvS6<; 
pel' ra 8e peTU^v tovtwv tcov Bvelv TTOTa/iicov 
e^ovaiv ''A(TTaKr]voi re kul Maaiavol^ koX NvaaiOL 
Kol ^TirdaiOL' ^ elO^ rj *Acraafcavov, oirov Maaoya ^ 
7roX£9, TO ^aalXeiov t?}9 %a)yoa9. yBrj Be 7rpo<; tw 
*lvB(p ttoXlv dXkr) 7roXi9 Il€VKo\aLTi<;, 7r/0O9 y 
^evyp^a yevrjdev eirepaicoae Tr]V aTpaTidv, 

28. Merafu Be tov 'IvBov koI tov 'TBda-irov 
Td^ckd iaTij TToXifi p.eydXrj koL evvop^coTdTrj, Kal 
7) irepiKeip^evT] %ft)/9a av')(yr) kol acjyoBpa evBaip^wv, 
t^Bt] avvdiTTOvaa kol tol^ TreBloif;. iBe^avTO re Br) 
^t\avOpd)7r(o<; tov ^AXe^avBpov ol dvdpcoTTOi Kal 6 
i^aacXevf; avTcov TaftX»?9* eTV^ov re irXeiovcov rj 
avTol Trapeaxov, wo-re (^Oovelv tov<; yLaKeB6va<i 
Kal Xeyeiv ft)9 ovk el%et', a)9 eoiKev, 'AXe^avBpo<;, 
oi>9 evepyeTTjaei irplv rj BUffrj tov ^IvBov. (fiaal 8* 
elvai TLve<; Trjv '^^copav TavTrjv AlyviTTov p,ei^ova, 

^ Baaiavoi Dili. 

2 'Virdaioi, Tzschucke emends to 'lTnrd<rioi, Corais to 

^ MaaSya, Tzschucke and Corais emend to Mda-oraya ; the 
MSS. of Arrian {Indica 8) read MdcraaKa. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. r. 27-28 

27. After the Cophes he went to the Indus, then 
to the Hydaspes, then to the Acesines and the 
Hyarotis, and last to the Hypanis ; for he was pre- 
vented from advancing farther, partly through 
observance of certain oracles and partly because he 
was forced by his army, which had already been 
worn out by its labours, though they suffered most 
of all from the waters, being continually drenched 
with rain. Of the eastern parts of India, then, 
there have become known to us all those parts which 
lie this side the Hypanis, and also any parts beyond 
the Hypanis of which an account has been added by 
those who, after Alexander, advanced beyond the 
Hypanis, as far as the Ganges and Palibothra. Now 
after the Cophes follows the Indus ; and the region 
between these rivers is occupied by Astaceni, Masiani, 
Nysaei, and Hypasii; and then one comes to the 
country of Assacanus, where is a city Mesoga, the 
royal seat of the country ; and now near the Indus 
again, one comes to another city, Peucolaitis, near 
which a bridge that had already been built afforded 
a passage for the army. 

28. Between the Indus and the Hydaspes lies 
Taxila, a city which is large and has most excellent 
laws ; and the country that lies round it is spacious 
and very fertile, immediately bordering also on the 
plains. Both the inhabitants and their king, Taxiles, 
received Alexander in a kindly wa y ; and they 
obtained from Alexander more gifts than they 
themselves presented, so that the Macedonians were 
envious and said that Alexander did not have any- 
one, as it seemed, on whom to bestow his benefac- 
tions until he crossed the Indus. Some say that this 
country is larger than Aegypt. Above this country 



vvep Se TavTr}<; iv roh opeaiv rj rov *A^tadpov 
^(^copa, Trap w hvo hpaKovra^; ainjyyeWov ol irap 
avTOV 7rp€a-^€i<; Tpe(f>€(T6ai, rov fiev oyBoT^fcovra 
TT'q'^Siv, Tov he Terrapd/covra 7rpo9 rot? eKarov, co? 
eiprjKev *OvrjaLKpCTo<;' ov ov/c 'AXe^dvBpov fiaXkov 
rj T(ov irapaho^wv dp^LKV^epvqTrjv TrpoaeiTroc ti^ 
dp, 7rdpT€<; fiev yap ol irepX ^AXe^avSpov to 
OavfiaaTov avrl Td\r]Oov<; aTreBexovro fidWov, 
vireppdWeaOai he Botcel tov<; TOcrovTov<; €K€lvo<; 
TTJ repaToXoyia, Xeyec^ 8' ovp riva koX inOavh 
KcCi fjLV7]fj,7]<; d^ia, Mare koI diriaTOVVTa firj 
irapeXOelv avrd. irepl B' ovv tmv BpaKovrwv koI 
dXXoi Xeyovacv, otl iv rot? 'HyLtcoSot? 6 peat 
dy-jpevovcTL koI Tpe(\>ovaLv iv airrfXaioL^. 

29, Meraf u Be tov "TBdairov fcal tov ^Axealvov 
7] T€ TOV TLcopov 6(7Ti, TToXXf) Kul dyaOr]y (TyeBov 
Tf KoX TpLaKocriwv iroXecov, Kal rj 7rpo<; to?? 
*H/ia)So?9 opeaiv vXrj, ef ^9 ^AXe^avBpo^ KaTrjyaye 
T(p 'TBdaTTTj Koyjraf; iXdTrjv re 7roX\r)V Kal irevKrjv 
Kal KeBpov Kal dXXa iravTola crTeXexv vavrrrjy^- 
atfia, ef a)v <jt6Xov KaTeaKSvdcraTO iirl T(o 
'TBdairr] irpo^ Tat9 iKTiafievai^; vtt avTov iroXeaiv 
i(f)^ eKdTepa tov iroTafiov ottov tov Tlcopov iviKa 
Bi,affd<;' o)v ttjv fiev ^ovKe<^aXiav atvofxaaev diro 
TOV ireaovTO^ lttttov KaTO, ttjv fid^rjv Tr)v irpo^ 
TOV Hcopov (iKaXecTO Be BovK€(f)dXa^ diro tov 
7rXaTOf9 tov fieTcoTrov' 7roXe/jiiaTr)<: B' rjv dya66<iy 
C 699 i^oX del T0VT(p iKe^pV^o kuto, T0v<i dycova^), ttjv 
Be ^LKaiav diro t^9 vlKr}<! iKdXeaev. iv Be Ty 
Xe')(6eia"ri vXrj Kal to to)v KepKoinOrjKCdV Btrjyovv- 

1 \eyei, Corais, for \eyeiv ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 28-29 

in the mountains lies the country of Abisarus, who, 
according to the ambassadors that came from him, 
kept two serpents, one eighty cubits in length and 
another one hundred and forty, according to Onesi- 
critus, who cannot so properly be called arch-pilot 
of Alexander as of things that are incredible ; for 
though all the followers of Alexander preferred to 
accept the marvellous rather than the true, Onesi- 
critus seems to surpass all those followers of his in 
the telling of prodigies. However, he tells some 
things that are both plausible and worthy of mention, 
and therefore they are not passed by in silence even 
by one who disbelieves them. At any rate, others 
too speak of the serpents, saying that they are 
caught in the Emodi mountains and kept in caves. 

29. Between the Hydaspes and the Acesines is, 
first, the country of Porus, extensive and fertile, 
containing about three hundred cities ; and, secondly, 
the forest near the Emodi mountains, from which 
Alexander cut, and brought down on the Hydaspes, 
a large quantity of fir, pine, cedar, and other logs 
of all kinds fit for shipbuilding, from which he built 
a fleet on the Hydaspes near the cities founded by 
him on either side of the river where he crossed and 
conquered Porus. Of these cities, he named one 
Bucephalia, after Bucephalas, the horse which fell 
during the battle with Porus (the horse was called 
Bucephalas ^ from the width of his forehead ; he 
was an excellent war-horse and was always used by 
Alexander in his fights); and he called the other 
Nicaea, after his victory. In the forest above- 
mentioned both the number and the size of the long 

1 i.e. Oxhead. 




rai irXrjOo'; virep/SdWov koX to fjuijeOo^; o/ioto)?, 
Mare tou? Ma/ceB6va<; vrore, Ihovra^ ev tlotlv 
dfcpo\o(f)LaL'; -x/riXat? ecjrwra? iv rd^ei Kara 
fiercoTTOv ttoXXou? (kuI yap dvOpwirovovararov 
elvai TO ^Mov, ov')^ r^rrov rS)V iX€(f)dvrcov), arparo- 
TfiBov Xa^elv ^avraalav /cal 6p/JL7]crat fiev irr 
avrov<;, co? 7ro\e/iiLov<;, ixa66vra<; he irapa Ta^iXov, 
(Tvv6vro<s rore r(p ^aaiXel, rr}V d\y]6eLav iravaaa- 
Oai. r) Be Otjpa rov ^wov hirrrj' p,ifMr)riKov Se 
Kal €7rl rd BevSpa dva^evKnKov ol ovv drjpevovre^, 
eirdv IBwaiv eirl BevBpcov IBpvfjbevov, ev oyjrei devre^ 
rpv^Xiov vBcop e^ov, tou? eavrcov 6(f)0aXfjLOv<; 
evaXei^ovcLv e'f avrov* elr\ dvrl rov vBaro<; 
l^ov rpv^Xiov Bevre<;, diriacTL Kal Xo)(^(oai Troppo)- 
dev eirdv Be KarairrjBrjaav ro Orjpiov e'Y^yOtcrT^Tai 
rov l^ov, Karap,vaavro<; B' diToXri(fi6fj ^ rd ^Xe- 
(papa, eiTLOvre^ ^(oypovaiv, eh jxev ovv^ rpoiro'^ 
ovro<;, dXXo<i Be' vTroBvad/jiepoL OvXdKOv<;, w? 
dva^vpLBa^i, diriacTLV, dXXov<i KaraXiirovre^; 
Ba(Tet<i, rd evrb'i Ke'^pio-fievov^; l^a>' €i>Bvura<; Be 
€t9 avrov<; paBiax; alpovaL. 

30. Kal rr]v KdOaiav^ Be rive<; Kal^ rrjv 
X(07r€i6ov(;, rcov vofjLap')(^(ov rivo<;, Kara rrjvBe rrjv 
/ueaoTroTa/jLLav riOeaaiv' dXXoi Be Kal rov 
^ AKealvov rrepav Kal rov ^TapoortBo<;, ofiopov rfj 
Ucopov rov erepov, o? 7]v dv€yjrLo<; rov vir' 'AX.€- 
^dvBpov dX6vro<;' KaXovai Be TavBapiBa rrjv viro 

^ Instead of aTro\7}(pO^, CDhixw read airo\ei(peri (corrected 
to aTro\7)(pdT} in D^) ; a\€i<j)d^ mo, Casaubon and Tzschucke ; 
iira\€i<p9^, Corais, 

2 ovv omitted by all MSS. except Dhi. 

^ KdOaiav, Tzschucke, for Kadeav ; so the later editors. 

* Kal, Corais inserts (citing Diodorus 17. 91). 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 29-30 

tailed apes ^ are alike described as so extraordinary 
that once the Macedonians, seeing many of these 
standing as in front-line array on some bare hills 
(for this animal is very human-like in mentality, no 
less so than the elephant), got the impression that 
they were an army of men ; and they actually set 
out to attack them as human enemies, but on learn- 
ing the truth from Taxiles, who was then with the 
king, desisted. The capture of the animal is effected 
in two ways. It is an imitative animal and takes to 
flight up in the trees. Now the hunters, when they 
see an ape seated on a tree, place in sight a bowl 
containing water and rub their own eyes with it ; 
and then they put down a bowl of bird-lime instead 
of the water, go away, and lie in wait at a distance ; 
and when the animal leaps down and besmears it- 
self with the bird-lime, and when, upon winking, its 
eyelids are shut together, the hunters approach and 
take it alive. Now this is one way, but there is 
another. They put on baggy breeches like trousers 
and then go away, leaving behind them others that 
are shaggy and smeared inside with bird-lime; and 
when the animals put these on, they are easily 

30. Some put both Cathaea and the country of 
Sopeithes, one of the provincial chiefs, between these 
two rivers ,2 but others on the far side of the Acesines 
and the Hyarotis, as bordering on the country of the 
second Porus, who was a cousin ^ of the Porus cap- 
tured by Alexander. The country that was subject 

1 The species cercopitheces (for a fuller description see 15. 1. 

2 The Hydaspes and Acesines. 

3 Or " nephew." 

.2 '' 


TovT(p 'y^copav. iv Be Ty KaOaua^ /caivoraTov 
laTopelrai to irepl rov KaXXov<;, on ri/jidrac 
8ia(j)€p6vT (!)<;, ft)9 Ittttcov koX kuvmv' fiaaiXea re 
yap Tov KaXkio-TOV alpelaOai (prjaiv 'Ovr](riKpi,TO<;, 
yevofxevov re iraihiov p^era hiprjvov KplveaOat 
SrjpoaLa, irorepov ex^i^ ttjv evvopov p.op(j)r)v /cal 
rov ^fjv a^lav, rj ov' KpiOivra 8' virb rod airo- 
hjeiyQevTO^ dpyovro^; ^rjv rj Oavarova-dar ^aTnea- 
6ai T€ TToXXot? €vav6eaTdT0L<i 'X^pcop.aai rou? 
7rQ)yQ)va<; avrov tovtov 'X^dptv, KaXkcoirL^op.evov^' 
TovTO he Kat dWov<; ^ iroielv eiTLp,e\M^ av')(yov^ 
Tcov ^IvBcov (kuI yap hrj (f)epeLV rrjv '^aypav %yOoa9 
Oavpaara^) Ka\ 6pt^l Kal ecOfjat,' tov<; S' dvOpo)- 
TTOvf; TCL dWa p,€V evreXet? elvac, (f)iXoK6ap.ov<; Be. 
XBlov Be TCOV K.aOaifov ^ Kal tovto laropeiTai, to 
alpelaOai vvp,<pi,ov Kal vvp,(f)r]v aWr)\ov<; Kal to 
(TvyKaTaKaieadai TeOveodcn toi<; dvBpdat Td<; 
yvvalKa<^ Kara TOLavTrjv alriav, otl epoiaai ttotc 
C 700 T(*)v vecov d^icTTaLVTO * twv dvBpSiv rj (f)appbaKevoLev 
avTov<;' v6p,ov ovv deaOai tovtov, co? iravaopLevr}^ 
T7J<; (papp,aKeLa<;. ov 7ridav(o<; p,ev ovv 6 v6p,o<;, 
ovB^ T) aiTia XeyeTat. ^aal 5' ev ttj ^wireidov^i 
yjiipa opvKTwv d\o)v 6po<; elvai, dpKelv Bvvdp.evov 
oXrj Trj ^IvBiKJj' Kal ')(^pv(Tela Be Kal dpyvpela ov 
TToXv aTTcoOev iv dWoi,<; opecnv laTopelrai KaXd, 
6i<i eBrjXwore Vopyo^ 6 peTaXXevTri<;, ol 8' ''IvBol 
yLteraXXeta? Kal %a)i/6ta? d'Treip(o<; e%oi>T€9, ovB^ <*)v 

1 KaBaia, Tzschucke and later editors, for KaQea. 

2 6.XX0VS, his, &\\(a5 other MSS. 

3 KaOaioov, Tzschucke and later editors, for Kadecav. 

* dcpia-TaivTo, Corals and later editors, for a<pi<Travro. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 30 

to him is called Gandaris. As for Cathaea, a most 
novel regard for beauty there is reported ; I mean 
that it is prized in an exceptional manner, as, for 
example, for the beauty of its horses and dogs ; and, 
in fact, Onesicritus says that they choose the hand- 
somest person as king, and that a child is judged in 
public after it is two months old as to whether it has 
the beauty of form required by law and is worthy 
to live or not; and that when it is judged by the 
appointed magistrate it is allowed to live or is put 
to death; and that the men dye their beards with 
many most florid colours for the sole reason that 
they wish to beautify themselves; and that this 
practice is carefully followed by numerous other 
Indian peoples also (for the country produces mar- 
vellous colours, he says), who dye both their hair 
and their garments; and that the people, though 
shabby in every other way, are fond of adornment. 
The following too is reported as a custom peculiar 
to the Cathaeans : the groom and bride choose one 
another themselves, and wives are burned up with 
their deceased husbands for a reason of this kind — 
that they sometimes fell in love with young men 
and deserted their husbands or poisoned them ; and 
therefore the Cathaeans established this as a law, 
thinking that they would put a stop to the poison- 
ing. However, the law is not stated in a plausible 
manner, nor the cause of it either. It is said that 
in the country of Sopeithes there is a mountain of 
mineral salt sufficient for the whole of India. And 
gold and silver mines are reported in other moun- 
tains not far away, excellent mines, as has been 
plainly shown by Gorgus the mining expert. But 
since the Indians are inexperienced in mining and 



evTTOpovaLv laacriv, dX\' airXova-Tepov /jL€Ta')(eipL- 
^ovrac TO Trpdy/jia. 

31. ^Ev 8e T7J ^(jcnTeiOov^ koI t^? tcov Kvvoiv 
dperaf; SLTjyovvrat Oavp^aard^' Xaj^elv yovv top 
^AXi^avSpov irapa tov X(07r€idov<; Kvva<^ irevTri- 
KOVTa fcal eKarov hiaireipa'^ he %a/)fz^ Xeovri 
7rpo(Ta(j)evTa<;^ Bvo, Kparovpevcov^ avrwv, Svo 
dXXov<; €7ra(f)€ivat' totg 5' ijSr) KaOecrrooTayv ei? 
dvTLTTaXa, tov p,ev ^wireiOrj KeXevaau tcov kvvmv 
eva dTcodirav tov (TKeXov<; TLvd Xa^opevov, idv 
Be pLY] vTra/covrj, diroTepielv' tov ^AXe^avSpov Se 
KUT dp)(^d<; p,€v ov crvyx^pelv diroTepelv, (f)€iS6p€vov 
TOV Kvv6<i, el7r6vT0<; S\ oti TeTTapa<; dvTiBcoo-co 
aoL, avyxiopTjaaiy /cat tov Kvva irepuBelv diroTpbT)- 
OevTa TO aKeXo^ ^paheia Top,y, irplv dvelvau to 

32. 'H p,€v ovv P'^xpt' TOV 'Todo-TTOV 6So9 
TO irXeov r/v eirl pbeaTjp^piav, t) o* evOevBe 
TTyoo? eo) pidXXov p^e^pt' tov 'T7rdvio<;, diraaa 
Be TTj^i v7rcopeia<; pdXXov rj tmv ireBlwv e')(o- 
p,evr}. 6 B^ ovv ^AX€^avBpo<; diro tov "TiTdvio^; 
dvao-Tpeyjra<; eVt tov 'TBdairrjv koX tov vav- 
(TTaOpov, r/pTiKpoTei ^ TOV aToXov, cIt eirXei 
T(p 'TBdaTrrj, irdvTe^ B* ol Xe^OevTe^; iroTapol avpu- 
jSaXXovatv eh eva tov ^IvBov ucrraTO? 8' o '"Tiravi^i' 
irevTeKalBeKa Be tol'9 (TvpuravTa^; avppelv ^aai, 
TOV'^ ye d^LoX6yov<;' TrXrjpcoOel*; 8* ck irdvTcov 
cocrre Kol e^' efcuTov aTuBiov;, 0)9 ol purj pbeTpcd- 
foi^T€9 ^aaiv, evpvveaOai /caTd Tiva^ tottov;, 

^ Tcpoaaip^vros QYivx, irpoaacp^Pra moz. 

^ S', before avrwv, Corais and later editors omit. 

^ Instead of TjpriKpSrei, F reads rjpriKpoTi (sic), C tjptikSti 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 30-32 

smelting, they also do not know what their resources 
are, and handle the business in a rather simple 

31. Writers narrate also the excellent qualities of 
the dogs in the country of Sopeithes. They say, at 
any rate, that Alexander received one hundred and 
fifty dogs from Sopeithes ; and that, to prove them, 
two were let loose to attack a lion, and, when they 
were being overpowered, two others were let loose 
upon him, and that then, the match having now 
become equal, Sopeithes bade someone to take one 
of the dogs by the leg and pull him away, and if 
the dog did not yield to cut off his leg; and that 
Alexander would not consent to cutting off the dog's 
leg at first, wishing to spare the dog, but consented 
when Sopeithes said that he would give him four 
instead ; and that the dog suffered the cutting off of 
his leg by slow amputation before he let go his grip. 

32. Now the march to the Hydaspes was for the 
most part towards the south, but from there to the 
Hypanis it was more towards the east, and as a 
whole it kept to the foothills more than to the plains. 
At all events, Alexander, when he returned from the 
Hypanis to the Hydaspes and the naval station, pro- 
ceeded to make ready his fleet and then to set sail 
on the Hydaspes. All the above-mentioned rivers, 
last of all the Hypanis, unite in one river, the Indus ; 
and it is said that the Indus is joined by fifteen note- 
worthy rivers all told, and that after being filled so 
full by all that it is widened in some places, according 
to writers who are immoderate, even to the extent 
of one hundred stadia, but, according to the more 

(corrected to <xvveKp6T€i), Dh ripTiKp6r'r}, i dpTiKp6Tri, and other 
MSS. and editors before Kramer (tvi/€kp6t€i. 



ft)? 8' ol (xerpLwrepoi, Trevr^Kovra to irXelaTov, 
i\d')(^ia-Tov Se eTrrd (koI iroWa eOvij kol TroXet? 
elal ^ wepL^^), eireira Bual arofiaaiv et? ttjv voriav 
i/cBiBcoa-i OdXarrav Kal rrjv YlaraXrjvrfv irpoaa- 
ryopevo/jiivTjv iroiel vrjaov. ravrrjv S* eaye rrjv 
Bidvoiav 'A\e^apBpo<;, ac^et? ra tt/jo? 6(o fiepr} 
TTpiOTOV fiev Bid TO KcoXvOfjvai Bia^rjvat top 
'"Tiraviv, erreLra Kal yjrevBrj Kara/nadwv TJj irelpa 
TOP TTpoKarexoPTa \6yop, co? eKirvpa ecr) kol 
OrjpLotf; fiaXXov olK'^a-ifia rd iv toI<; rr€Bioi<; ff 
dpOpa)7r€ia> yepec BioTrep a>p/xr)(T€P iirl ravTa, 
a^el? CKetpa, Mare Kal iypdxrdi] ravra dpr 
€K€ip(OP eVl irXeop. 

33. 'H p,€P ovp fiera^if tov "TirdpiOf; Kal tov 
C 701 'TBdcTTTov Xiyerai ippea €)(^€tp eOprj, 7roX,€i9 Be 
et? 7r€PTaKia)(t.\La(; ovk iXdrrov^ Kw rr)? Mepo- 
7rt8o?* BoKel Be 7rp6<; VTrep^oXrjp elprjaOav to 
irXrjOo';. rj Be jxeTa^v tov ^\pBov Kal tov "TBdairov, 
etpTjTai cr^^eBop tl, v(j)* a)p olKecTai twp d^icDP 
fiP'r]fn)<!' /caTft) 6' e^rj<; elaip oi re ^l^ai XeyofiepoLt 
irepl d)P Kal irpoTepop eixp-qadrjiiep, Kal MaXXot 
Kal ^vBpdKai,^ jxeydXa eOprj. Kal MaXXol fiep, 
Trap* oh diroOapelp eKipBvpevcrep ^AXe^apBpo<;, 
TpooOeU ep dXooaeL ttoXlxj^V^ tipo^, ^vBpdKai^ 
Be, ov<i TOV Aiopv(Tov avyyepeh ecpa/jLep /xe/xu- 
Oevadai. irpo^ avTjj B* i]Br) ttj UaTaXrjpfj Trjp 
re TOV Movo-LKapov Xeyovcn Kal ttjp Xd^ov, ov 

1 6iVr DF, €hai other MSS. 

2 Kal iroWa . . . irepi^, Meineke ejects, following conj. of 

' 2t5pa/fai Dhi, 'O^vSpiitai E. 

* 2u5pa/fax F (corrected in margin to '0^v5pd>cai), 'OivdpxKai 
other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 32-33 

moderate, fifty at the most and seven at the least 
(and there are many tribes and cities all about it),^ 
it then empties into the southern sea by two mouths 
and forms the island called Patalene. Alexander 
conceived this purpose ^ after dismissing from his 
mind the parts towards the east; first, because he 
had been prevented from crossing the Hypanis, and, 
secondly, because he had learned by experience the 
falsity of the report which had preoccupied his mind, 
that the parts in the plains were burning hot and 
more habitable for wild beasts than for a human 
race ; ^ and therefore he set out for these parts, 
dismissing those others, so that the former became 
better known than those others. 

33. Now the country between the Hypanis and the 
Hydaspes is said to contain nine tribes, and also cities 
to the number of five thousand — cities no smaller than 
Cos Meropis,* though the number stated seems to be 
excessive. And as for the country between the Indus 
and the Hydaspes, I have stated approximately the 
peoples worthy of mention by which it is inhabited ; ^ 
and below them, next in order, are the people called 
Sibae, whom I have mentioned before,® and the 
Malli and the Sydracae, large tribes. It was in the 
country of the Malli that Alexander was in peril of 
death, being wounded in the capture of some small 
city ; and as for the Sydracae, I have already spoken 
of them as mythically akin to Dionysus.'' Near 
Patalene, they say, one comes at once to the country 
of Musicanus, and to that of Sabus, where is Sindo- 

1 The words in parenthesis are probably a gloss. 

2 i.e. to turn back from the Hypanis. ^ See § 26. 
* See 14. 2. 19. * § 28 above. 

« § 8 above. ' § 8 above. 



ra ^ivSofiava,^ koI en rrjv YlopriKavov Ka\ 
aWcov, 0}v iKpcirrjaev airdvrwv ^AXe^avhpo^, rrjv 
Tov 'IvSov 7rapoiKOvvT(ov irorajjuiav, vcrrdrr^^i he 
Trj<; IIaTd\7]vr]<;, rjv 6 'Iz^^o? TTOiec, a')(^iade\^ et? 
hvo '7Tpo)(od<;. ' ApiaT6ffov\o<; puev ovv eh 'x^iXiov<; 
arahlov^i hLe)(eiv dXXijXcov (pyjcrlv avTd^, Neap^o? 
S' OKTaKoaiov^ TrpoaTidrjaip, ^Ovr}alKpiTO<; Be ryv 
ifKevpdv eKd(TTr]v r?}? dTroXafju^avo/jievrj^ prjcrov 
TpLjcovov TO axvf^^ BiaxtXicov, rod Be Trorafiov 
TO 7r\aT09, KaO' o G^i^eTaL eZ? to, (jTOfxaTa, oaov 
BiaKoaicov'^ /caXet Be rr^v prjaov AeXra, kul (j)7]aiv 
tarjv elvai tov KaT AHyuTTTOV AeXTa, ov/c dXrjde^ 
TovTO Xeycov. to yap KaT AiyvTTTOV AeXTa 
yCXifov Kal ToiaKoaiwv XeyeTai aTaBioav eyeiv 
TTjv paaLv, Ta^ be irXevpa^; e/caTepav eXuTTco t?;? 
^da€(o<;. ev Be Tjj UaTaXrjvy 7r6Xi<; €(ttIv d^io- 
X0709 TO, UdTaXa, d(j) rj^ Kal 7) prjao<; KaXeiTac. 

34. <i>7;cri 8' 'OvrjaiKpiTOf; ttjv TrXeia-Trjv irapa- 
Xiav TTJV TauTT) TToXv TO TevaycoBe<; e^eiv^ Kal 
fidXicTTa KaTo, to, aTo/jbaTa tmv iroTafMoov, Bid re 
T7]v X^^^ '^^^ '^^'» 7rXr]fjifjUvpLBa<; Kal to /jlt] irvelv 
d'JToyaiov<;,^ dXX^ vtto twv ireXayiwv dve/ubwv 
KaTexeaOaL tovtov<; tov<; tottou? to irXeov. Xeyet 
Be Kal irepl tt}? IS/lovaLKavov x^P^^ ^'"^^ TrXeov 
iyKco/jLid^cov avTrjVy o)v Tiva kolvcl Kal dXXot<; 
^lpBoL<i laToprjTai,, &)? to puaKpoffiov, w(tt€ Kal 
TpidKOVTa eirl tol^^ eKaTOv tt poaXa/ii^dveiv (Kal 

^ aafiovra aivZovaXiav moz ; aa^ovra crivSoXiav sw ; adBov to 
(rivdopdXia CDF h , Tzschucke and Corals; 2a/5oi/, ra 2iv56/uLava 
Meineke, and so Kramer, who, however, inserts ov after 

2 For SiaKoa-ioiv Groskurd conj. eUoa-i, Kramer (citing 
Arrian 5. 20) enarSv. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 33-34 

mana, and also to the country of Porticanus and 
others, who, one and all, were conquered by Alex- 
ander, these peoples dwelling along the river-lands 
of the Indus ; but last of all to Patalene, a country 
formed by the Indus, which branches into two 
mouths. Now Aristobulus says that these mouths 
are one thousand stadia distant from one another, 
but Nearchus adds eight hundred; and Onesicritus 
reckons each of the two sides of the included island, 
which is triangular in shape, at two thousand, and 
the width of the river, where it branches into the 
mouths, at about two hundred; and he calls the 
island Delta, and says that it is equal in size to the 
Aegyptian Delta, a statement which is not true. 
For it is said that the Aegyptian Delta has a base 
of one thousand three hundred stadia, though each 
of the two sides is shorter than the base. In Patalene 
there is a noteworthy city, Patala, after which the 
island is named. 

34. Onesicritus says that most of the seaboard in 
this part of the world abounds in shoals, particularly 
at the mouths of the rivers, on account of the silt 
and the overflows and also of the fact that no 
breezes blow from the land, and that this region is 
subject for the most part to winds that blow from 
the high sea. He describes also the country of 
Musicanus, lauding it rather at length for things of 
which some are reported as common also to other 
Indians, as, for example, their length of life, thirty 
years beyond one hundred (and indeed some say 

^ a.Troyaiovs, Casaubon, for arrh y4as CFmoz, airh yaias Di, 
viroyaias i, airoyalas sx. 



<yap T0U9 X^pa<; en tovtcov /uLaKpo^i(OTepov<; rLve<; 
(paai) Koi TO Xito^lov koI to vyieivov, Kaiirep 
T7]<i ')((jt)pa<i d(j>OovLav dirdvTcov i'X^ovarjf;. lBlov Se 
TO avacTLTid Tiva KaKooviKa avTol<; elvai Brjfxoaia 
aiTovfxivcov, oyjra S' iK Orjpa^ i^oPTcov kol to 
')(^pv(ra) jjur] ')(^prjGdaL, fiijS' dpyvpa), /neTaWcov 
ovTwv KOL TO dvTL BovXcov TOt? iv dfCfirj 'x^prjadaL 
v€oi,<;, ct)9 K/o?)t€9 /JL6U Tot9 'A0a/>tfa)Tat9, Aa/cooz^e? 
Be Tot9 EtXa)(7i* fir) uKpc/Sovv Be Ta9 eTrtaTTj/jLa^ 
ttXtjp laTpLK7J<i' eirl tlvcov yap Kaicovpyiav elvai 
C 702 Trjv iirl irXeov daKr](Tiv, olov eirl ttj^ TroXefiLKrj^ ^ 
Kal Tcov ojJLolwv' BIkyjv Be fxrj elvat ttXtjv ^ovov 
Kol £//9/3Ga)9' ovK eV avTw yap to firj iradelv 
TavTU, TO, B' ev Tol<i avfiffoXaloc^ iir^ avTco 
€Kd<TTq), co(TT€ dve')(ea6ai Bel, edv t«9 Trapa^fj 
TTjv iriaTiv, dWd Kal irpOGeyeiv, otw TnaTevTeop, 
Kal firj BcKCJV irXrjpovv ttjv ttoXlv. TavTa fxev at 
jxeT ^AXe^dvBpov o'TpaT€vaavT€<; Xeyovaiv. 

35. ^EiKBeBoTai Be Tt9 Kal KpaTepou 7rpo<; ttjv 
/jLTjTepa ^Apio-TOTrdrpav iiTi-aToXy, iroXXd re dXXa 
irapdBo^a (j)pd^ovaa Kal ov)(^ op^oXoyovaa ovBevi, 
Kal Br) Kal to fieXP^ '^ov Tdyyov jrpoeXOelv top 
'AXe^apBpop. avTo^; re (j)y)(TLP IBelp top TroTa/mop 
Kal Kr)Tr) to, eV avTw Kal /jLeyeOo<; Kal 7rXdT0V<; 
Kal ^dOov<; Troppco 7rLcrTeco<; fxdXXop rj €77^9. oti 
/jLep yap ^eyiCTo^ tmp fjLpr)fiopevo/jiepcop KaTa Ta9 
Tpel<i r)ireLpovf;, Kal fieT avTOP 6 ^IpB6<;, TpiT0<i 
Be Kal TeTapTO<; 6 "laTpo^; Kal 6 NetXo9, lKap(o<; 

^ TTJs TToAe/jLitcris EF, To7s TroXeiJ.iKo7s other MSS. 

1 See 10. 4. 16, 20. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 34-35 

that the Seres live still longer than this), and their 
healthfulness, and simple diet, even though their 
country has an abundance of everything. Peculiar 
to them is the fact that they have a kind of Laconian 
common mess,^ where they eat in public and use as 
food the meat of animals taken in the chase ; and 
that they do not use gold or silver, although they 
have mines : and that instead of slaves they use 
young men in the vigour of life, as the Cretans use 
the Aphamiotae and the Laconians the Helots ; ^ 
and that they make no accurate study of the sciences 
except that of medicine, for they regard too much 
training in some of them as wickedness ; for example, 
military science and the like; and that they have 
no process at law except for murder and outrage, for 
it is not in one's power to avoid suffering these, 
whereas the content of contracts is in the power of 
each man himself, so that he is required to endure 
it if anyone breaks faith with him, and also to con- 
sider carefully who should be trusted and not to fill 
the city with lawsuits. This is the account of those 
who made the expedition with Alexander. 

35. But there has also been published a letter of 
Craterus to his mother Aristopatra, which alleges 
many other strange things and agrees with no one 
else, particularly in saying that Alexander advanced 
as far as th^ Ganges. And he says that he himself 
saw the river and monsters on its banks, and a magni- 
tude both of width and of depth which is remote 
from credibiUty rather than near it. Indeed, it is 
sufficiently agreed that the Ganges is the largest of 
known rivers on the three continents, and after it 
the Indus, and third and fourth the Ister and the 

2 See 8. 5. 4 and 12. 3. 4. 



<7V/ji(f)(i)V6tTai- TO, Kad'' eKaara K oXXol aXk(o^ 
irepL avrov Xeyovacv, ol jiev rpidKOvra arahiwy 
TovXd^iarov 7TXdT0<i, ol Be /cal rpicov, Meyaadevi]^; 
Be, orav y [leTpio^ Kal et? e/carov evpvvecrOai, 
^d6o<; Be el'/coai opyvLcov TovXd')(^taTOP. 

36. 'EttI Be rf] (tv/jl/SoXtj tovtov re Kal tov 
dXXov TTorafjLov ^ rd YiaXi^oOpa IBpvaOai, araBicov 
byBorjKovra to fiijKo^;, irXdro^ Be TrevrefcaiBeKa, 
ev irapaXXrjXoy pdjjLfKp a')(^r)iJLari, ^vXivov Trepi- 
fioXov exovaav KaTarerpyj/iievov, coare Bid rcbv 
OTTOJp To^evetv irpoKelaOaL Be Kal Td<ppov (pvXaKrjf; 
re x^P^^ '^^^ t'7ro8o^% tmp i/c t^? ttoXgo)? dirop- 
poLcov TO B' e6vo<;, ev c5 rj TroXa avrrj, KaXeladai 
UpaoTLOvf;, BiacjiopcoTarov tmv irdyTODV tov Be 
^acnXevovTa eTrcovv/jiov Belv ^ t^9 iroXeocx; elvai, 
YiaXi^odpov KaXovjxevov irpo^ tm IBicp tw e/c 
yeveTTi'^ ovofiaTi, KaOdirep tov XavBpoKOTTOv, tt/jo? 
ov TjKev Meyaadevr]<; TreficpOeL^;. tolovto Be Kal 
TO Trapa rot? YIapOuaioi,<i' ^ ApadKai yap KaXovvTav 
irdvTe^, IBia Be 6 p,ev 'OpcoBrji;,^ 6 Be ^padT7)<;, 6 

3' dXXo TL, 

37. ^ApLCTTT) B' ojjboXoyeLTaL irdaa r) tov 'Tirdvco^i 
irepav ovk aKpi^ovvTai Be, dXXd Bid ttjv dyvoiav 
Kal TOV eKTOTTLa/ibv XeyeTai irdvT errl to jiel^ov 

^ After iroTUfiov Meineke inserts 'Epavvofi6a, following 
Arrian, Indica 10. 

2 ^etv F, Se? other MSS. 
^ 'iipct)Sr]s moxz. 

^ More than twelve miles. 

'^ About 120 feet. " According to the latest calculations, 
the length of the main stream of the Ganges is 1540 m., or 
with its longest affluent, 1680; breadth at true entrance into 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 1. 35-37 

Nile ; but the several details concerning it are stated 
differently by different writers, some putting its 
minimum breadth at thirty stadia and others even 
at three, whereas Megasthenes says that when its 
breadth is medium it widens even to one hundred 
stadia ^ and that its least depth is twenty fathoms.^ 

36. It is said that Palibothra lies at the confluence 
of the Ganges and the other river,^ a city eighty 
stadia in length and fifteen in breadth, in the shape 
of a parallelogram, and surrounded by a wooden wall 
that is perforated so that arrows can be shot through 
the holes ; and that in front of the wall lies a trench 
used both for defence and as a receptacle of the 
sewage that flows from the city ; and that the tribe 
of people amongst whom this city is situated is 
called the Prasii and is far superior to all the rest; 
and that the reigning king must be surnamed after 
the city, being called Palibothrus in addition to his 
own family name, as, for example, King Sandro- 
cottus to whom Megasthenes was sent on an em- 
bassy.* Such is also the custom among the Parthians ; 
for all are called Arsaces, although personally one 
king is called Orodes, another Phraates, and another 
something else. 

37. Writers are agreed that the country as a whole 
on the far side of the Hypanis is best ; but they do 
not describe it accurately, and because of their 
ignorance and of its remoteness magnify all things 

the sea, 20 m. ; breadth of channel in dry season, 1^ to 2 J m. ; 
depth in dry season, 30 ft." (Holdich, in Encyc. Britannica.) 

3 The Erannoboas (now the Sone), according to Groskurd 
(who cites Arrian, Indica 10) and the later editors (see critical 

* See 2. 1. 9. 



Tf TO T€paTQ)Be(TT€pOV' olu TO, TCOV ')(pV(TeOpVX^V 

pvpfiiJKCOV KoX aWwv OrjpLwv re /cat avOpwirwv 

IBcO/JLOpCpCOV Kol 8vvdfJie<TL TLCTLV €^rjWay/jL€VCi)V' 

CO? Tov^ Xrjpa<; /jiaKpoj3iOv<; <^aai, irepa kol 
BiaKoaicov ircov irapaTeLvovTa^. Xeyovai Be koI 
apiaTOKpaTLKTjv rcva avvra^LV iroXneia^^ avrodi 
e/c irevTaKLa-^iXlwv ^ovXcvtmv avvearcocrav, wv 
C 703 cKaarov irapeXGcrdai tm kolvw iXecfyapra. koX 
rlypei^ S* iv TOt? Upaaloc^ (j)7jalv 6 Meyaa06V7j<; 
fieylarov; yiveaOai, cr^^eSov Be ri koI BiirXaa-iov^ 
XeopTcov, BvvaTOv^; Be, ^are rcov rifiepcov tlvo,, 
ayo/xevov viro reTrdpcov, ro) 6in(j0i(p aKeXei Bpa^d- 
fjLevov r]p.i6vov, jSidaacrdai koI kXKvaai irpo<i 
eavTOV KepKOTTLdrjicov^ Be /jl€L^ov(; tmv /jLeylaToov 
Kvvcov, XevKoif^; ttXtjv tov irpoa-coTrov tovto S' 
elvai fieXav (irap* aXXoi<; 6' dvdiraXiv), ra? Be 
KepKOV^ fxei^ov^ Bvelv ttj/^go)!^, r)p,epcoTdTov<; Be 
KOL OX) KaKor]6ei^ irepX eTriOeaei*; koX KXo7rd<;* 
XlOov<; 5' opvTTeaOaL Xipav6')(pov<^, yXvKVTepov<; 
avKcov Tj /jLeXiTO<;' dXXa)(^ov Be Bi7r7]^ei<; 6^ei<^ 
v/jLevoTTTepov^;, coairep al vvKrepiBe^, koI tovtov<; 
Be vvKTCop irereaOaL, o-raXaypuovf; d(t>ievTa<; ovpcov, 
T0U9 Be IBpcorcov, Biao-rjirovTa^ tov -x^pwra tov fir) 
(pvXa^afievov kol aKOp7riov<; elvai itti^vov^, virep- 
jSdXXovTa^; [xeyeOear (pveaOai Be koI e/Sepov 
elvai Be /cal Kvva^ aXKijiov^y ov irpOTepov p^eOiev- 
Ta9 TO Brj'^Oevj irplv eh tov<; pd)Oci}va<; vBcop kutu- 

1 See2. 1. 9. 

2 Apparently an imaginary creature (sometimes called " ant- 
lion ") with the fore-parts of a lion and the hind-parts of an 
ant. Herodotus (3. 102) describes it as " smaller than a dog 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 37 

or make them more marvellous. ^ For example, the 
stories of the ants that mine gold ^ and of other 
creatures, both beasts and human beings, which are 
of peculiar form and in respect to certain natural 
powers have undergone complete changes, as, for 
example, the Seres, who, they say, are long-lived, 
and prolong their lives even beyond two hundred 
years. They tell also of a kind of aristocratic order 
of government that was composed outright of five 
thousand counsellors, each of whom furnishes the 
new commonwealth with an elephant. Megasthenes 
says that the largest tigers are found among the 
Prasii, even nearly twice as large as lions, and so 
powerful that a tame one, though being led by four 
men, seized^ a mule by the hind leg and by force 
drew the mule to itself; and that the long-tailed 
apes are larger than the largest dogs, are white 
except their faces, which are black (the contrary is 
the case elsewhere), that their tails are more than 
two cubits long, and that they are very tame and not 
malicious as regards attacks and thefts ; and that 
stones are dug up of the colour of frankincense and 
sweeter than figs or honey ; and that in other places 
there are reptiles two cubits long with membranous 
wings like bats, and that they too fly by night, dis- 
charging drops of urine, or also of sweat, which 
putrefy the skin of anyone who is not on his guard ; 
and that there are winged scorpions of surpassing 
size ; and that ebony is also produced ; and that there 
are also brave dogs, which do not let go the object 
bitten till water is poured down into their nostrils ; 

but larger than a fox." Strabo elsewhere (16. 4. 15) refers to 
" lions called ants." 

3 The Greek word suggests seizing with the claws, not with 
the teeth. 




)(^vdrjvai' eviov; 8' vtto 7rpoOv/jL[,a<i ev rw d7)'y/iarc 
8iaaTp€^€a6aL rov^ o(^6aX[Jiov<;, rot? he koI efc- 
TTLTrreiv KaTaa)(€6rjvaL Se koX Xeovra vtto kvp6<; 
KoX ravpov, rov Be ravpov fcal airoOavelvy Kparov- 
fievov Tov pvy)(OV<;, irpoTepov rj a(f)e6rjvai.. 

38. ^Ev Se rrj opeivfj XiXav^ Trorafiov elvac, o5 
/uLTjBep iTTLTrXel' ^rjfioKpLTOv jxev ovv a-mcnelv, 
are ttoWtjv t*;? ""Ao-ta? TreTrXavy/iepov' koX ^Apt- 
aroT€\7]<; Be aTnarel, Kaiirep ^ depcov ovtcov 
XeTTTMV, ol? ovBev eiro^^elTai ttttjvov en Be twi^ 
dvacpepofiei'wv dr/ncop eTTiaTraaTiKOi rivh elai 
irpo^i €avTOv<i koI olov po^r)TiKOi rov v7r€p7reTov<;, 
o)? TO rfXeKTpov rov d'^vpov Koi rj (TLBr)ptTi<i rov 
atB^pov Ta^a Be fcal kuO^ vBaro^; TOLavral Ttve<; 
elev dv Bvvd/i€i<;. ravra /jlcp ovv (f)vaio\oyLa<; 
ex^rai tivo<; koI t^? irepl rcov 6)(OV/JLepo)V irpa- 
f^ixareia^, oiare ev €K€lvol<; eTTKTKeiTTeov' vvvl 5' 
en Koi ravra TrpoaXrjTniov /cal oaa dXXa rrJ? 
yeayy pa^La<; iyyvTepco. 

39. ^rjal Brj to tmv ^IvBojv 7rXrjdo<; ei? eTrra 
fiepr] BLr}pr)a6ai, kol TrpooTOf? fiev tou9 ^iXo- 
a6^ov<; elvai /cara Tifirjv, eXa;)^tcrTOL>? Be KaT 
dpiOpLOV 'X^prjcrdai S' avTol<;, IBia jxev eKaaTco 
Tou? 6vovTa<^ rj tov<; evayi^ovTa^, Koivfj Be tou? 
^aaiXeaf; kuto, ttjv fjbeydX'qv Xeyop,ivriv avvoBov, 
Kad^ rjv TOV veov eT0v<; diravTe^ ol (f)iXo(TO(f)OL 
T(p fiaaiXel (TVveX66vTe<; eirl 6vpa<;t 6 tl dv avTcov 

^ :Zi\av Epitome, 2i\iav other MSS. 
^ DFw omit Kal before aepcov. 

^ This clause is obviously ironical, unless, as others suggest, 
the text is corrupt. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 37-39 

and that some bite so vehemently that their eyes 
become distorted and sometimes actually fall out ; 
and that even a lion was held fast by a dog, and 
also a bull, and that the bull was actually killed, 
being overpowered through the dog's hold on his 
nose before he could be released. 

38. Megasthenes goes on to say that in the moun- 
tainous cotm^y there is a River Silas on which nothing 
floats ; that Democritus, however, disbelieves this, 
inasmuch as he had wandered over much of Asia.^ 
But Aristotle also disbelieves it, although there are 
atmospheres so thin that no winged creature can fly 
in them. Besides, certain rising vapours tend to 
attract to themselves and " gulp down," as it were, 
whatever flies over them, as amber does with chaff 
and the magnet with iron ; and perhaps there might 
also be natural powers of this kind in water. Now 
these things border, in a way, on natural philosophy 
and on the science of floating bodies, and therefore 
should be investigated there ; but in this treatise 
I must add still the following, and whatever else is 
closer to the province of geography. 
^1^ 39. He says, then, that the population of India is 
/- divided into seven castes : ^ the one first in honour, 
but the fewest in number, consists of the philoso- 
phers ; and these philosophers are used, each indi- 
vidually, by people making sacrifice to the gods or 
making offerings to the dead, but jointly by the 
kings at the Great Synod, as it is called, at which, 
at the beginning of the new year, the philosophers, 
one and all, come together at the gates of the king ; 
and whatever each man has drawn up in writing or 

2 On the caste system in India see "Caste" in Encyc. 



€/ca(TTO<; avvTci^rj tmv ')(^pr]aLfJLCov rj rrjprjarj 7r/309 
€V€Tr)plav KapTTOdv T€ /cat ^wcov Kal Trepl ttoXl- 
reia^i} 7rpo(f)€p€i^ tovt et? ro fxeaov 09 S' av 
TpU 6yjrev(T/jLevo<; aXw, vo/jlo^; iorrl acyav Bia fflov 
C 704 TOP Be /caTOpOdyaavra a(l)Opop fcal areXi] Kpivovai. 

40. AevTCpop Be iiepo<; elvat, to tcov yecopycou, 
OL TrXelaroL re elat koX eTneLKearaToi, aarpa- 
rela Kal aBeia rod ipyd^eaOai, TroXet, /jltj irpoa- 
i6vT€<; fMt^B^ dXXr) XP^^^ H'V^^ o^Xijaec KOLvy' 
TToXXaKL^ yovv iv tw avTW xpovo) fcal tottoj) rot? 
/jiev Traparerdx^ai avfiffaivei Kal BiaKivBvveiietv 
7rpo<; Tou? 7roXefiLOV(;,oi B' dpovaiv rj^ crKaiTTOvaiv 
ciKivBvvoi)^, 7rpo/jLdxov<; e^ovref; iKeLvov<^. ean 8' 
T) %a)/3a ^aaiXiKT] irdaa' fiicrOov B' avrrjv eirl 
rerdpTaL^i epyd^ovTac tcov KapTrcov. 

41. TpLTOV TO T(OP TTOLjJLeVWV Kol 6y]pevT(ov, 
oh /jl6voi<; e^eari Orjpeveiv koL OpefiiiaTorpocjielv, 
a>vid re irapexeiv Kal paaOov ^evyrj' dvrl Be rod 
Tr)v yrjv eXevdepovv Orjpicov Kal tmv o-TrepjuoXoyoop 
opvecov /jLerpovvrac irapa rov ^aaiXe(o<; alrov, 
TrXdvrjra Kal aKr^virr^v vefiofxevoi, fflov. lttttov 
Be Kal eXe^avra rpei^eiv ovk e^eariv IBicoTy 
^aaiXiKov B* eKdrepov vevofiiaTai to KTrjfjia, Kai 
elaiv avTcov iTTifMeXi-jTaL 

^ Kal ((fwv Kol irepl TroXirclas, Corais and the later editors, 
for Kai Cv^*' '^"'^ voKireias. 

2 Trpo<pfp€i, Corais and later editors, for irpoo-^epei. 
^ Instead of ^, iv and Corais read Kai. 

^ Perhaps the more natural interpretation of the Greek 
would be, " the farmers cultivate it for wages, on condition 
of receiving a fourth part of the produce," whether " wages " 
and "fourth part" are appositional, or "on condition of" 
means, as it might, " in addition to." But Diodorus Siculus 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 39-41 

observed as useful with reference to the prosperity 
of either fruits or living beings or concerning the 
government, he brings forward in public; and he 
who is thrice found false is required by law to keep 
silence for life, whereas he who has proved correct 
is adjudged exempt from tribute and taxes. 

40. The second caste, he says, is that of the 
farmers, who are not only the most numerous, but 
also the most highly respected, because of their 
exemption from miUtary service and right of free- 
dom in their farming ; and they do not approach a 
city, either because of a public disturbance or on 
any other business ; at any rate, he says, it often 
happens that at the same time and place some are 
in battle array and are in peril of their lives against 
the enemy, while the farmers are ploughing or 
digging without peril, the latter having the former 
as defenders. The whole of the country is of royal 
ownership ; and the farmers cultivate it for a rental 
in addition to paying a fourth part of the produce. ^ 

41. The third c^ste^is that of the shepherds and 
hunters, who alone are permitted to hunt, to breed 
cattle, and to sell or hire out beasts of burden ; and 
in return for freeing the land from wild beasts and 
seed-picking birds, they receive proportionate allow- 
ances of grain from the king, leading, as they do, a 
wandering and tent-dwelling life. No private person 
is permitted to keep a horse or elephant. The 
possession of either is a royal privilege, and there are 
men to take care of them. 

(2. 40. 5) says, (" the rentals of the country they pay to the 
king . . . but apart from the rental they pay a fourth part 
into the royal treasury "). Hence the translator agrees -with 
Tozer {Selections from Strabo, p. 317), who quotes Lassen 
{Indische Alterthumskunde II, p. 721). 



42. Stjpa Be tmv Orjpicov tovtcov rotdSe. 'X^aypiov 
yjriXbv oaov rerrdpcov rj iriure araBtwv rd(l)p(p 
'K6pL')(apd^avTe<^ ^aOeia yecfivpovcTL rrjv etaoBov 
(TTevwTdrr) yecftvpa' elr elaa^cdac 6r]\ela<; ra<^ 
rjfxepwrdTa^ rpel^ rj T6TTapa<i, avrol 8' ev koXv- 
ffioc^ KpVTTTolf; VTTOKddrjVTai Xo^covre^. r)/j,6pa<; 

/JL€V OVV OV TTpOaiaCTLV 01 dypiOLt VUKTWp 8' i<f> 

€va TTOiovvrai rrjv ecaoBov elaiovTwv Be, KKeiovat 
TTjv elaoBov \dOpa, elra tcov 7)/j,epcDV dOXrjTMV 
Tov^ aXKi/xcordrov^ eladyoi'Te^i Bia/jud-^ovraL irpb^ 
avTov^iy dfxa kuI Xi/jlo) Karairovovvre^i' r)Bri Be 
KaixvovTwv, ol evOapaeararoi tS)v rjvio'X^odV \dOpa 
KaTai3aLvovT€<; vnoBvpovaiv 6fcaaro<; rfj yaarpl 
Tov oIk€lov 6)(^}jjiiaTo^' 6pp,(o/jLevo<; 8' evdevBe vtto- 
Bvvei Ta> dypLO) koI avp,7roBa Bea/jiel' yevofievov 
Be Tovrov, KcXevovcrt rot? rcOaaois rvirretv rou? 
arv/jLTToBiadevTa^;, ew? av ireawcnv eh rrjv yrju, 
TveaovTCDV 3' aip,oQotvoL<i l/juda-L tt podXafx^dvovrai 
rov<; avyeva<i avroiv irpo^ tou? tS)v tlOuo-cov' 
Kva Be fMTj aeioiJievoi tou? dva^aiveiv eV avrov^ 
eiTi')(eLpovvTa^ dTroaeioLVTO, rol^ rpa^ijXoi^ avrcov 
e/jL0dXXovrat kvkXw TOjxd^i, koX icar avrd^ tov<; 
ifidvTa<; irepLTideaaLv, wcr^' vir dXyrjBovcov eiKeiv 
Tol<; Be(T/jLOL<; koI r}(TV)(^d^etv' to)V S* dXovTCtw 
diroXe^avTe<i tou? irpea^viepov^ rj veoJTepov^; tt}? 
y^peia'i TOv<; XoiTrou? dirdyova-iv eh Tov<i arad- 
fxov^, Brjo-avTe^i Be tov<; piev iroBa^ irpo^ dXXrj- 
Xov<;, TOv<; Be av)(^eva<; 7rpo<; Kiova ev TreTrrjyora, 
C 705 Bafid^ovaL Xipuoy eirecra %A.o?7 KaXdpbov /cal Troa? 
dvaXap>l3dpovar pLera Be ravra Treidapx^tv Bi- 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 42 

42. The chase of the elephant is conducted as 
follows : they dig a deep ditch round a treeless tract 
about four or five stadia in circuit and bridge the 
entrance with a very narrow bridge ; and then, letting 
loose into the enclosure three or four of their tamest 
females, they themselves lie in wait under cover in 
hidden huts. Now the wild elephants do not 
approach by day, but they make the entrance one 
by one at night; and when they have entered, the 
men close the entrance secretly; and then, leading 
the most courageous of their tame combatants into 
the enclosure, they fight it out with the wild 
elephants, at the same time wearing them down also 
by starvation; and, once the animals are worn out, 
the boldest of the riders secretly dismount and each 
creeps under the belly of his own riding-elephant, 
and then, starting from here, creeps under the wild 
elephant and binds his feet together ; and when this 
is done, they command the tamed elephants to beat 
those whose feet have been bound until they fall to 
the ground; and when they fall, the men fasten 
their necks to those of the tamed elephants with 
thongs of raw ox-hide ; and in order that the wild 
elephants, when they shake those who are attempting 
to mount them, may not shake them off, the men 
make incisions round their necks and put the thongs 
round at these incisions, so that through pain they 
yield to their bonds and keep quiet. Of the elephants 
captured, they reject those that are too old or too 
young for service and lead away the rest to the stalls ; 
and then, having tied their feet to one another and 
their necks to a firmly planted pillar, they subdue 
them by hunger; and then they restore them with 
green cane and grass. After this the elephants are 



Bd(Tfcovai, Tou? /Ji'€v hta Xoyov, tou? Be fjueXiafio) 
TLVL Kol TV/jL7ravia/iiw Kr]\ovvT€<;' aivdviOL K ol 
SuariddaevTor (pvaei yap hiaKeLvrai Trpaax; koX 
77/xe/0&)9, Mar 6771/9 elvai, XoyiKw fwot)* ol Be ^ kuI 
e^aifxov^ tov<; rjvioxov^ ev tol<; ay wen ireaovja^ 
dveXofievoL aco^ovaiv e/c Trj? /zap^?;?, tou? ^ 8e ^ 
vTToBvvTa^; jaera^u tcov iTpoaOiwv ttoSmv virepfia- 
')(^6/ji€voc Bieacoaav rcov Be ')(^opTO(p6po)V fcal BiBa- 
aKokwv et Tiva irapa Ov/jlov aTreKreivav, ovt(o<; 
eTTiTroOovcnv, waO' vir dvia<^ dTrex^crOaL Tpo(j)i]<;, 
eart S' ore Kal dTTOKaprepelv. 

43. ^i^d^ovTac] Be Kal tlktovctlv, o)? 'lttitol, 
Tov eapo<; fidXiara' Kaipb^ 8' eVrl tm jiev appevi, 
iireiBav otarpa) KaTe)(r)Tai Kal dypiaivrj' rore 
Btj Kal Xlttov'; tl Bia Trj<; dva7rvorj<; dvir](7LV, rjv 
e')(eL^ rrapa tou? KpoTd(bov<;' rat? Be OrfXeiatf;, 
orav 6 auTO? ovro<; 7ropo<; dvewyoo^ rvy^dvr]. 
Kvovai Be TOf 9 /xev TrXelarovf; oKTcoKalBeKa jxrjva^, 
e\a%tcrT0U9 B^ cKKaiBeKa' Tpe^ei 8' 77 f^V'^'VP ^^ 
err]' ^co(Ti S* oaov /jLaKpo^tcoTaroL dvOpcoiroL ol 
TToXXol, Tive<; Be Kal eVt BtaKoaia Bcareivovaiv 
err)' iroXvvoaoi Be Kal BvaiaTOi. dKO<; Be 7rp6<; 
6(j)6aXfiLav fiev ^oetov ydXa irpoaKXv^o^evov, 
Tot9 irXeiaTOL^ Be tmv voo-rj/jLarcov 6 fjLeXa<; olvo<; 
irivofjuevof;, Tpavfxaat Be irorov fiev /Sovrvpov 

1 Instead of ol de, moz and Corais read nvfs ydp. 
^ Instead of rovs, moz and Tzschucke read ot. 
^ Before vTroSvvTas Dhimoz insert Kal. 
* Instead of ex^j, F and Meineke read io-xej. 

^ The so-called " must " (frenzied male) elephant discharges 
an abundance of dark oily matter from two pores in the 
forehead (see " Elephant " in Encyc. Britannica). " True, 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 42-43 

taught to obey commands, some through words of 
command and others through being charmed by 
tunes and drum-beating. Those that are hard to 
tame are rare ; for by nature the elephant is of a 
mild and gentle disposition, so that it is close to a 
rational animal; and some elephants have even 
taken up their riders who had fallen from loss of blood 
in the fight and carried them safely out of the battle, 
while others have fought for, and rescued, those who 
had crept between their fore-legs. And if in anger 
they have killed one of their feeders or masters, 
they yearn after him so strongly that through grief 
they abstain from food and sometimes even starve 
themselves to death. 

43. They copulate and bear young hke horses, 
mostly in the spring. It is breeding- time for the 
male when he is seized with frenzy and becomes 
ferocious ; at that time he discharges a kind of fatty 
matter through the breathing-hole which he has 
beside his temples. ^ And it is breeding-time for the 
females when this same passage is open. They are 
pregnant eighteen months at the most and sixteen 
at the least; and the mother nurses her young six 
years. Most of them live as long as very long-lived 
human beings, and some continue to live even to 
two hundred years, although they are subject to 
many diseases and are hard to cure. A remedy for 
eye diseases is to bathe the eyes with cow's milk; 
but for most diseases they are given dark wine to 
drink; and, in the case of wounds, melted butter 

on occasion male elephants get into the stage called musih, 
the symptoms of which, and possibly the cause, are certain 
head glands. Musth has no connection with sex, although 
this is commonly thought to be the case " (Major A. W. 
Smith, Atlantic Monthly, November 1928, p. 632). 



(i^dyei yap ra aihrjpia), ret S' eXKr) aap^lv veiai^ 
irvptwaiv. ^Ov7j(TiKpiTO<; Be Kal 60)9 rpiaKocrlcov 
irayv ^rjp (pijai, airdviov he /cat e&)9 irevTaKoaiwv, 
KpaTiaTov<; 3' elvac irepl to, StaKoaia err], kvl- 
(TKeaOaL he heKaeriav. jxei^ov^; he tcov Ai/Svkcov 
Kal eppo)/jieve<JTepov<i e/ceLv6<; re etprj/ce Kal dXXor 
Tai<: ovv 7rpo^o(TKL<Ti,v eVaX^^et? KaOaipelv Kal 
hevhpa dvaairav irpoppit^a, hiavKTraiMevov^ et? 
TOL'9 oTTL(j6iov<i TToha^. Niap^o^i he Kal 7rohd>ypa<; 
ev Ta69 Otjpai'i riOecrdat Kard Tiva<^ avvhp6/jL0v<; 
(f)rj(TL, auveXavveaOac 8' virb rcov Tidaaoiv Tov<i 
dypLov<; eh ravTa';, KpeiTTOvwv ovtcov Kal rjvio- 
')(^ovp,evoiiv. ovTco<; 3' evTcOaa-evrov^ elvai, oidie 
Kal XiOd^eiv inl (tkottov fxavddvetp Kal o7rXoi9 
'X^prjadau' vetv re KdXXiara' p^eyiarov re vojjli- 
^eaOaL Krij/Jia iXecpdvrcov dp/xa' dyeaOai S* viro 
i^vyov ^ &)9 ^ Kal KapirjXov^' yvvalKa 5' evhoKcp^elv, 
el Xdffoi irapd epaarov hcopov eXecpavra. ovro^ 
6 X0709 ovx opoXoyel tS) ^rjaavTi p,6v(ov^ ^aai- 
Xecov elvai Krrjpa Tirirov Kal eXecpavTa.^ 

44. Tmv he /jbvpp,7]K(ov tmv ')(^pV(T(t)pv)(cov hep/jiara 

Iheiv (j)T]aiv ovTO<; iraphaXeai'^; op^oia. MeyaaOevr]^ 

C 706 he irepl tojv /jLvpp.ijKcov ovrco (prjalv, on ev Aephai<;, 

eOvei pieydX(p toop Trpoaeaycop Kal opetvwp ^IvhMv, 

opoirehLOv elrj TpL(T)(iXLa}p 7ra)9 top kvkXop aja- 

1 Cvy6v CDF^, C^yS,v other MSS. 

^ ws, Jones inserts from conj. of Tzsehucke and Groskurd ; 
Corais emends koX Kafx-i\\ovs to dxaAiVoys (" without bridles ") ; 
Kramer and Meineke merely place an asterisk before the two 

3 ix6va}v F, fjL6vov other MSS. 

* olros 4\€<pavTa, omitted by moz, is probably a 



GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 43-44 

is applied to them (for it draws out the bits of 
iron), while ulcers are poulticed with swine's flesh. 
Onesicritus says that they live as long as three 
hundred years and in rare cases even as long as five 
hundred; but that they are most powerful when 
about two hundred years of age, and that females 
are pregnant for a period of ten years. And both 
he and others state that they are larger and stronger 
than the Libyan elephants; at any rate, standing 
up on their hind feet, they tear down battlements 
and pull up trees by the roots by means of the 
proboscis. Nearchus says that in the hunt for them 
foot-traps also are put at places where tracks meet, 
and that the wild elephants are driven together into 
these by the tamed ones, which latter are stronger and 
guided by riders ; and that they are so easy to tame 
that they learn to throw stones at a mark and to 
use weapons ; and that they are excellent swimmers ; 
and that a chariot drawn by elephants is considered 
a very great possession, and that they are driven 
under yoke like camels ; ^ and that a woman is 
highly honoured if she receives an elephant as a gift 
from a lover. But this statement is not in agree- 
ment with that of the man who said that horse and 
elephant were possessed by kings alone. ^ 

44. Nearchus says that the skins of gold-mining 
ants are like those of leopards. But Megasthenes 
speaks of these ants as follows : that among the 
Derdae, a large tribe of Indians living towards the 
east and in the mountains, there is a plateau approxi- 
mately three thousand stadia in circuit, and that 

1 On this clause see critical note 

2 § 41 above. 



BicoV v7roK€ifievcov Be tovto) ')(pv(Tcopv)(^ei(ov, ol 
fxeToXkevovTe'i elev /jbvp/j.r]Ke<;, OrjpLa^ aXwrreKcov 
ovK iXdrra}, Tdy^o<^ v7rep(j)V€^ eXovra koI ^(ovra ^ 
aTTO Orjpa^' opvTTet ^ Be yeifioiVL rrjv yrjv, acopevei * 
T€ 7r/309 T0t9 aTO/jiLoi<;, Kaddirep ol da(j)d\aK€<;' 
yjrrjyfjLa ^' earl ')(pvaov fiiKpa^; eyln]a-eco<; Beofjuevov 
Tov6' v7ro^vyLOL<; fjueriaaLV ol 7T\i]cri,6x(^poc XdOpa' 
(fiavepo)^ yap Bia/jid'X^ovTai koI Blcokovo-i (pevyov- 
Ta9, KaTa\a,86vre<; Be Biaxpwvrai, koI avTov<^ 
Kal TCL vTTO^vyia' Trpo? Be to Xadelv icpea 
Orjpeia irpoTiOeaai Kara fxepr), irepiaTraadevTcov 
5' dvaipovvrai to -^rjyfia koX tov tu^oi^to? 
TOt? i/jL7r6poi<; dpyov BiaTiOevTai, %&>i^eueiz/ ovk 


45. 'Evrei 3' ev tm irepl tcov OrjpevTcov \6y(p Kal 
irepl TCOV drjpLcov ifivijaOy/juev, wv re M6yacr0evr]<; 
etTre /cal oXXol, izpoadeTeov Kal TavTa. 6 fxev 
yap Neapxo'i to tcov epircTcov Oavfidtei iT\rjOo<^ 
Kal TTjv KaKLav dvacftevyeiv yap eK tmv ireBlcov 
et? Ta9 KaT0iKia<; ra? Bia\avOavov(7a<; ev Tal^ 
iiriKXvaeai Kal irXr^povv tovs oiKov<;' Bid Brj 
tovto Kal vyfrrjXd<; Troieladai Td<; yXiva^;, ecTTt 
K 0T6 Kal i^oLKL^eaOai irXeovaadvTcov' el Be fxr) 
TO TToXij Tou TrXrjdov<; vtto tmv vBdTcov Bie^OeipeTOy 
Kav €p7)fjLcoOr]vaL ttjv ')(^copav, Kal ttjv fiLKpoTrjTa 
S* avTcbv elvat x^Xeiryv Kal ttjv VTrep/BoXrjv tov 
fjueyeOov^it ttjv fjuev Bid to BvacjivXaKTOV, ttjv Be Bi* 

1 0r]pia, Kramer and later editors, for drjpicav. 

2 exovra kuI (uvTUf Kramer and later editors, for exovTis 

^ opvTTovcn YjJi. 

* (r»p€vov(Ti K, d<nrA\aK€5 Xylander and other editors 
before Kramer. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 44-45 

below it are gold mines, of which the miners are 
ants, animals that are no smaller than foxes, are 
surpassingly swift, and live on the prey they catch. 
They dig holes in winter and heap up the earth at 
the mouths of the holes, like moles ; ^ and the gold- 
dust requires but little smelting. The neighbouring 
peoples go after it on beasts of burden by stealth, 
for if they go openly the ants fight it out with them 
and pursue them when they flee, and then, having 
overtaken them, exterminate both them and their 
beasts ; but to escape being seen by the ants, the 
people lay out pieces of flesh of wild beasts at 
different places, and when the ants are drawn away 
from around the holes, the people take up the gold- 
dust and, not knowing how to smelt it, dispose of it 
unwrought to traders at any price it will fetch. 

45. But since, in my account of the hunters and 
of the wild beasts, I have mentioned what both 
Megasthenes and others have said, I must go on to 
add the following. Nearchus wonders at the number 
of the reptiles and their viciousness, for he says that 
at the time of the inundations they flee up from the 
plains into the settlements that escape the inunda- 
tions, and fill the houses ; and that on this account, 
accordingly, the inhabitants not only make their 
beds high, but sometimes even move out of their 
houses when infested by too many of them ; and that 
if the greater part of the multitude of reptiles were 
not destroyed by the waters, the country would be 
depopulated; and that the smallness of some of 
them is troublesome as well as the huge size of others, 
the small ones because it is difficult to guard against 
them, and the huge ones because of their strength, 

^ A species of the Spalacidae. 



la)(yv, OTTOV Koi 6KKaiSeKa7r7]^ei<; €)(lhva<i opaaOaf 
iTTwBov^i Be 7T€pi([)0iTav laadai TreirKTTevfjLipovf;, 
Kol elvau (T')(eB6v rt fiovrjv Tavrrjv laTpiKi]v' jjbrjSk 
yap v6(T0v<; elvai TroXXa? Sia rrjv XiTOTtjra rr)? 
SiaLTT]'; Kol Tr]v aoLviav' el he yevoLvro, IdaOai 
Tom ao(f)LaTd<;, ^AptarojSovXo^; Be tmv OpvXov- 
pievcov jxeyeOoiv ovBev IBelv cf)rj(nv, e^i^ovav Be fjuovov 
evvea irrj^c^v koX a7n6a/jLrj<i, kol r)p,eL<s B' ev 
AlyvTTTtp KOfiLdOelaav eKeWev rrjXtKavTijv tto)? 
elBofxev. e^ei9 Be 7r6Wov<; (f)r]at ttoXv eXarTOU? 
Kal uaTTiBa^i, aKop7rLov<; Be fieyd\ov<;, ovBev Be 
TouToyv ovTo)^ 6)(\elv &)? tcl XeTrra o^eiBia, ov 
pei^o) ainOap.ialwv' evpiaKeaOai yap ev aKr]val<;, 
ev GKeveaiv, ev dpiyyoU ^ eyKe/cpvfMfieva, tov<; Be 
TrXrjyevraf; alfioppoelv etc 7ravT0<; iropov fiera 
iTTcoBwla^i, eirena aTroOvrja-Keiv, el p^r] ffoTjdrjaei 
ri<: evdu^' ttjv Be porjOeiav paBiav elvai Bia rr)v 
C 707 dperrjv tcdv 'IvBikmv pi^MV Kal (f)app,dKwv. KpoKO- 
BeiXov^ T€ ovre ttoXXov'; ovre ^XairTLKoix; avOpco- 
iTwv ev Tw ^IvBw (f>r)cnv evpLaKecrOai, Kal tcl dXXa 
Be foxx ra irXeiara rd avrd direp ev tw NetXo) 
yevvdadai ttXtjv Ilttttov TrorapLLOV. ^OvrjaiKpiTO^; 
Be Kal TOVTOV (ftrjac yevvdadai. roiv S' e/c 
OaXdTTr}<; (j)7]alv 6 ^ApLaro/SovXof; el<; pLev top 
NeTXov dvarpexeiv pur^Bev efo) OpLaarjf; Kal Kea- 
rpecof; Kal BeX(pivo<; Bid tou9 KpoKoBeiXov<;, ev 

^ Instead of ^^^77075, QiyYjFhisw read 0pyo<s ("rushes ") ; 
X reads Opiyyiois, and Corais dpiyKols. 

1 Or " baggage." ^ See critical note. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 45 

inasmuch as vipers even sixteen cubits long are to be 
seen ; and that charmers go around who are beheved 
to cure the wounds ; and that this is almost the only 
art of medicine, for the people do not have many 
diseases on account of the simplicity of their diet 
and their abstinence from wine ; but that if diseases 
arise, they are cured by the Wise Men. But Aristo- 
bulus says that he saw none of the animals of the 
huge size that are everywhere talked about, except 
a viper nine cubits and one span long. And I myself 
saw one of about the same size in Aegypt that had 
been brought from India. He says that you have 
many much smaller vipers, and asps, and large 
scorpions, but that none of these is so troublesome 
as the slender little snakes that are no more than a 
span long, for they are found hidden in tents, in 
vessels,^ and in hedges ^ ; and that persons bitten 
by them bleed from every pore with anguish, and 
then die unless they receive aid immediately ; but 
that aid is easy because of the virtue of the Indian 
roots and drugs. He says further that crocodiles, 
neither numerous nor harmful to man, are to be 
found in the Indus, and also that most of the other 
animals are the same as those which are found in 
Xthe Nile except the hippopotamus. Onesicritus, how- 
ever, says that this animal too is found in India. And 
Aristobulus says that on account of the crocodiles 
no sea-fish swim up into the Nile except the thrissa,^ 
the cestreus,'^ and the dolphin,^ but that there is a 

' Apparently of the genus Trichiuridae (cutlass fish), or 
else Engraulidae (small herring-like fish used for pickling and 

* Apparently of the genus Mugilidae (grey mullets). 

^ The dolphin, however, is a mammal, not a fish. 



0€ T(p \vh(p 7r\rjOo<;' tmv Se KapcScov ra? /jLcv 
/j,iKpa<; fie^^pc opovg ^ dvaOeiv, ra? Se pL€ydXa<; 
P'expL TOiv av/x^o\(Dv roO re 'IvSov koI tov 
A/cecTLVov. irepl fiev ovv rcov Orjpicov roaavra 
Xeyerai' iiraviovre^ S' eVl tov MeyaaOivr) 
Xeywfiev ra ef?}?, mv d7reXi7rop.ev. 

46. Mera yap rov^ Orjpevrdf; koI tov<; Trof/xeVa? 
reraprov <f>r]ai,v elvai fiepo^ roi)? ipya^op^evov^i 
ra? re^vcL^ fcal tov<; KUTrrjXiKOv^ /cal oh diro tov 
aa)fjLaT0<i rj epyaaia' a)v ol /xev (f>6pov TeXovat koI 
XeiTOVpylas Trape^ovTai, ra/cra?, to?9 8' oirXoiroi- 
oi? Kal vav-jTiiyols pLiaBol Kal Tpocpal irapa 
^aaiXeco^ eKKeuvTai' /lovq) yap ipyd^ovTar 
irapexec ^e to, fiev oirXa tol<; crr/^aT^coTat? o 
(TTpaTOipvXa^y ra? Be vav<; fjuLcrOov rot? irXeovdLV 6 
vavapyp^ Kal Tol<i ifjuTropoL'^. 

47. YiefjLirTov S' ^ eVrt to twi/ iroXeinaToyv, oU 
TOV aXXov ')(^p6vov iv a^oXy Kal itotol^; 6 ^io^ 
eaTLV, eK tov ^aaiXiKOV SLatToyp-ivoi^, cocttc Ta<; 
i^68ov(;, OTav fj^ X/o^ta, Ta-x^ew^ iroLelaOai, vrXtju 
Tcbv aco/jLaToyv firjBev dXXo Ko/jLL^ovTa^ Trap* 


48. "Eacto^ 8' elalv ol ecpopoc tovtol'^ 8' iiroTT- 
Teveiv SeBoTttL tcl irpaTTopueva Kal dvayyeXXetv 
XdOpa T& ^aaiXei, avvepyou<i 7rocovp.evoc<; Ta<; 
6TaLpa<;, rot? p,ev iv Ty iroXei Td<i iv ti] iroXei, 
TOi? he iv (JTpaTOTreBu) Td<; avToOu' KaOLaTavTai 
K ol apiaroL Kal iriaTOTaTOi. 

^ For opovs, Groskurd conj. tmv opuv, Corais Ovpuv. 

2 S', before iarl, Meineke inserts. ^ ■p z, eiri other MSS. 

^ Of the genus Caridea (shrimp, prawns, and the like). 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. 1.45-48 

large number of different fish in the Indus. Of the 
carides,'^ the small ones swim up the Indus only as 
far as a mountain,^ but the large ones as far as the 
confluence of the Indus and the Acesines. So much, 
then, is reported about the wild animals. Let me 
now return to Megasthenes and continue his account 
from the point where I left off. 

46. After the hunters and the shepherds, he says, 
follows the fourth caste — the artisans, the tradesmen, 
and the day-labourers ; and of these, some pay 
tribute to the state and render services prescribed 
by the state, whereas the armour-makers and ship- 
builders receive wages and provisions, at a published 
scale, from the king, for these work for him alone ; 
and arms are furnished the soldiers by the com- 
mander-in-chief, whereas the ships are let out for 
hire to sailors and merchants by the admiral. 

47. The fifth caste is that of the warriors, who, 
when they are not in service, spend^'tHeir^ives in 
idleness and at drinking-bouts, being maintained at 
the expense of the royal treasury ; so that they make 
their expeditions quickly when need arises, since 
they bring nothing else of their own but their bodies. 

48. The sixth is that of the insgectorg,^ to whom 
it is given to inspect what is being done and report 
secretly to the king, using the courtesans as col- 
leagues, the city inspectors using the city courtesans 
and the camp inspectors the camp courtesans ; but 
the best and most trustworthy men are appointed to 
this office. 

2 "A mountain" is unintelligible. The only plausible 
emendations yield " the mountains " or " the Uri " (a people 
mentioned by Pliny 6. 20, 23). See critical note. 

^ i.e. of political and military officials. 



49. ''Fi^Bo/jLoi S' 01 (TVjx^ovXoL fcal avvehpoi rov 
ySacrtXeo)?, ef a)V ra ap^ela koI hLKaarrjpia kol rj 
BLolKr]aL<i TO)V oKwv. ovk €<ttl S' out€ ya/melv ef 
dXXov ry6Vov<; ovr eTriTrjBevfia ovt^ ipyacrlav 
/jLeraXa/jL^dvetv dWrjv ef d\Xr)<;, ovBe TrXetou? 
/jL€Ta^€ipL^€a-OaL TOP avTov, ttXtjv 6t TCOV (J)lXo- 
a6<j)(ov Tt? e'i'r]' idaOai yap tovtov Be aperrjv. 

50. Twz/ 8' ap^ovTcov ol fxev elaiv dyopavo/uLoc, 

01 5' daTVVOfjLOl, ol S' iirl TMV (TTpaTlWTMV' OdV ol 

fi€P 7roTajjLov<; i^epyd^ovrac koI dpafierpovai rrjv 
yfjv, 0)9 iv Alyvirrq), /cal ra? KXeiard^; Si,(opvya<;, 
d<f> o)v eh rdf; 6)(^eT€La<; Ta/nteveTai to vScop, 
iina-KOTrovcnv, oirco^ ef Xa7)<:; Trdaiv rj rcov vBdrcov 
C 708 irapelr) ^PW'''^' ol h' avrol koX tcop drjpevrayv 
iiTL/JieXovPTai Kal ri/jL7J<; /cal KoXdae(t)<; elai KvpLOL 
TOL<; eTTa^ioL^' Kal (f)opoXoyouat Be Kal rd^ Te')(i>a'^ 
Ta? irepl ttjp yrjp eTTi^XeTTOvaiP, vXaro/jLcop, 
reKTOPcop, ')(^aXKewp ; fieTaXXevrcop' oBoiroiovat, Be 
Kal Kara BeKa ardBia arijXrjp TiOiaat, rd^; 
€KTp07rd<i Kal rd BiaarTTj/jLara BriXovaap. 

51. 0/ 6' darvpo/jLOL el<; ef 7rePTdBa<; Btypi^PTar 
Kal ol fiep rd BrifjuovpyiKd aKorrovatP, ol Be 
^epoBo^ovatP' Kal ydp Karaywyd^ pe/xovai Kal 
Tot? 0LOi<i irapaKoXovOovai, TrapeBpov; B6pTe<;, 
Kal TT poire fiTTOvatp rj avrov^ rj rd '^p'^fiaTa tmp 

^ The " city commissioners " {doTvvoixoi) at Athens (ten in 
number) had charge of the police, the streets, and the public 

2 i.e. the market commissioners. 

3 i.e. when the inundations destroyed the landmarks. 
* See § 40 above. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 1.49-51 

49. The seventh is that of the advisersu and coun- 
cillors of the king, who hold the chief offices of state, 
the judgeships, and the administration of every- 
thing. It is not Jegal^fbr^a man either to marry a 
wife from another caste or to change one's pursuit 
or work from one to another ; nor yet for the same 
man to engage in several, except in case he should 
be one of the philosophers, for, Megasthenes says, 
the philosopher is permitted to do so on account of 
his superiority. 

50. Of the officials, some are market commissioners, 
others are city commissioners, ^ and others are in 
charge of the soldiers. Among these, the first ^ keep 
the rivers improved and the land remeasured,^ as 
in Aegyj)tj and inspect the closed canals from which 
the water is distributed into the conduits, in order 
that all may have an equal use of it. The same men 
also have charge of the hunters and are authorized 
to reward or punish those who deserve either. They 
also collect the taxes * and superintend the crafts 
connected with the land — those of wood-cutters, 
carpenters, workers in brass, and miners. And they 
make roads, and at every ten stadia place pillars 
showing the by-roads and the distances. 

51. The city commissioners are divided into six 
groups of five each. One group looks after the arts 
of the handicraftsmen. Another group entertains 
strangers, for they assign them lodgings, follow 
closely their behaviour, giving them attendants,^ 
and either escort them forth or forward the prop- 
erty ^ of those who die ; and they take care of 

^ i.e. partly as advisers, partly as spies (Tozer, op. cit., 
p. 320). 

• i.e. to their relatives. 



aiToOavovrcov, vodovvrcov re eTri/neXovvTaL koI 
aTToOavovra^i OaTrrovai. Tpirov S' elaiv, o'l ra? 
y€V6(T€i,<; Kol Oavdrov; i^erd^ovai, irore koI ttw?, 
tS)v re (f>6pci)v X^P^^ ^^'' ottw? fji-rj d(j)av€L<; elev 
ai KpeiTTOvf; koX x^ipovi yoval Kal OdvaTOi, 
rerapTOL 3' ^ ol irepl Ta<; KairrfKeiaf; Kal ixera- 
fio\d<i' oh /JLCTpcov fiiXet Kal rcov oapaicov, otto)? 
diro (Tvacrrjflov ttcoXolto. ovk ecrri 8e TrXeico rov 
avTOv fieTa^dWecrOaL, irXrjp el StTTOu? vTroreXoLi] 
<l)6pov<i, Tre/xTTTOf S* ol 7rpoe<TTa)T€<i tmv Brj/jLLOvp- 
yovfiivayv Kal TrwXowre? ravr diro ava(7rjp,ov, 
X^pl^ M^^ T^ tcaivd, %a)/9t9 ^€ rd iraXaid' rw 
fjLLyvvvTL he ^rj/jula. cktol Be Kal vcnaroL ol ra? 
SeKdra<; €KX€yovTe<: tmv TrcoXov/jiipcov' 6dvaT0<; he 
Tft) KXeyjravTL to TeXo<;. IBla fjuev eKacrroL ravra, 
KOLvfi 6' eirifLeXovvTai tmv re 18lq)v Kal tmv 
ttoXltikoov Kal Tr}<; rSyv Brj/jLOorlcov e7n(TKev7j<;, 
TLfjLOiv ^ re Kal dyopd<; Kal Xifievwv Kal lepcov. 

52. Mera Be tov<; da-rvvofiov^i Tpirr] earl 
avvapxlcL V irepl rd arparicoTiKd, Kal avrrj rah 
irevrdaiv e^axV Bicopia/jievT}' o)v rrjv fxev /nerd 
rov vavdpxov rdrrovac, rrjv Be puerd rov eirl r(ov 
jSoLKcov ^evycop, Bi a)v opyava KopuL^eraL Kal 
rpo(f)r) auTOt? re Kal Krrjvedi Kal rd dXXa rd 
XPV^i'pi'Ci' rr}<; arparid^. ovroL Be Kal rov<i Bia- 

^ 5', before ot, Meineke inserts. 

2 Ti/xu>y, Meineke (following conj. of Kramer), emends to 

^ i.e. "the stamp impressed on weights and measures," 
which were " tested every six months " (Tozer, op. cif., p. 320, 
quoting Lassen, op. cit., II. p. 572). 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 51-52 

them when they are sick and bury them when they 
die. The third group is that of those who scrutinize 
births and deaths, when and how they take place, 
both for the sake of taxes and in order that births 
and deaths, whether better or worse, may not be 
unknown. The fourth group is that which has to 
do with sales and barter; and these look after 
measures and the fruits of the season, that the latter 
may be sold by stamp. ^ But the same man cannot 
barter more than one thing without paying double 
taxes. The fifth group is that of those who have 
charge of the works made by artisans and sell these 
by stamp, the new apart from the old ; and the man 
who mixes them is fined. The sixth and last group 
is that of those who collect a tenth part of the price 
of the things sold ; and death is the penalty for thte 
man who steals. ^ These are the special duties per- 
formed by each group, but they all take care jointly 
of matters both private and public, and of the 
repairs of public works, of prices,^ market-places, 
harbours, and temples. 

52. After the city commissioners there is a third 
joint administration, in charge of military affairs, 
which is also divided into six groups of five each. 
Of these groups, one is stationed with the admiral ; 
another with the man in charge of the ox-teams, by 
which are transported instruments of war and food 
for both man and beast and all other requisites of 
the army. These also furnish the menials, I mean 

2 i.e. the taxpayer who cheats the government. 

3 Meineke emends the Greek word for " prices " to that for 
" walls " (see critical note), thus making " walls, market- 
places, harbours, and temples " in apposition with " public 



/covov^ Trapi^ovdiy rvfjuravLcrrdf;, KcoScovocj^opov^, 
en Be teal LTnroKo/JLov^; kol fjurj-^avoiroiov'; koX tou? 
TOVTCov V7rrjpera<;' eKTreixirovai re tt/jo? K(oh(ova<; 
TOL'9 x^P'^^^^y^^'^* '^^I^V '^^^ KoXdaei to Ta;^;©? 
KaraaKeva^ofievoi koI ttjv do-cpdXeiav. Tpirot he 
elaLV ol TMV ire^wv iiri/JieXovfMevor reraproL 5' ol 
Tcbv LTTTTcov' TrifiTTToi 8* dpp^drwv' eKTOL hk iXe- 
(j)dvT(ov. jSaaiXiKOL re crraOfiol kol tTrvrot? fcal 
C 709 OrjpLoif;, PaaiXiKov le koX oirXocpvXdKLov irapa- 
llBwat yap 6 arparLooTr)^ TtjV re aKevrjv et? to 

67rX0(j)vXdKl0V KOI top 'lTTTTOV 6i9 TOP llTTTOiVa KoX 

TO Orjpiop 6fioLco<i' %/o&) I/Tat 8' dxaXivooTOK;. rd 
S' dp/juara ev raU 6Bol<; ^6e<; eXKovaiv, ol Be 
IfinroL aTTO (pop/Seidf; dyovrat rov fir) irapepLiri- 
nrpaadai rd a/ceXr), /jurjBe to irpoOup^ov avrcov 
TO v'TTo T0fc9 dpjjLaaiv dp,^Xvve(Tdai. Bvo S' elcrlv 
iirl T(p dp/xari irapaPdrai 7rp6<; t« r}vi6x<p' ^ ^^ 
Tou €Xe(j}av70<; r^vloxo^ TeVa/JTo?, T/^et? 5* ol dir 
avTov TO^evovTe<i. 

53. EuTeXet? Be Kara rrjv Blairav^lvBol irdvTe^, 
fxaXXov 8' ev Tat? arpareiaL^' ovB^ ^X^V '^^pi'''"TV 
XCiipovai' Bioirep ev/coap,ovat. irXeia tt] B^ Ik e^^i'- 
pia irepl Ta? fcXoird^;' yevo/jievo^i ^ yovv ev tm 
XavBpoKOTTOV (TTpaTOTTeBcp (f)7](T\v 6 ^Ieyaa0ev7)<;, 
TerrapaKOVTa p^vpidBcov ttXtjOov^; IBpvpievov, fii^Be- 
jxiav rjp,epav IBetv dvrjveyp^eva KXepL/xara TrXetoi^cov 
T) BiaKoaLoov Bpaxfxoiv d^ia, dypd<f)Oi<; Koi ravra 
vofjLOi'; %pft)/zeVot9. ovBe yap ypdp^para elBevai 

1 yevSjufvos, Tzschucke and later editors, for y^vo/xfj/ovs. 

^ i.e. the elephants. 2 ^ g Qf royal ownership. 

3 i.e. before they are used in battle. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 52-53 

drum-beaters, gong-carriers, as also grooms and 
machinists and their assistants ; and they send forth 
the foragers to the sound of bells, and effect speed 
and safety by means of reward and punishment. 
The third group consists of those in charge of the 
infantry ; the fourth, of those in charge of the horses ; 
the fifth, of those in charge of the chariots ; and the 
sixth, of those in charge of the elephants. The stalls 
for both horses and beasts ^ are royal,^ and the 
armoury is also royal ; for the soldier returns the 
equipment to the armoury, the horse to the royal 
horse-stable, and likewise the beast; and they use 
them without bridles. The chariots are drawn on 
the march by oxen ; but the horses are led by halter, 
in order that their legs may not be chafed by harness, 
and also that the spirit they have when drawing 
chariots may not be dulled.^ There are two com- 
batants in each chariot in addition to the charioteer ; 
but the elephant carries four persons, the driver and 
three bowmen, and these three shoot arrows from 
the elephant's back. 

53. All Indians live a simple life, and especially 
when they are on expeditions ; and neither do they 
enjoy useless disturbances ; and on this account they 
behave in an orderly manner. But their greatest 
self-restraint pertains to theft ; at any rate, Megas- 
thenes says that when he was in the camp of 
Sandrocottus, although the number in camp was 
forty thousand, he on no day saw reports of stolen 
articles that were worth more than two hundred 
drachmae; and that too among a people who use] 
unwritten laws only. For, he continues, they have*^ 
no knowledge of written letters,* and regulate every 

* But cf. § 67 (below). 



avTOv^, aXV airo fivij/jbijf; e/caara BiotKeta-Oar 
eviTpayelv^ 8' OyLto)? Sta rrjv airXoTTjra koX ttjv 
evrekeiav dlvov re 7a/) ov Trlveiv, aX)C iv 6vaiai<; 
fjLovoVy TTiveiv 8' ttTr' 6pv^7]<; avrl KpiOlvcov avvri- 
Oevraf;' Ka\ atria he to TrXiov opv^av elvai 
pocfyrjTijv. Kol iv Tot9 v6fjL0i<; Be koX o-v/jL^oXatoi^ 
rr)v dirXorrjTa e\e7%6cr^ai ex rov fxr) TroXvhiicov^ 
elvat' ovre yap vttoOjjktj^; ^ oure 7rapaKaTadrJKr)<; 
elvai hLKa<;, ovSe fiaprvpcov ov8e a<ppaylBcov avrot<; 
Betv, aWa TTiaTeveLV Trapa/SaWo/xevov^;' /cal ra 
OLKOL 8e TO ir\eov d^povpelv. Tavra jxev Brj 
acocppoviKa, rdWa 8' ovS* ^ dv Tt? dirohe^aiTO' 
TO /jl6vov<; BiaiTdaOai del kol to ixtj fxiav elvai 
irdaiv Mpav KOivrjv BeiTTVov re /cal dpia-jov, dXs! 

OTTO)? €Kd<7T0t) ^iXoV TT/OO? ydp TOV KOLVCOVLKOV Kal 

rov TToXirLKov /Slov €KeLV(o<; /cpelrrov. 

54. Tvjjivao-Lcov^ Be jjbdXiara rpl^^iv Bokl- 
/jLa^ovai, Kal dXX(o<; Kal Bid aKuraXlBcov effevivcov 
Xeicov e^ojjLaXi^ovrai rd aciojiiara. Xcral Be Kal 
at ratpal Kal fxiKpd ')(^(OfjLara. virevavrlcoi; Be ry 
dXXrj Xir6rr]ri Koafiovvrai. ')(^pvao^opovai yap 
Kal BiaXidcp Koajxtp %/oa)z/Tai aivBova^; re (popovaiv 
evavdel<; Kal (TKidBia avrol^ eirerar ro yap 
KaXXo^ rifjL(ovre<; daKovaiv oaa KaXXcdiri^ei rrjv 
6^\rtv. dXrjOeidv re ojiolco^ Kal dperrjv diro- 
Bexovrar Bioirep ovBe rfj rjXiKLa rcov yepovrcov 
irpovofiiav BiBoaaiv, dv firj Kal tm (ppoveiv irXeo- 

^ evirpayiiv F, tv irpOLTreiv other MSS. 

2 vTro64\Kr)s, Tyrwhitt and later editors. {ovJvid-fjK-ns. 

3 Instead of oi»5', rnxz and Corais and Meineke read ovk. 

* TvfjLvaalwv E, Tvixvdffiov other MSS. ; so Corais and 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 53-54 

single thing from memory ; but still they fare happily, 
because of their simplicity and their frugality ; and 
indeed they do not drink wine, except at sacrifices, 
but drink a beverage which they make from rice 
instead of barley ; ^ and also that their food consists 
for the most part of rice porridge ; and their sim- 
plicity is also proven in their laws and contracts, 
which arises from the fact that they are not litigious ; 
for they do not have lawsuits over either pledges or 
deposits, or have need of witnesses or seals, but 
trust persons with whom they stake their interests ; 
and further, they generally leave unguarded what 
they have at their homes. Now these things tend 
to sobriety ; but no man could approve those other 
habits of theirs — of always eating alone and of not 
having one common hour for all for dinner and 
breakfast instead of eating as each one likes ; for 
eating in the other way is more conducive to a social 
and civic life. 

54. For exercise they approve most of all of rub- 
bing ; and, among other ways, they smooth out their 
bodies through means of smooth sticks of ebony. 
Their funerals are simple and their mounds small. 
But, contrary to their simplicity in general, they 
like to adorn themselves ; for they wear apparel 
embroidered with gold, and use ornaments set with 
precious stones, and wear gay-coloured linen gar- 
ments, and are accompanied with sun-shades ; for, 
since they esteem beauty, they practise everything 
that can beautify their appearance. Further, they 
respect alike virtue and truth ; and therefore they 
give no precedence even to the age of old men, 
unless these are also superior in wisdom. They 

^ " Arrack " is the name of this beverage. 



V€KTM<Ti. TToWa? Be yajubOvcTiv wvr]Ta^ irapa tmv 
yovicov, Xafi/SdvovaL re di'TiSiBovTe^; ^€vyo<; fioMV, 
o)V rd<; fiev evireiOeia^;^ ')(^dpLV, ia<i h^ d\Xa<; 
r)hovrj<^ Kal 7ro\vT€KVLa<;' el Be /nr) awtppovetv 
C 710 dvayKaaacev, TTopveveiv e^ea-ri. Ovei Be ovBel'i 
eaT6<f)ava)fjL€P0'; ovBe Ovfiia ovBe (nrevBety ovBe 
acfxiTTovai, to lepelov, dWd irvLyovaiv, Xva firj 
XeXco^rj/jLCVov, dX}C oXoKXrjpov BtBcorai rw Oew. 
'^evBofxapTVpia^; 5' 6 akov<; aKpcoTijpid^erai, 6 re 
'TT7)p(i}(Ta<i ov rd avrd /jlovop avrLTrda^ei, dWd 
Kal ')(et,pOK07r€LTaL' edv Be Kal Te^z^trof %et/9a rj 
6(l)Oa\fi6v d^ekrjTai, Oavarovrai. Bov\oi,<i Be 
ovTo<; iJiev ^rjai fiijBeva 'IvBmv %/??)(r^at, 'Oi^/;- 
(jiKpLTO^ Be T(OP ev rfi M.ovaiKavov tovt IBiov 
diTOc^alveL, Kal ft)9 Karopdco/jbd ye' KaOdirep Kal 
dWa TToWd XeyeL rr)? %ft)/3a9 ravrii^; KaropOd)- 
fiaTa, (09 evvofioiTjiTTy;, 

55. To) ffaaiXel S' /; fjuev rod (Td)fiaTO<; depaireia 
Bid yvvacKCdv icrriv, ojvtjtmv Kal avrcov irapa tmu 
TraTepcov e^co Be t^v Ovpcou ol (Tco/jLaro(l)v\aKe^ 
Kal TO \oLiTov (TrpaTKOTiKov fieOvovra Be KTeivaaa 
yvvT) /3aat\ea yepa<; ex^i' avvelvai tw eKelvov 
BiaBe^afieva)' BiaBe^ovraL 8' ol iralBe^. ovB' 
vTTVol fJueO^ rjfiepav 6 ffacnXev^, Kal vvKTwp Be 
Kad^ wpav dvayKd^erai ttjv kolttjv dXXdrreiv Bid 
ra? eiTt^ovXd^. rcov re /nr) ^ Kara iroXefJiOV ef o- 
Bwv /Jbta fjbev ecTTiv rj eirl ra? Kplaei^, ev ah 

^ eviraOelas i. 

2 rwv re ^7), Corais and later editors, for twv ye fi-fiv. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 54-55 

marry many wives, whom they purchase from their 
parents, and they get them in exchange for a yoke 
of oxen, marrying some of them for the sake of 
prompt obedience and the others for the sake of 
pleasure and numerous offspring ; but if the husband 
does not force them to be chaste, they are permitted 
to prostitute themselves. No one wears a garland 
when he makes sacrifice or burns incense or pours 
out a libation; neither do they cut the throat of 
the victim, but strangle it, in order that it may be 
given to the god in its entirety and not mutilated. 
Anypne_caught guilty of false-witness has his hands 
and feet cut off, and anyone who maims a person 
not only suffers in return the same thing, but also 
has his hands cut off; and if he causes the loss of a 
hand or an eye of a craftsman, he is put to death. 
But although Megasthenes says that no Indian uses 
slaves, Onesicritus declares that slavery is peculiar 
to the Indians in the country of Musicanus, and tells 
what a success it is there, just as he mentions many 
other successes of this country, speaking of it as a 
country excellently governed. 

55. Now the care of the king's person is com- 
mitted to women, who also are purchased from their 
parents ; and the body-guards and the rest of the 
military force are stationed outside the gates. And 
a woman who kills a king when he is drunk receives 
as her reward the privilege of consorting with his 
successor ; and their children succeed to the throne. 
Again, the king does not sleep in daytime ; and 
even at night he is forced to change his bed from 
time to time because of the plots against him. 
Among the non-military departures he makes from 
his palace, one is that to the courts, where he spends 



Scrj/jLepevei BiaKovcov ovBev rjrrov kolv &pa yevrjraL 
T?79 Tov (T(i)/jLaTo<; 6epaiTeLa<;. avrr] S* iarlv r] Sia 
T(ov <TKVTa\l8(i)V rplyjrK; (afJLa yap Koi Bia/covei 
Kol rpi^erai rerrdpcov irepLaravrcov rpi/Sicov), 
erepa B' iarlv rj eirl 7a<; 6vaLa<^ e^oBo<;. TpiT7] 3' 
eirl drjpav ^aKyjLKr] Tt9, KVK\(p yvvaiKMv irepi- 
Kex^fievcoVf e^coOev Be TOiv Bopv^epwv' irape- 
a^^olviarat 8' rj 6B6<;, rw Be irapeXdovrc evT6<; ^ 
fiexpt' yvvaLK&v Odvaro^' Trporjyovprai, Be rvfjura- 
vicrral kol KcoBcovocpopot. Kvprjyerel B' ev fiev 
T0fc9 TrepKJypdyfiaaiv dwo fftj/naro^; ro^eveov {irape- 
GTOLdi K evoirXot Bvo rj rpel^ yvvaiKe^), iv Be Tat<; 
d^pdKTOi<; 6rjpaL<i dir^ e\e<^avTO<^' at Be yvi'al/c6<i 
at jxev €0' dpixdrayv, at 8' e^'' lttttcov, al Be koi eV 
€\e(l)dvTa)v, co? /cat avarparevovo-iv, rjaKrjpjevai 
wavrl ottXo). 

56. "Ep^et fjuev ovv koi ravra ttoWtjv drjOeiav 
7r/309 TCL irap rjpXvy en /jbevroi fidWov ra roidBe. 
(j)rjal yap rov^ Kav/caaov OLKovvTa^ ev tw (f)av€pa> 
yvvuL^l p^iayeaOat Kal aapKo<f>ayelv ra icav 
(Tvyyevcav aoop^ara' TrerpoKvXLaTa^; B^ elvai /cep/co- 
7Ti0^fcov<;, 01 XiOov<; KaTaKvXCovat Kprjp^vo^ar- 
ovvre^i eirl tol'? Bia)/covTa<i' rd re irap r]plv 
TjpLepa ^wa rd TrXelara Trap* eKetvoi^ dypia elvar 
i'ttttol'? t€ Xeyei fiovoKepwra^ iXa(poKpdvov<;' 
KaXdfJLOV^ Be, fJbrJKO<i fxev rptdKovra bpyvcMV tov<; 
C 711 opOiOv^;, Tov^ Be ')(^ap,aLicXLve'l<i irevTTjKovra, Trd^o'^ 
Be, Mare rrjv BidfxeTpov TOt? fiev elvai rpLTrrj^i^v, 
rot? Be BiTrXaaiav. 

^ 4kt6s CUFmosw. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 55-56 

the whole day hearing cases to the end, none the 
less even if the hour comes for the care of his person. 
This care of his person consists of his being rubbed 
with sticks of wood, for while he is hearing the 
cases through, he is also rubbed by four men who 
stand around him and rub him. A second departure 
is that to the sacrifices. A third is that to a kind of 
Bacchic chase wherein he is surrounded by women, 
and, outside them, by the spear-bearers. The road 
is lined with ropes ; and death is the penalty for 
anyone who passes inside the ropes to the women; 
and they are preceded by drum-beaters and gong- 
carriers. The king hunts in the fenced enclosures, 
shooting arrows from a platform in his chariot (two 
or three armed women stand beside him), and also 
in the unfenced hunting-grounds from an elephant; 
and the women ride partly in chariots, partly on 
horses, and partly on elephants, and they are 
equipped with all kinds of weapons, as they are when 
they go on military expeditions with the men. 

56. Now these customs are very novel as com- 
pared with our own, but the following are still 
more so. For example, Megasthenes says that the 
men who inhabit the Caucasus have intercourse with 
the women in the open and that they eat the bodies 
of their kinsmen ; and that the monkeys are stone- 
roHers, and, haunting precipices, roll stones down 
upon their pursuers ; and that most of the animals 
which are tame in our country are wild in theirs. 
And he mentions horses with one horn and the head 
of a deer; and reeds, some straight up thirty 
fathoms in length, and others lying flat on the 
ground fifty fathoms, and so large that some are 
three cubits and others six in diameter. 



57. 'Tirepe/CTrLTTTov 8' iirl to /jlvOmB€(; irevra- 
(T7nOdfiov<i av6p(i)7rov<; \eyei zeal TpLfnTiOd/jbov<;, 
wv Tiva<i dfiVKTTjpaf;, dva7rvoa<; €)(OVTa<; /xovov Bvo 
vTTep Tov aTOfiaTO^i' irpo^ Be tou? rpi(T'7n0d/jLOv<i 
TToXe/jLov elvai ral^; j€pdvoL<; {ov kul "Opbripov 
Brfkovv) Kol TOL<; TrepBi^iv, ov<; XV^o/aeyeOei^; elvar 
rovTOV<; 8' etckeyeiv avrojv rd wd koI ^deipeiv, 
iK€L yap oiOTOKelv rd^; yepdvov<i' Bioirep fir]Bap.ov 
/jbijr '^ coa evpia-KeaOaL yepdvcov, firjr ovp veoTTLa* 
7r\€i(TTdKi<; S' i/cirLTTTeiv yepavov ')(^a\Krjv 6')(ov(Tav 
aKiBa diro rcav CKecOev TrXrjy/jidTcov. oi^oia Be 
Koi rd Trepl tmv ^Rvcoto/coitmv koI rwv dyplcov 
uvOpcoTTcov /cat dXkwv reparcoBcov. tou? /xep ovv 
dyplov<i fir) KOfiiaOfjvai irapd XavBpofcorrov, 
diroKaprepelv ydp' e')(eiv Be rd<; fiev irrepva^ 
irpocOeVy Tov^ Be Tapaov<; oiTLaOev kol tov^ BaK- 
Tv\ov<;. daTOfiov^i Be Tiva^; d-^Orjvat, rj/mepov^; 
dvOpcoTTOVi, OLKelv Be irepl Td<; Trijyd^i tov Vdyyov, 
Tpecj^eaOac S* dTfi0L<; otttcov KpeSiv koi /capircoi' 
Kol dvOecov 6(TfMai<i, dvTt tcov aTOfjudTfov e^oz^ra? 
dva7rvod<;, ')(^a\eTTaiveLv Be Toh BvawBeai, kol Bid 
TovTO irepiylveGdai fx6\L<;y kol judXcaTa iv aTpa- 
ToireBw. Trepl Be tcov dWcov Biriyeto-Oai tou? 
<^Lkocr6(j)ov^, 'D.KviroBd'; re^ laTOpovvTa^, 'lttttcov 
jjbdXkov diTLovTa^, ^Evo)TOKOtTa<; t€^ iroBrjpr) Td 
MTa 6%oi^Ta?, ot)? eyicaOevBeiv, la)(^upov<; B\ oxtt^ 
dvaairav BevBpa koL prjTTeiv vevpdp, MovofjLfidTOv<; 

^ lxi]T\ Corais and later editors, for fx-qV. 
^ T6, Kramer, for Se. ^ re, Kramer, for Se. 

1 About 22i inches. ^ jUad 3. 6. 

3 Cf. 2. 1.9. ^ Swift-footed. 

^ i.e. men that sleep in their ears. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 57 

57. But Megasthenes, going beyond all bounds to 
the realm of myth, speaks of people five spans long 
and three spans ^ long, some without nostrils, having 
instead merely two breathing orifices above their 
mouths ; and he says that it is the people three 
spans long that carry on w^ar with the cranes 
(the war to which Homer ^ refers) and with the 
partridges, which are as large as geese; and that 
these people pick out and destroy the eggs of 
the cranes, which, he adds, lay eggs there ; and 
that it is on this account that neither eggs nor, of 
course, young cranes are anywhere to be found; 
and that very often a crane escapes from the fights 
there with a bronze arrow-point in its body. Like 
this, also, are the stories of the people that sleep 
in their ears,^ and the wild people, and other mon- 
strosities. Now the wild people, he continues, could 
not be brought to Sandrocottus, for they would 
starve themselves to death ; and they have their 
heels in front, with toes and flat of the foot behind ; 
but certain mouthless people were brought to him, 
a gentle folk; and they live round the sources of 
the Ganges ; and they sustain themselves by means 
of vapours from roasted meats and odours from fruits 
and flowers, since instead of mouths they have only 
breathing orifices ; and they suffer pain when they 
breathe bad odours, and on this account can hardly 
survive, particularly in a camp. He says that the 
other peoples were described to him by the philo- 
sophers, who reported the Ocyj)odes,* a people who 
run away faster than horses ; and Enotocoetae,^ who 
have ears that extend to their feet, so that they can 
sleep in them, and are strong enough to pluck up 
trees and to break bowstrings ; and another people, 



re aXkov<;, wra /jtev e^ovra^ kvvo^, iv /liaq) Be rw 
/xercoTTft) Tov 6(f>Oa\/ji6v, opOoxdiTa^;, Xaaiov^i to, 
aTij6r)' rov<; Be 'AfjLVKTr]pa<; elvai 7ra/jL(pdyov<;, 
ot)fio(f)dyov<;, 6Xtyo'XpovLOV<;, irpo yr)pw(i OvrjCTKOv- 
Ta9* TOV Be (TTOfJiaTO^; to dvco irpox^CKoTepov elvai 
TToXv' Trepl Be tmv ^iXfcrcoi' iTrep^opecov to, 
avTCL Xeyet Xip^covlBr) koI TIivBdpw Kal aXXoL<; 
fivOdXoyoi^. fivffo<; Be Kal to vtto Hifiayevov^; 
\€)(6ev} OTL 'X,^\ko<; volto aTakayixol<^ x^XkoI'^ 
KoX (JvpOLTO. iyyvTepco Be TrLareco'i cprjatv 6 
M.€yaaOevr]<;, on ol iroTapol /caTacpepoiep 'y^rrjypLa 
Xp^t^ov KoX dir' avTOv (f>6po<i dirdyoiTO tm 
0aaiX€C' TOVTO yap Kal iv H^rjpia avfifiaivei. 

58. Uepl Be Toiyv ^tXoaocjyoDV Xeywv tov<; fxev 
opeLvov<; avTcov (f)7}(Tiv vpLvr]Ta<; elvai tov Acovvaov, 
BeiKvvvTa^ TeKfJLijpia ttjv dyplav dp^ireXov, irapa 
fjLovoif;^ (f)vo/jLevr)v, Kal klttov Kal Bd<f)vr}V Kal 
/jLVppiVTjv Kal TTv^ov Kal aXXa tmv deiOaXwv, u)P 
fi'tjBev elvai, irepav l^vcppdrov, ttXtjv iv irapaBei- 
aoL^ o-rrdvia Kal p^era vroXX?}? eVt/ieXeta? crwfo- 
C 712 peva- /^lovvaiaKov Be Kal to aLvBovo(f>op€LV Kal to 
piiTpovdOaL Kal pLvpovadai Kal ^dirrecrdai dvOiva 
Kal T0v<; ^acrLXea<; K(oB(DVO^opela6ai Kal rvpuravi- 
^eadai KaTa ras i^6Bov<;' tov<; Be 7r€BiacrL0v<; tov 
'HpaKXea Ttp^dv. TavTa p,ev ovv puvOdiBrf Kal viro 
iToXXoiv iXey^opeva, Kal pidXcara to, irepl tt}? 
dp.TTeXov Kal tov olvov' irepav yap tov ^v^pdrov 
Kal T7j<; ^App,evia<; eVxi ttoXXt) Kal r) M.eao'TroTapLa 

^ us, before grt, omitted by mz and the editors. 
2 After fidvois F reads aiiTols. 

1 i.e. one-eyed. ^ " People without noses." 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 57-58 

Monommati,^ with dog's ears, with the eye in the 
middle of the forehead, with hair standing erect, 
and with shaggy breasts ; and that the Amycteres ^ 
eat everything, including raw meat, and live but a 
short time, dying before old age ; and the upper lip 
protrudes much more than the lower. Concerning 
the Hyperboreans who live a thousand years he says 
the same things as Simonides and Pindar and other 
myth-tellers. The statement of Timagenes is also a 
myth, that brass rained from the sky in brazen 
drops and was swept down.^ But Megasthenes is 
nearer the truth when he says that the rivers carry 
down gold-dust and that part of it is paid as a tax 
to the king ; for this is also the case in Iberia.* 

58. Speaking of the philosophers, Megasthenes 
says that those who inhabit the mountains hymn 
the praises of Dionysus and point out as evidences ^ 
the wild grape-vine, which grows in their country 
alone, and the ivy, laurel, myrtle, box-tree, and 
other evergreens, no one of which is found on the 
far side of the Euphrates except a few in parks, 
which can be kept aUve only with great care ; and 
that the custom of wearing linen garments, mitres, 
and gay-coloured garments, and for the king to 
be attended by gong-carriers and drum-beaters on 
his departures from the palace, are also Dionysmc ; 
but the philosophers in the plains worship Heracles. 
Now these statements of Megasthenes are mythical 
and refuted by many writers, and particularly those 
about the vine and wine ; for much of Armenia, and 
the whole of Mesopotamia, and the part of Media 

' i.e. by rivers. * See 3. 2. 8. 

^ i.e. evidences of his former presence there (see 11.6. 6). 




}^ap/JLavia^' tovtcov Be tcov idvMV eKciarov ttoXv 
fiepo'; €vd/jL7reXov kol cvolvov Xiyerai. 

59. "AWr)v Be BialpeaLv TTOielrai irepl toov 
<J)i\o(t6<I)(ov, 8vo yevr] (pdaKcov, Syv tou? yu-ei^ Byoa;)^- 
jjbava^ KoXel, rov<; Se VapiJLava<i. tou9 p.ev ovv 
Byoa%/xai/a9 6vBokl/jl6Lv /jloWov,^ pLoXkov yap /cal 
6/jLoXoyelv iv rot? Boypaaiu' ijhy 8' ev6v<; koI 
Kvofievovf; e%etiv eTnpLeXrjrd^, \oyiov<i dvBpa<;, ov<; 
irpoaLovra^ Xoycp ^ puev iiraSeiv BoKelv fcal rrjv 
/jL7)T€pa KoX rov Kvopievov eh evreKvlav, to 8* 
aKrjdef; (j(ti(j>povLKd<^ TLva<; irapaLveaeL<i kol vtto- 
6iJKa<; BiBovai' ra? S* '^Biara uKpowp^eva^; pidXidTa 
evT€Kvov(; elvac vop,L^€a6ai' p^erd Be Tr)v yeveaiv 
dXXov^i Kol dXXov<; BiaBe^eaOai Tr)v einpbeXeLav, 
del rrjf; pLei^ovo^ ifkiKLa^ 'x^apiea-repwv Tvyyavov- 
arji; BiBaa/cdXayv Biarpl^eiv Be tov<; ^iXocr6(j)OV<; 
iv dXaet irpo t?}? ttoXcco? vtto irepi^oXca orvpL- 
pLerpfp, Xirm fcoi/ra? eV aTt^dai kuI Bopah, 
diTe')(^oixevov(; e pb->^v')((ii)V kol dcppoBiaicov, d/cpoco- 
pLcvovi Xoycov airovBaiwVy pLeraBiBovTa^ koI toI<; 
eOeXovai' rov 8' aKpocopuevov oine XaXrjcTai depa^i 
ovT€ ')(pep,'^a(T6aL, dXX^ ovBe TTTvaai' rj ifC^dX- 
XeaOai t^9 avvovaia^i rrjv rjpbepav efcelvrjv, co? 
aKoXadTalvovTa' errj B' eTrrd koI rptdKOvra 
ovTCi)<; ^7](TaPTa dva^copelv eh ttjv eavrov ktyjo-lv 
€Ka<TTOv, Koi ^rjv a8ea>9 /cat dveLpLeuQ)<; pidXXov, 

1 IxaWov, Corais aud later editors insert. 

2 \6y(p, Tyrwhitt and later editors, for x6'ywv CDFh, \6yov 
other MSS. 

1 Brahmans. ^ Sramana. 

98 —V 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 58-59 

next thereafter, extending as far as Persis and Car- 
mania, are on the far side of the Euphrates ; and a 
large part of the country of each of these tribes is 
said to have good vines and good wine. 

59. Megasthenes makes another division in his 
discussion of the pjiilosophers, asserting that there 
are two kinds of them, one kind called Brachmanes ^ 
and the other Garmanes ; ^ that the Brachmanes, 
however, enjoy fairer repute, for they are more in 
agreement in their dogmas ; and that from con- 
ception, while in the womb, the children are under the 
care of learned men, who are reputed to go to the 
mother and the unborn child, and, ostensibly, to 
enchant them to a happy birth, but in truth to give 
prudent suggestions and advice ; and that the women 
who hear them with the greatest pleasure are 
believed to be the most fortunate in their offspring ; 
and that after the birth of children different persons, 
one after another, succeed to the care of them, the 
children always getting more accomplished teachers 
as they advance in years ; and that the philosophers 
tarry in a grove in front of the city in an enclosure 
merely commensurate with their needs, leading a 
frugaljife, lying on straw mattresses and sldns, 
abstaining from_anirnal^oqd and the deli^hts^floye, 
and hearkening only to_earnest words, and com- 
municating also with anyone who wishes to hear 
them; and that the hearer is forbidden either to 
talk or to cough or even to spit ; and if he does, 
he is banished from association with them for that 
day as a man who has no control over himself; and 
that, after having lived in this way for thirty-seven 
years, they retire, each man to his own possessions, 
where they live more freely and under less restraint, 



atvBovo(f)opovvTa koI 'x^pvcro^opovvra /jU€TpL(o<; ev 
Tot? wal KoX rat? %e/)o't, 7rpO(T<f>€p6fjL€vov adpKa<; 
Tcbv fjuT) irpo'; rrjv ')(^peiav (TwepyMV ^cocov, hpifxecov 
Kol dpTVTCov aTrexoixevov' yapielv S' on irXeia-ra^ 
eh TToXvreKviav, ix ttoWcov yap /cal ra crirovhala 
ifKeico yiveadai dv' dBovXoval re rrjv i/c reKvcov 
vTTTjpeaiav, iyyvTarco ovaav, irXeioi) Setv irapa- 
aKevd^eaOai' ^ TaL<; Be yvvat^l tol^ yafxeTal^ firj 
cru/jL(l)tXoao<f>eLV TOu<i BpaxP'dva<;' el /btev /jlox^VP^^'' 
yevoLVTOt iW firj ri rcov ov defjurcov ifccpepocev et? 
T0U9 fie^rj\ov<;' el Be cnrovBalaL, /jltj KaTaXeLTroiev 
avTOv<i' ovBeva yap r)Bovrj<; Kal ttovov Kara- 
4>povovvTa, &)9 B*avT(o<; fo)^? /cal Oavdrov, eOeXeiv 
v(f erepo) elvai' tolovtov S' elvau rov cnrovBalov 
C 713 Kal rrjv airovBaiav. Trkeiarovf; S* avrol'i elvac 
X6yov<; Trepl rov Oavdrov vofiL^eiv yap Brj top 
fiev evOdBe fiiov a)9 dv d/c/jurjv Kvofjuevcov elvatt 
Tov Be Odvarov yeveaiv et? rov 6ptco<; ^iov 
Kal TOV evBaifxova tol<; (^tXoao(j)riaa(T L' Blo ttj 
dcTKrjaei irXeicTTr) XPV^^^^ tt/oo? to eroifio- 
OdvaTOV dyaOov Be rj KaKov p,r]Bev elvai t(OV 
(Tv/JL/Sacvovrayv dvOpooirois, ov yap dv TOt? avTol<; 
Tovq [xev d^OeaOai, rou? Be x^ipeiv, evv7rvL(aBeL^ 
vTToXr'jyfrei^i 6%oi/Ta9, Kal tov<; avTov<; Tot9 avTol<^ 
Tore fiev dx^ea-Oai. rore S* av x^ipeiv fierajSaXXo- 
p,evov<s Ta Be ire pi <f)vcnVi rd fxev evrjOecav ep^^aiveiv 

* The words t^v . . . irapaa-KfvdC^a-dai are omitted by moxz ; 
the other MSS. read dvaSovAovcri re t^v ix t4kpq)v fi^ ^xovai 
hovKovs vinjpfffiav (fiij ex^vcn SovXovs obviously being a gloss). 
The above reading is that of Kramer and later editors. 

^ Tozer {Selections, note ad loc.) interprets ra airovdaia to 
mean the number of "their comforts." 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 59 

wearing linen garments, ornaments of gold in 
moderation in their ears and on their hands, and 
partake of meats of animals that are of no help to 
man in his work, but abstain from pungent and 
seasoned food ; and that they marry as many wives 
as possible, in order to have numerous chi]dreii, for 
from many wives the number of earnest children^ 
would be greater ; and, since they have no servants, 
it is necessary for them to provide for more service 
from children — the service that is nearest at hand; 
but that the Brachmaries do not share their phil- 
osophy with their wedded wives, for fear, in the first 
place, that they might tell some forbidden secret 
to the profane if they became corrupt, and, secondly, 
that they might desert them if they became earnest, 
for no person who has contempt for pleasure and toil, 
and hkewise for life and death, is willing to be subject 
to another ; and that the earnest man and the earnest 
woman are such persons ; and that they converse 
more about death than anything else, for they 
beheve that the life here is, as it were, that of a 
babe still in the womb, and that death, to those who 
have devoted themselves to philosophy, is birth into^ 
the true hfe, that is, the happy life ; and thaFthey 
therefore discipline themselves most of all to be 
ready for death ; and that they believe that nothing 
that happens to mankind is good or bad, for other- 
wise some would not be grieved and others delighted 
by the same things, both having dream-like notions, 
and that the same persons cannot at one time be 
grieved and then in turn change and be delighted 
by the same things. As for the opinions of the 
Brachmanes about the natural world, Megasthenes 
says that some of their opinions indicate mental 



^t]aLV, iv 6pyoL<; yap avTov<; Kpeirrov^ rj \6yoL<; 
elvai, Sict /jlv0(ov ra iroWa 7TiaTOVpb€Pov<i' irepl 
iroWwv §€ rot? "KWfjo-LV 6/xoSo^€Lv' otl yap 
yevrjTOf; 6 KoGyjO'^ tcai (pOapro^, Xeyeiv KCLKelvovf;, 
Kul OTL a^aipo€iBr](;, 6 re Blolkcov avrbv koX iroiSiv 
Seo<i hi 6\ov 8ta'7T€(l)oiTr)K€v^ avrov' apyai Se 
TOiV /JL6V avfJLirdvTwv €T€pai, Tr)9 he Koafioirocia^ 
TO vBcop* irpo^ Be toU TeTTapac o-TOt;;^6tot9 
ire/jLTTTT] Tt9 icTTL <j)vcrt<;, ef 979 ovpavb^ xal to, 
aaTpa' yr) S* ev fxecrw iBpvTat tov iravTO^;. fcai 
irepl cnrepfxaTO^i he koI y^v')(rj<; o/juoia XeyeTUt koI 
aWa TrXeica' TrapairXeKovaL he /cal /xvOov^, tocnrep 
KoX TiXaTcov irepl tb (K^Oapdia^ '^^X'5? '^^"^ '^<*^^ 
KaO^ ahov Kpiaecov koX aXka TOiavTa. irepl fxev 
TMV Bpa')(/jLdv(ov TavTa Xeyei. 

60. Tou9 ^e Vappuava^,^ tov^ puev evTipbOTaTov^; 
"TXo^iovs (firjalv ovopud^eaOai, ^(bvTa<; ev TaU 
v\at,<i aTTO (j)vXX(ov koX Kapiroiiv dypicov, eadr^TO'^ ^ 
(f)\oLcov hevhpelcov, d<ppohL(TL(ov %ft)pl9 fcal otvoV 
Tot9 he ^acriXevai, avvelvai, hi" dyyeXcov irvvOavo- 
/jLevoL<i Trepl tmv aiTicov /cal he eiceiv(ov 6epa- 
irevovai Kal XiTavevovai to delov fieTo, he T01/9 
*TXo/3toi^9 hevTepeveiv /caTa Tipurjv tou9 laTpiKov^ 

^ hl%TTi<pVTT\KiV F. 

2 Tap/xdvas F, Tep/JLam^ other MSS. 

3 iadriTas 8' ex^iv airJ moz, Tzschucke and Corais ; Kramer 
thinks that ova-ns has fallen out of the MSS. after iadrJTos ; 
Meineke conj. iadrjTovs <pKoi^ Seydpelcf. 

1 i.e. therefore, not everlasting (see Aristotle, Gael. 1. 11). 

2 See 1. 1. 20 and footnote. ^ Brahma. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 59-60 

simplicity, for the Brachmanes are better injdeeds 
than in words, since they confirm most of their 
behefs through the use of myths ; and that they 
are of the same opinion as the Greeks about many 
things ; for example, their opinion that t he uni verse 
was created ^ and is destructible, as also the Greeks 
assert, and that it is spherical in shape,^ and that the 
god^ who made it and regulates it pervades the 
whole of it; and that the primal elements of all 
things else are different, but that water wjis the 
primal^^jenxent^f^gll creation ; and that, in addition 
to the four elements, tliere is a fifth natural element 
of which the heavens and the heavenly bodies are 
composed; and that the earth is situated in the 
centre of the universe. And writers mention similar 
opinions of the Brachmanes about the seed * and the 
soul, as also several other opinions of theirs. And 
they also weave in myths, like Plato, about the 
immortality of the soul and the judgments in Hades 
and other things of this kind. So much for his 
account of the Brachmanes. 

60. As for the Garmanes, he says that the most 
honourable of them are named Hylobii ^ and that 
they live in forests, subsisting on leaves and wild 
fruits, clothed with the bark of trees, and abstaining 
from wine and the delights of love ; and that they 
communicate with the kings, who through messengers 
inquire about the causes of things and through the 
Hylobii worship and supplicate the Divinity; and 
that, after the Hylobii, the physicians are second in 

* *' They supposed the Creator to have dropped into the 
water a seed, from which the world-egg sprang "( Tozer, p. 327, 
quoting Larsen). 

5 Forest-dwellers (in 16. 2. 39 called Gymno-sophists). 



fcal fo)<? Trepl -top avOpoyrrov (f)i\oa6^ov<;, \itov<; 
jjiev, /jLTj aypavXov^ ^ Be, opv^rj koX d\^iTot,<^ Tp€<^o- 
/levov^, a 7rap6)(^€LV avTOL<; Trdvra rov alrTjOevra 
fcal VTTohe^dixevov ^evla' hvvaadai he koX itoXv- 
y6vov<; rroielv /cat dppevoy6vov<; Koi 67]\vy6vov<; 
8td (^apiiaKevTiKYj^i' rrjp Se larpelav hia cnriwv 
TO TrXeov, ov Sid (f)ap/jLdK(ov einTeXeladaL' twz/ 
(^apfxdKwv he fidXiara evhoKL/jLelv rd eiTl')(^pi(na 
KoX rd KaTa-rrXdo-fiara, rdXXa he KaKovpyia^ 
TToXv fiere^eiv ddKelv he koX toutou? /cuKelvov^ 
Kaprepiav, ti]v re ev ttovol^ kol ttjv ev rat? 
eiTifioval<;, Mar e(j>^ €iw<; <r;)^?;yLtaTO? aKivr^rov 
hiareXeaai ttjv rjfxepav oXrjv' dXXov<; 8' elvai 
Tou? fiev fiavTiKoxx; koX iirwhov^ koI tcov Trepl 
714 TOv<; KaroLXop-evov^ Xoywv Koi vop^ip^cou ep,7reipov<i, 
eirairovvTa^i koX Kard Kd)fia<; /cat 7ro\ef9, tou? 
he ')(apLeaTepov<; fiev rovrcov koX daTeioTepov<;, 
ovh avTOv<^ he aTre^o/iez^oi;? tmv KaO^ dhrjv ^ 
OpvXovfievcov, oaa hoKel irpo^ evae^etav koI 
o(TLOT7}Ta'^ o-vp,(pi,Xocro(j)eiv h^ evloi^i /cat yvval/ca^, 
aTre^o/i-era? Kal avTd<i di^pohiaicov. 

61. 'Apiar6^ovXo<i he to)v ev Ta^iXoi^ ao(f>i- 
(TTCOP Ihelv hvo (f)7]ai,, Bpa^p,dva<; d/Li(l)OTepov<;, rov 
fiev irpea-PvTepov e^vprjixevov, rov he vewrepov 
Kop.'^rrjv, d/j.(f)OT€pot^ 8* dfcoXovOelv /LLa67jrd<;' rov 
/jLev ovv dXXov ')(^p6vov Kar dyopdv hiarpl/SeLV, 
rifjLcojjievovf; dvrl (Tvp,^ovXo)v, e^ovaiav e-^ovra'^, 6 
n ^ovXovraL rcov oovlcov, (^epeaOat hcopedv or a) 8' 

^ aypavXovs E, vypavXous other MSS. ^ aSov moz. 

^ After 6(Ti6TT}Td Corais inserts relueiv. 

1 Cf. §§ 61, 63 (below). 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 60-61 

honour, and that they are, as it were, humanitarian 
philosophers, men who are of frugal habits but do 
not live out of doors, and subsist upon rice and 
barley-groats, which are given to them by everyone 
of whom they beg or who offers them hospitaUty ; 
and that through swcery they can cause people to 
have numerous offspring, and to have either male or 
female children ; and that they cure diseases mostly 
through means of cereals, and not through means of 
medicaments ; and that, among their medicaments, 
their ointments and their poultices are most esteemed, 
but that the rest of their remedies have much in 
them that is bad ; and that both this class and the 
other practise such endurance, both in toils and in 
perseverance, that they stay in one posture all day 
long without moving ; 1 and that there are also diviners 
and enchanters, who are skilled both in the rites and 
in the customs pertaining to the deceased, and go 
about begging alms from village to village and from 
city to city ; and that there are others more accom- 
plished and refined than these, but that even these 
themselves do not abstain from the common talk 
about Hades, insofar as it is thought to be conducive 
to piety and holiness; and that wonaen, as well as 
men, study philosophy with some bTthem, and that 
the women likewise abstain from the delights of love. 
61. Aristobulus says that he saw two of the 
sophists at Taxila, both Brachmanes ; and that the 
elder had had his head shaye^ but that the younger 
had long._hair, and tEat both were followed by 
disciples; and that when not otherwise engaged 
they spent their time in the market-place, being 
honoured as counsellors and being authorized to 
take as a gift any merchandise they wished; and 


av irpoaUoaiy Karaxelv avrcov rov ai^aafiivov \i- 
TTovi, ware koI Kara joyv ofi/jLaTCOv pelv rov re 
lxe\LTO<i TToWov TTpOKeifxevov KoX rod arjadfjiov, 
fid^af; 7Toi.ovfjL€vov<; rpicfyeaOat Saypedv irapep^o- 
/jL€vov<; Be Kol 7Tpo<i rrjv ^ AXe^dvhpov rpdire^av, 
7rapa(TTdvTa<; heinrvelv kuI ^ Kaprepiav SiSdaKeiv, 
7rapa')(^(opovvTa<; eU riva tottov irXr^aiov, ottov 
TOP fJiev 7rp€(T/3vT€pov, ireaovra vittlov, dve')(ea6aL 
Tcov rjXicov fcal tmv o/i^pcov (rjSrj yap veiv, dp^o- 
fievov rov eapo<i), rov S' kardvai fiovoaKeXr], 
^v\ov i'TT7)pjJi,evov d/jL(l)OT€paL<; rat? %6/3o-li^ oaov 
T/3t7r?;%u, /cdfjbvovTO<; Be rod <TKe\ov^, errl Odrepov 
fieracpepeiv rrfv jSdaiv Kal BiareXelv ovtw^ rrjv 
r}/u,epav oXrjv ^avrjvai S* eyKparearepov puaKpS) 
rov vecorepov avvaKoXovO^aavra yap fxiKpa tw 
pacTiXel ra^v dvaarpeyfrai, irdXiv eir olicov, p,6T- 
i6vT0<; T€, avTov KeXevaai iJKeiv, et rov ^ovXerai 
rv'y')(dveiv' top Be avvairdpaL p^expi' reX-ou? kol 
fiera/iKpido-aadaL /cat /jberaOeaOat rrjv BiairaVy 
avvovra tw pacrCKel' eTTLTi/jLco/jbevov Be vtto tivcov 
Xeyeiv, &)? eKTrXrjpcoaeie rd reTrapdKOvra errj Trj<; 
daK'>]a€(o<;, a uTreo-^ero. ^AXe^avBpov Be rot? 
iraialv avrov Bovvac Bcopedv. 

62. Tcov B^ ev Ta^iXoL^; vofii/jLCOv Kaivd koI drjOr) 
Xeyer to re roi/? /jlt) Bwapuevov^ eKBiBovai ra? 
iraiBa^ vtto irevia^ irpodyeiv ek dyopdv ev aK/jufj 
tt)? a)pa<;, Ko^Xw ^ re Kal TV/jLirdvotf; (olairep Kal 
TO iToXefxiKov a-rf/jLaLVOvaiv), o^Xov irpoo-KXijdevTO^, 
TO) Be TrpoaeXOovTL Ta oTTiaOta irpcoTov dvacrv- 

^ Kai, Corais and later editors insert. 
2 k6x\(p CFa;, ox^v other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 61-62 

that anyone whom they accosted poured over them 
sesame oil, in such profusion that it flowed down 
over their eyes ; and that since quantities of honey 
and sesame were put out for sale, they made cakes 
of it and subsisted free of charge; and that they 
came up to the table of Alexander, ate dinner 
standing, and taught him a lesson in endurance by 
retiring to a place near by, where the elder fell to 
the ground on his back and endured the sun's rays 
and the rains (for it was now raining, since the spring 
of the year had begun); and that the younger 
stood on one leg holding aloft in both hands a log 
about three cubits in length, and when one leg tired 
he changed the support to the other and kept this 
up all day long ; and that the younger showed a far 
greater self-mastery than the elder; for although 
the younger followed the king a short distance, he 
soon turned back again towards home, and when the 
king went after him, the man bade him to come 
himself if he wanted anything of him; but that 
the elder accompanied the king to the end, and 
when he was with him changed his dress and mode 
of life ; and that he said, when reproached by some, 
that he had completed the forty years of discipline 
which he had promised to observe ; and that Alex- 
ander gave his children a present. 

62. Aristobulus mentions some novel and unusual 
customs at Taxila : those who by reason of poverty 
are unable to_,marxy off their daughters, lead them 
forth to the market-place in the flower , of their age 
to the sound of both trumpets and drums (precisely 
the instruments used to signal the call to battle), 
thus assembling a crowd; and to any man who 
comes forward they first expose her rear parts up 



peaOai ue^^pt rwv Mfxwv, elra ra rrpoaOev, apecra- 
aav he icaX avfiTTeKjOelaav, i(b^ ol<; av Sokt}, 
(TVVoiK€tv' Kol TO yvyjrl pLirreaOai rov reTeXevrrj- 
KGTa' TO Be TrXetof? ex^tv yvvacKa*; kolvov kol 
aWcov. irapd riac S aKOveiv ^rjal koI crvyKara- 
KaiOfJL6va<; Ta<; 'yvvalKas tol<; avSpdaiv a(Tp,iva<^, 
Ta<; Be /nr) v7ro/jL€vov(Ta<; dSo^etv eLprjrai koX dWoi<i 

63. *Ovi]aiKpLTO^ Be ireiJL^Orjvai (f>rjaiv avTo<; 
C 715 BiaXe^o/juevo'^ rot? cro^fo-rat? tovtol^' cuKOveiv fyap 

TOP ^AXe^avBpov, co^ yu/iivol BtareXolev kol xap- 
Tepia^ eTTLfjLeXoLVTO ol dvOpcoiroL, iv tc/jltj re 
ayoLVTO TrXelarr], irap^ dXXovf; Be firj ^aBi^oiev 
KXrjOevTe^, aXXd KeXevoiev eKeivov<i cpoirav irap* 
avTov<;, el rov fiejaax^lv edeXoiev tcov Trparro- 
fievcov Tj Xeyofievwv vir avrcov tolovtcov Bt) ovtcov, 
eTreiBrj oure avrco Trpeireip eBoKei irap eKeivov^ 
(poirav ovre eKeivov<i ^id^eaOai irapd rd irdrpia 
TTOielv Ti dicoi'ra^, avTo<; ecprj Tre/JLipOrjvar Kara- 
Xa^elv Be dvBpa<; irevTeKaLBeKa diro a-raBicov €lko~ 
(TL ^ rrj<i TToXeo)^, dXXov ev dXXw axv/^ctri earwra tj 
KaOrjixevov rj fcei/jievov jv/jlvov, dfCLvrjroi^ eco? ecnre- 
pa<i, elr* direpxo/nevov el<i rrjv ttoXvv' ;;^aXe7ra)- 
rarov S' elvai to top tjXlop virofielvaL ovtco 
Oepfxov, wcrre T(av dXXwv /jLrjBeva vTro/mevetv 
fyvfivoc<; eirL^rjvaL toI<; iroal tt}? 7% paBlo)^ KaTa 

64. AiaXexOrjvaL 8' evl tovtcov K.aXdv(p, ov kol 
avvaKoXovOrjaai, tw PaatXel P'kxpf' IIepalBo<; fcal 

^ 6ktu> F. 

1 See § 69 (above). 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 62-64 

to the shoulders and then her front parts, and if she 
pleases him, and at the same time allows herself to 
be persuaded, on approved terms, he miarries her; 
and the dead are thrown out to be devoured by 
vultures; and to~]rave several wives is a custom 
common also to others.^ And he further says that 
he heard that among certain tribes wives were glad 
to be burned up along with their deceased husbands, 
and that those who would not submit to it were i 
held in disgrace ; and this custom is also mentioned 
by other writers. ^ 

63. Onesicritus says that he himself was sent to 
converse with these sophists; for Alexander had 
heard that the people always went naked and devoted 
themselves to endurance, and that they were held in 
very great honour, and that they did not visit other 
people when invited, but bade them to visit them 
if they wished to participate in anything they did 
or said; and that therefore, such being the case, 
since to Alexander it did not seem fitting either to 
visit them or to force them against their will to do 
anything contrary to their ancestral customs, he 
himself was sent ; and that he found fifteen men at 
a distance of twenty stadia from the city, who were 
in different postures, standing or sitting or lying 
naked and motionless till evening, and that they 
then returned to the city ; and that it was very hard 
to endure the sun, which was so hot that at midday 
no one else could easily endure walking on the 
ground vdth bare feet. 

64. Onesicritus says that he conversed with one 
of these sophists, Calanus, who accompanied the king 
as far as Persis and died in accordance with the 

* See § 30 (above) ; and cf. Diodorus Siculus 19. 23. 



airoOavelv t& irarpicp vo/hm, Tedivra iirl irvft- 
Kaidv TOT€ 3' eVl Xldcop rv')(€lv Keifjuevov irpoa-- 
icov ovv Koi 7rpo(Tayopevaa<i elirelv ecprj, Sioti 
7r6/jL(l>0 €17] irapa tov ySacrtXeo)? afcpoaa6jJL€Vo<; t^9 
a'o^[a<; avTCOv, kol airayyeXMv 7rpo9 avTOV el 
ovv /jLrjheh etr) (f>96vo<;y eroiyLto? etr} /leraaxetv t?}? 
cLKpodaecd^' IBovra 3' eicelvov ^(XafjivBa koI Kav- 
aiav ^opovvra kol Kpr^irlha, KarayeXdaavTay To 
iraXaiov, ^dvai, iravr rjv dXcpLTCov koI dXevpcov 
TrXrjpT), KaOdwep vvv k6v6co<;' kol Kprjvai S* eppeov, 
at fjL€v v8aT0<;, ydXa/cro^; 8' aXXac, kuI Ofjboiw^ 
fxeXcTOf;, al S* otvov, Ttve^ 3' iXaiov' viro TrXrja- 
fiov7]<; B* ol avOpcoTTOo koX Tpv^rj<; eh v^piv e^e- 
ireaov. Zeu? Be fiiarjaa'i rr)v Kardaraaiv rjc^d- 
viae Trdvra kol Bta irovov tov j3iov direBei^e. 
aod^poavvr]^; Be kol t/}? aXXrj<; dperrj^; irapeXOov- 
c7r?9 eh fieaoVy irdXiv eviropia tmv dyaOayv 
vTTTjp^ev. eyyu? B^ earriv ijBr] vvvl Kopov /cat 
vffpea)<; to Trpdyfia, KivBvvevei re d(^avi(T[jLo<; twv 
ovTcov yeveadat. ravra elirovTa KeXeveiv, el fiov- 
XoLTO aKpodaaaOaUy KaraOefievov ttjv axevrjv 
yvfivov eirl tmv avrcov Xldcov Kel/Jbevov, fieTex^tv 
TMV Xoywv, diropovfjLevov Be avTOv, M.dvBaviv,^ 
ocnrep rjv Tr/OGcr/SuraTo? Kal aocfxararof; avrcjv, tov 
fiev eimrXri^ai co? v^pLcrTrjv, Kal TavTa i5/3/36ft)? 
KaTrjyoprjdavTa, avTov Be TTpocrfcaXecracrOat /cal 
elirelv, co? tov fjuev ^aaiXea eiraivoLrj, Blotl dp^rjv 

1 Instead of MdvZaviv E reads KoiuSavis ; and the name 
given by Arrian {Exp. 7. 2. 2) and Plutarch {Alex. 8. 65) 
is AdfSafxis ; but in Strabo the MSS. again read MdpSaviv in 
§68 (below). 

1 See end of this paragraph. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 64 

ancestral custom, being placed upon a pyre and 
burned_up.^ He says that Calanus happened to be 
lying on stones when he first saw him; that he 
therefore approached him and greeted him; and 
told him that he had been sent by the king to learn 
the wisdom of the sophists and report it to him, and 
that if there was no objection he was ready to hear 
his teachings ; and that when Calanus saw the 
mantle and broad-brimmed hat and boots he wore, 
he laughed at him and said: " In olden times the 
world was full of barley-meal and wheaten-meal, as 
now of dust ; and fountains then flowed, some with 
water, others with milk and Hkewise with honey, 
and others with wine, and some with olive oil ; but, 
by reason of his gluttony and luxury, man fell into 
arrogance beyond bounds. But Ze us, hating this 
state of things, destroyed everything and appointed 
for man a life of toil. And when self-control and 
the other virtues in general reappeared, there came 
again an abundance of blessings. But the condition 
of man is already close to satiety and arrogance, and 
there is danger of destruction of everything in exist- 
ence." And Onesicritus adds that Calanus, after 
saying this, bade him, if he wished to learn, to t^e. 
off his clothes, to lie down naked on the same stones, 
and thus to hear his teachings ; and that while he 
was hesitating what to do, Mandanis,^ who was the 
oldest and wisest of the sophists, rebuked Calanus 
as a man of arrogance, and that too after censuring 
arrogance himself; and that Mandanis called him ^ 
and said that he commended the king because, 
although busied with the government of so great an 

2 By Arrian, Alexander, 7. 2., and Plutarch, Alexander 8. 
65, called " Dandamis." * Onesicritus. 



TOcavTi-jv BioLKMV iiriOvfjiOLy] ao^la^i' jmovov yap 
Ihoi avTov iv 07rXot<? (f)L\o(TO(f)OvvTa'^ a>(f>e\ifi(i)Ta- 
Tov S' ehj T(ov airdvTCdv, el ol tolovtol (^povolev, 
C716 0*? Trdpean hvvaixji tov<; fiev eKOvaiov^ TreiOecv 
(7w4>povelv, Tou? S' aKovaiov^ civa^KCi^eLV' avT(p 
he avyyvoyfjiT] etr), el Be eppLijvecop rpiMV SiaXeyo-^ 
fievo^, irXrjv (fxovrj^; /iv^h avvievrwv irXeov t) ol 
ttqXXol, p^v^ev Icxvcrei tt)^ axpeXeia^ eirihei^LV 
TTOLTiaaaOar 6p.oLOV yap, oi^ av el Bed fiop^opov 
KaOapov d^iol Tt? vBwp pelv. ^ 

65. Ta yovu Xex^evra eU tout Hr] avvTeiveiv, 
0)9 eXr] Xoyo^ dpiCTO^y 09^ 7]Bovriv koI ^ XvTTrjv 
yjrvx'n'i d(j)aipri(TeTar /cat otl Xvitt] kuI ir6vo^ 
Biacpepei' to p^ev yap iroXejiioVy ro Be (j>iXtov^^ 
avToU, Ttt 76 o-co/iaTa dcTKOvai nrpo^ ttovov, lv at 
yvo) pcovvvoivTO, dcf)' S)v kuI aTda€i<; iravoiev 
Kal avp.l3ovXoL Trdacv dyaOcbv irapelev kuI KOii'p 
Ka\ IBia- fcal B^ Kal Ta^iXrj 2 vvv avp^/SoyXev- 
aeie^ Bexeo-Oai tov 'AXe^avBpoV fcpeLTjay p,evyap 
avTov Be^dp^evov ev ireicTeaOat, xetpw ^e^ ev 
Biadr/aeiv. ravr elirovra i^epeaOai, el Kai ev 
roh "EXXrjo-L Xoyoi tolovtol XeyoivTO' elirovTO^ 
B\ OTL Kal UvOayopa^ TOtavTa XeyoL,^ KeXevoL ^ 
Te ep^yjrvx^^ aTrexecrOaL, Kal l.(0KpdT7)<; Kal Aio- 
yevr]<;, ov Kal avTO^ aKpodcraiTO, airoKpivaaOai, 
OTL TaXXa p^ev vop,L^oL <f)povip,m avToU Bokclv, ev 
5' dp^apTdveLV, v6p,ov nrpo t;}9 <jbuo-€ft)9 TiOep^evovr 

1 <pl\LO]/ E, <pl\ov other MSS. 

2 ^a\ Ta|iAT7 E, nd^ei rj other MSS. 
^ avfjL^affiKevaaiiv Dhi. 

* \4yoL BFh, Keyei other MSS. 

5 KcKevoi DFA, KeKevei other MSS. 



GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 64-65 

empire, he was desirous of wisdom ; for the king was 
the only philosopher in arms that he ever saw, and 
that it was the most useful thing in the world if 
those men were wise who have the power of per- 
suading the willing, and forcing the unwilling, to 
learn self-control; but that he might be pardoned 
if, conversing through three interpreters, who, with 
the exception of language, knew no more than the 
masses, he should be unable to set forth anything 
in his philosophy that would be useful ; for that, he 
added, would be like expecting water to flow pure 
through mud ! 

65. At all events, all he said, according to Onesi- 
critus, tended to this, that the best teaching is that 
which removes pleasure and pain from the soul ; and 
that pain and toil differ, for the former is inimical 
to man and the latter friendly, since man trains the 
body for toil in order that his opinions may be 
strengthened, whereby he may put a stop to dis- 
sensions and be ready to give good advice to all, 
both in public and in private ; and that, furthermore, 
he had now advised Taxiles to receive Alexander, 
for if he received a man better than himself he would 
be well treated, but if inferior, he would improve 
him. Onesicritus says that, after saying this, Man- 
danis inquired whether such doctrines were taught 
among the Greeks ; and that when he answered that 
Pythagoras taught such doctrines, and also bade 
people to abstain from meat", as did also Socrates 
and Diogenes, and that he himself had been a pupil 
of Diogenes, Mandanis replied that he regarded the 
Greeks as sound-minded in general, but that they 
were wrong in one respect, in that they preferred 
custom to nature ; for otherwise, Mandanis said, 




ov yap av ^ alo-')(Tjvea6at yvfivov^, axnrep avrov, 
Bidyeiv, CLTTO Xiroiv ^(i)VTa<;' koX yap olfcijiv^ 
dpLarrjv elvai, ^rt? av iiricTKevrif; eXa%ta-T?7<? 
Birjrar €(f)7] 8' avTOv^ /ca\ rcov irepl (puaiv iroWd 
i^erdaai /cal Trpocrrjfiaa-iojv, o/ju^pcov, av)(fjLMV, 
voacoV diriovra^ 8' eU rrjv iroXiv Kara ra? 
dyopa^ aKehdvvvaOaL' otw S' av ko/jll^ovtl avKa 
rj jSoTpvf; irapaTV-)(^a)(7L,^ Xaji^dveiv hcopeav irap- 
e'XpvTO^;' el B' eXaiov elr], Kara'X^elaOai avrcov 
Kal d\€L(f)€aOai' diraaav Be irXovaiav olfciav 
dvelaOai avTol<i f^^XP^ yvvaiKcovLTiBo^;, elcriovra^ 
Be Beiirvov KOLVwvelv Kal Xoyayv ai(T')(^iaTov 8' 
avTOL<; vo/jLi^ea0ai voaov crwfJbaTiKrjv' rov 8' viro- 
vor)aavTa Ka0* avrov rovroy e^dyeiv eaurop Bca 
7ru/)09, vrjaavra irvpdv, vTraXeLy^rdfievov Be kol 
KaOiaavra eirl rrjv irvpdv v(f)dyjrai Ke\eveiv, 
dKivrjTOV Be KaiecrOaL. 

66. Neap^o'^ Be irepl tmv ao^iarcov ovtco \eyer 
Toi'9 /jL€v ^pa-)(^fidva^ irdkirevecrOat. Kal irapaKO- 
\ov6elv To2<i ^aaiXevat (TV/iiffov\ov<;, tov<; 5' 
dWov<; aKoirelv rd irepl ryv (fyvatV rovrcov 3' 
elvat Kal KdXavov av/j,(j)t\o(ro(j)etv 8' avToi<; Kal 
yvva2Ka<;, ra? Be BiaLTa^^ diravrayv aKXrjpd^. irepl 
Be Tcov Kara tou? d\Xov<; vo/jll/jlcov TOtavra 
diro^aiverar tou9 piev v6fiov<; dypd(f)Ov<; elvai, 
Tou? pev Koivov<;, tov<; B' IBlov<;, drjdeiav e%oi^Ta<? 
C 717 TTyoo? T01/9 T(i)V dWcov olov TO rag 7rap$evov<; 
dOXov irapd riai irpoKelaOai rw 7rvyp,r)V vlktj- 
aavTi, war dTrpoiKOV^; avvelvaL- wap' dXXoL<; Be 

1 &p, Corais and later editors insert. 
^ iraparvxoix^t E, ir^piTvxoxn other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 65-66 

they would not be ashamed to go naked, hke himself, 
and live on frugal fare ; for, he added, the best house 
is that which requires the least repairs. And 
Onesicritus goes „on to say that they inquire into 
numerous natural phenomena, including prognostics, 
rains, droughts, and diseases; and that when they 
depart for the city they scatter to the different 
market-places; and whenever they chance upon 
anyone carrying figs or bunches of grapes, they get 
fruit from that person as a free offering; but that 
if it is oil, it is poured down over them and they 
are anointed with it ; and that the whole of a wealthy 
home is open to them, even to the women's apart- 
ments, and that they enter and share in meals and 
conversation ; and that they regard disease of the 
body as a most disgraceful thing ; and that he who 
suspects disease in his own body commits suicide 
through means of fire, piling a funeral pyre ; and 
that he anoints himself, sits down on the pyre, 
orders it to be lighted, and burns without a motion. 
66. Nearchais speaks 6?" the sophists as follows : 
That the Brachmanes engage in affairs of state and 
attend the kings as counsellors ; but that the other 
sophists investigate natural phenomena ; and that 
Calanus is one of these ; and that their wives join 
them in the study of philosophy ; and that the modes 
of life of all are severe. As for the customs of the 
rest of the Indians, he declares as follows : That their 
laws, some public and some private, are unwritten, 
and that they contain customs that are strange as 
compared with those of the other tribes ; for example, 
among some tribes the virginj ^ are set before all as a 
prize for the man who wins the victory in a fist-fight, 
so that they marry the victor without dowry ; and 



Kara (jvyyeveiav fcocvfj rov^ Kap7rov<; ipyacra- 
fiivov^;, eirav avyKO/jLiacoacVf aipecrOat, ^opriop 
efcaarov eh St,aTpo<f)r]v rov €tov<;, top 5* aXXov 
ifiTTiTrpdvai rov ex^iv elaavOi<; epyd^eaOai koI 
fjLTj dpyov elvai. oirXiafiov 8' elvai ro^ov koX 
6i(TT0v<; TpL7ri]')(^€L<;, rj aavviov, koI ireXrrjv koX 
fid^aipav irXareiav TpiTrrj^vv' dvrl Be ')(aXiva)v 
(^fyLtot? ')(prjaOat K7]fiS)V puKpov hiai^epovaiv' 7]Xoi<; 
Se ra %et\'?; BiaTreirdpOaL, 

67. T^z^ Be (piXorexvi'dv tcov ^IvBoji^ efju^avi^wv 
airoyyovfi (prjalv l86pTa<; irapa tol<; l^laxeSocn 
fiifM7]a-a(T0aL, rpt^j^a? Kal (j')(pLvia Xeirrd koX 
dp7reBdvo<; hiappdyjravra<; eh epia, Kal /jLera to 
TTLXrjaat ^ ra puev e^eXKvaavra^, rd Be ffdyfravTa<; 
^(^poiah' (TrXeyytBoTToiov^ re /cal Xr)KvOo7roLov<; 
Ta^v yevkadai iroXXov^' eTrtaroXd^ Be ypd^eiv 
ev cnvBoai XLav KexpoTr)/jbevai<i, tmv dXXcov ypdjjb' 
fxaa-iv o,vTov<i /jltj ')(^prjaOac (pafievcov 'XclXkw Be 
')(pr}adat, %fTft), tw S' eXaro) /jltj' rrjv 8' alriav 
ov/c elire, fcairoi rrjv droiriav elircov rrjv irapa- 
KoXovOovcrav, on dpaverac Kepdfiov Blktjv rd 
aKevr] ireaovTa. rcov Be irepl tt}? ^IvBucrj^^ Xeyo- 
fievcov Kal tovt €(tt[p, oti dvTi rod irpocTKvvelv 
7r/3oo-eu%€o-^at rot? jBaaLXevai Kal irdai. roh ev 
e^ovaia Kal vTrepo^ciJ vofio^. cj^epei Be Kal XiOiav ^ 

1 TriXrtaai, Casaubon and the later editors, for ttAtjo-oj. 

2 Kideiav hoxz and Meineke. 

1 i.e. the horses are controlled by the nose with a halter- 
like contrivance rather than by the mouth with bridles. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 66-67 

among other tribes different groups cultivate the 
crops in common on the basis of kinship, and, 
when they collect the produce, they each carry 
off a load sufficient for sustenance during the year, 
but T)urn the remainder in order to have work to do 
thereafter and not be idle. Their weapons, he says, 
consist of bow and arrows, the latter three cubits 
long, or a javelin, and a small shield and a broad 
sword three cubits long ; and instead of bridles they 
use nose-bands, which differ but slightly from a 
muzzle ; ^ and the lips of their horses have holes 
pierced through them by spikes. ^ 

67. Nearchus, in explaining the skill of the 
Indians in handiwork, says that when they saw 
sponges in use among the Macedonians they made 
imitations by sewing tufts of wool through and 
through with hairs and light cords and threads, and 
that after compressing them into felt they drew out 
the inserts and dyed the sponge-like felt with 
colours ; and that makers of strigils and of oil-flasks 
quickly arose in great numbers ; and that they write 
missives on linen cloth that is very closely woven, 
though the other writers say that they make no use 
of written characters ; and that they use brass that 
is cast, and not the kind that is forged ; and he does 
not state the reason, although he mentions the 
strange result that follows the use of the vessels 
made of cast brass, that when they fall to the 
ground they break into pieces like pottery. Among 
the statements made concerning India is also the 
following, that it is the custom, instead of making 
obeieance, to offer prayers to the kings and to all 
who are in authority and of superior rank. The 

2 *.e. spikes, or raised points, inside the nose-bands. 



7) X^P^ TTokvTeXrj KpvaToXkdov fcal dvOpd/ccov 
iravTOLwv, Kaddirep tmv /jLapyaptrcov. 

68. Trj? 8' dvojuio\oyLa<; rwv (Tvyypacfyecov earco 
'jrapdBeiy/JLa koX 6 nrepl rov KdXdvov \6yo<i' on 
fiev yap avvrfkOev ^AXe^dvBpq) koX direOavev eKoov 
Trap avTW Bid 7rvp6<;, ofioXoyouar rov Be rpoTTOV 
ov Tov avTOv ^aatv, ovBe Kara ra? avTd<; alria^. 
dXV ol fi€V ovTco^i elpr}Ka(TL' avraKoXov6r]aat, 
yap ft)? iyK(i)/jbiaaTr]V tov ^aaiXeo)^ e^co rcoi^ t?)? 
'JvBi/ci]^ opcov irapd to kolvov eOo^; tcov eKel (J)lXo- 
ao^cov €Keivov<; yap roi? avToOi avvelvai /3a- 
(TiXeva-iv, v(f)rjyovfjL€Vov<; ra irepl tou9 Oeov^;, w^ 
T0v<; fidyov<; rot? Uepo-at?* iv UaaapydBai<; Be 
voarjaavTa, Tore irpoiTOV avTw vocrov yevopLevrj^, 
e^ayayelv eavTov, dvovTa eVo? e^Bo/jiTjKoaTOV Kal 
TpiToVy /JLT) irpocrexovTa rat? tov ^aaiXeoa^ 
Be^aear y€vo[xevif<i Be 7rvpd<; Kal TeOeiarj^ eir 
auT?}? 'X.P^^V'^ /cX[vr]<;, /caTaKXtOevTa eh avTTjV, 
eyKaXv^dpevov i/jLTrprjaOrjvaL. ol Be ^vXlvov 
oIkov yeveaOai, (f>vXXdBo<; 8* ep.7rX7jaOevTO<; Kal 
iirl tt)? aTeyr)^ 7rvpd<; y6V0/iiepr}<;, eyKXeiaOevTa 
(tiairep eKeXevae, /xera Tr]v irofjiTrrjv p.eO^ ^9 rJKe,^ 
C 718 pl^avTa eavTov &)9 dv Bokov crvve/nTrprjo-Oi^vac tco 
OLKO). M.eyaaOevr](; B^ ev toI<; /xev (piXoaocpotf; ovk 
elvat Boyfia (jirjalv eavTov<; e^dyeiv tov<; Be 
TTOiovvTd^ TOVTO veavLKOv^ Kplvecrdai, tou9 fiev 
(TKXrjpov'; TTJ (pvaei, ^epop.evov<; eirl TrXrjyrjv rj 
Kpr)fjLv6v, TOv<; 5' dirovov^ eirl I3v66v, TOV<i Be 

1 ^«6 F, 6lx« Other MSS. 

1 e.g. carbuncles, rubies, garnets. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 67-68 

country also produces precious stones, I mean crystals 
and anthraces of all kinds, ^ as also pearls. 

68. As an example of the lack of agreement 
among the historians, let us compare their accounts 
of Calanus. They all agree that he went with Alex- 
ander and that he voluntarily died by fire in Alex- 
ander's presence ; but their accounts of the manner 
in which he was burned up are not the same, and 
neither do they ascribe his act to the same q^use. 
Some state it thus : that he went along as a eulogiser 
of the king, going outside the boundaries of India, 
contrary to the common custom of the philosophers 
there, for the philosophers attend the kings in India 
only, guiding them in their relations with the gods, 
as the Magi attend the Persian kings ; but that at 
Pasargadae he fell ill, the first illness of his life, and 
despatched himself during his seventy-third year, 
paying no attention to the entreaties of the king; 
and that a pyre was made and a golden couch placed 
on it, and that he laid himself upon it, covered 
himself up, and was burned to death. But others 
state it thus : that a wooden house was built, and 
that it was filled with leaves and that a pyre was 
built' on its roof, and that, being shut in as he had 
bidden, after the procession which he had accom- 
panied, flung himself upon the pyre and, like a beam 
of timber, was burned up along with the house. 
But Megasthenes says that suici^ is not a dogma 
among the philosophers, and that those who commit 
suicide are adjudged guilty of the impetuosity of 
youth; that some who are by nature hardy rush 
to meet a blow or over precipices ; whereas others, 
who shrink from suffering, plunge into deep waters ; ^ 

2 i.e, drown themselves. 



TToXviTovovf; a7rayxo/Ji'ivov<;, tou<; he irvp^hei^ eh 
TTVp ayOov/jbivov^' olo<; rjv kol 6 Kd\avo<;, aKoXa- 
(TTO^ dvOpco7ro<; koI rah ^AXe^dvBpov Tpaire^aL^; 
BeBovXco/jLevo'i' tovtov fiev ovv '^eyeadai, top Be 
MdvSaviv eTTaLvelcOai, 09 to)V tov 'AXe^dvBpov 
dy<ye\(ov KaXovvrcov irpo^ tov Aio<; vlov TreiOofJuevo) 
T€ Boipa eaeaOai v7Ti(7')(^uov/JLevcov, aTreiOovvri, Be 
KoXaaiv, /JL7]T €K€Lvov ^aLT] Aihsplqp, 6v ye 
dpx^tv firjBe TroWocTTov /jLepov<; tt)? 77}?' /XT^re ^ 
avT(p Belv tS)v irap eKelvov Bcopeojv, wv ^ ovBel<; 
Kopo^' firjTe Be aTreiXrjf; elvau <f}6^0Vy w ^covtl fiev 
dp/covda etr) Tpo(/)09 rj ^IvBlkt], diroOavMV Be diraX- 
Xd^aLTO tt)? T€T/3f;)^a)yLtez^7;9 aTrb y^pco^; aap/c6<;, 
fieraaraf; eh ^eXrico fcal KaOapcorepov ^loV war 
eiraiveaaL top ^ AXe^avBpov koX avyx^coprjaai. 

69. Aeyerai Be koX rain a irapa tmv crvyypa- 
^eft)!/, ore (Te^ovrai /lev tov ofi^piov Aua ^IvBol 
Kol TOV Tdyyrjv iroTafJuov koI tov<; ey)(^copLOV<; Bai- 
fiova^. OTav Be fiaaiXev^ Xovrj ttjv Tyot^a, fieyd\r)v 
eopTTjv dyovcTL kul fjueydXa Bwpa irefjurovai tov 
eavTOV ttXovtov CKaaTO^; €7riBetKVv/iievo<; kutci 
a/JLiWav. tS)v Te /nvpfjbijKoyv Tiva<; koI 7rT€p(0T0v<; 
Xeyovai tcov 'X,pv(Ta)pv')((ov' yjr'^y/iiaTd Te ^(pva-ov 
KUTacj^epeiv tou9 TroTafiovf;, KaOdirep tov^ '1/5^- 
pLKov<^' ev Be Tah kuto, Ta9 eopTa<; Tro/jLTrat^ 
TToWol fiev e\e(f)avTe<; TrefiTrovTai; ')(pvaw Ke/co- 

1 fx-}]Te, Corais and later editors, for /iTjSf. 

2 uv, all MSS. except moz, which read ^. Kramer conj. 
ir69os for K6pos, citing Arrian 7. 2. 3. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 68-69 

and others, who are much suffering, hang them 
selves ; and others, who have a fiery temperament, 
fling themselves into fire ; and that such was Calanus, 
a man who was without self-control and a slave to 
the table of Alexander ; and that therefore Calanus 
is censured, whereas Mandanis is commended; for 
when Alexander's messengers summoned Mandanis 
to visit the son of Zeus and promised that he would 
receive gifts if he obeyed, but punishment if 
he disobeyed, he replied that, in the first place, 
Alexander was not the son of Zeus, inasmuch as he 
was not ruler over even a very small part of the 
earth, and, secondly, that he had no need of gifts 
from Alexander, of which there was no satiety ,1 and, 
thirdly, that he had no fear of threats, since India 
would supply him with sufficient food while he was 
alive, and when he died he would be released from 
the flesh wasted by old age and be translated to a 
better and purer life ; and that the result was that 
Alexander commended him and acquiesced. 
^ 69. The following statements are also made by 
the historians : that the Indians worship Zeus and the 
Ganges River and the local deities. And when the 
king washes his hair, they celebrate a great festival 
and bring big presents, each man making rivalry in 
display of his own wealth. And they say that some 
of the ants that mine gold ^ have wings ; and that 
gold-dust is brought down by the rivers, as by the 
rivers in Iberia.^ And in the processions at the time 
of festivals many elephants are paraded, all adorned 

^ Or perhaps, " for which he had no longing " (see critical 

2 Cp. §§ 37 and 44 (above). 

3 See 3. 2, 8. 



(TfjbrjfxevoL KoX apfyvpw, iroWa Se Tedpiinra kclI 
fioi/ca ^evyr)' el0* t) (TTparia K€K0(7/iirj/j,€vrj' koI 
j^pvacofxaTa he tmv fieydXcov Xe^rjrcov koI fcpa- 
T7]po}V opyvtaicov koI tov ^IvSikov ^aXxov^ 
Tpdire^ai re^ koX Opovoi kol iKTrw/jLara Koi 
\ovrfjp€<;, XtOoKoWrjTa ra irXelcna afiapdySoi<; 
KoX ^r]pvXXoi.<; Kol avOpa^LV ^\vhLKol<i' koX iadr)<; 
Be ttolklXt) ')(pva67raaTO<i, kol fiovaaoL^ Kal 
7rapBdXei<; Kal XeovTe<s TLOaaol Kal tmv itolklXwv 
opvewv Kal €V(l)06yy(ov ttXtjOo^. 6 Be KXeurap^o^ 
(prjaLV d/jid^a^ T€TpaKVKXov<;, BevBpa KO/jLi^oixTa^; 
TO)v iieyaXo(f>vXX(»)v, ef S)V dTrrjpTrjrai * yevrj 
TeriOaaevfievcov opvewv, a)v evcpcovorarov fiev 
elpTjKe TOV oDplwva, Xa/nrpoTarov Be Kara rr}v 
6\jnv Kal TrXelaTTjv e^ovra iroLKiXiav tov KaXov- 
fievov KaTpea.^ ttjv yap IBeav Taw /jidXiaTa 
eyy i^€LV. ttjv Be Xoitttjv elKOvoypa(f>iav irap 
eKelvov XrjTTTeov. 

70. ^/.Xo(76(f>ov<; T€ T0t9 J^pa^/jLaaiv dvTiBtai- 
C 719 povvTai Upd/jbva^, epiaTLKOv^ Tiva'^ Kal eXeyK- 
TiKOV's' Tov<i Be BpaxP-ava*; ^vaioXoylav Kal 
daTpopofjLLav daKelv, yeXcofJuevov^; vir eKeivcov ax; 
dXa^6va<; Kal dvorjTov^, tovtcov Be tol'9 fiev 
opeivov^ KaXelaOaiy tov? Be yvjjuvrjTa^;, tov<; Be 
ttoXltikov^ Kal 'jrpo(TX(^pi'OV<;' rou? jjuev opeivov'^ 

^ Kai, before rpd-rreCai, Corais ejects. 

2 re, Corais and later editors, for 5e. 

2 KoL fi6va(Toi, Meineke ; CDE^^ have a lacuna of about 
six letters ; vw read koI . . . aaoi, i /col &pKoi, x koI dr)pia ; 
Tzschucke /col Orjpia . . . aaot ; Corais koI dripia &pKoi ; 
Groskurd Kal Oripia fiovaffoi. 

* oTT^pTTjTot, Schneider (note on Aelian, An. 12. 22), for 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 69-70 

with gold and silver, as also many four-horse chariots 
and ox-teams ; and then follows the army, all in 
military uniform; and then golden vessels consisting 
of large basins and bowls a fathom in breadth ; and 
tables, high chairs, drinking-cups, and bath-tubs, 
all of which are made of Indian copper and most 
of them are set with precious stones — emeralds, 
beryls, and Indian anthraces ; ^ and also variegated 
garments spangled with gold, and tame bisons,^ 
leopards, and lions, and numbers of variegated and 
sweet-voiced birds. And Cleitarchus speaks of four- 
wheeled carriages on which large-leaved trees are 
carried, and of different kinds of tamed birds that 
cling to these trees, and states that of these birds 
the orion has the sweetest voice, but that the catreus, 
as it is called, has the most splendid appearance 
and the most variegated plumage ; for its appear- 
ance approaches nearest that of the peacock. But 
one must get the rest of the description from 

70. In classifying the philosophers, writers oppose 
to the Brachmanes the Pramnae, a contentious and 
disputatious sect; and they say that the Brach- 
manes study natural philosophy and astronomy, but 
that they are derided by the Pramnae as quacks 
and fools ; and that, of these, some are called " Moun- 
tain " Pramnae, others " Naked " Pramnae, and 
others " City " Pramnae or " Neighbouring " Pram- 
nae ; and that the " Mountain " Pramnae wear deer- 

^ See note on "anthraces," § 68 (above). 
2 Aurochs. 

^ Kaarpia \)h, Kcirpea F. 



BopaX<; i\d<^(DV ')(^prjadaL, TTrjpa<^ 8' e^eiv pi^cop 
Kol ^app^oLKwy p^eaTa^, 7rpoa7rotovp,6vov<; larpiKrjv 
p,€Ta 'yoTjTeia^ fcal iirayScov kol Trepidinwv. tov? 
Be yvp.vtjra^ /cara rovvop^a >yvpivov<; Sia^rjv, virai- 
Opuovf; TO irXeov, Kaprepiav daKovvra^;, fjv ecpapep 
TTporepov, pexpi' i'Trra ircov^ koI TpiaKOVTa, yv- 
voLKa^ Be avvecat, pbrj p,iyvvp>eva^ avTol^;' tovtov^ 
he davp,d^€aOaL Bia(f)ep6vTa)<;. 

71. Tou? Be TToXiTLKov^ aivBovira^i Kara ttoXiv 
t,r}V fj Kol Kar dypov^s, Ka6r]ppevov<; ^ ve^piBa^ 
rj BopKaBcov Bopd<;' co? 8' elirelvt ^IpBov^ eaOrJTt 
XevKrj ')(^prj(T6aL koX aivBoac Xevxal^ /cal Kapird- 
(rofc9, vTrevavTLQ)^ toU elTrovcnv evavOea-rara 
avTOV<i dpuire'xeGdaL (poprjpuaTa' Kopuav Be koI 
TTcoyoyvorpocpelv irdpra^, dvairXeKopbivov^; Be pa- 
rpovaOaL rd^i Kopua^;. 

72. 'ApreplBcopofi Be rov Tdyyqv (prjalv e/c 
t€)v ^HpcoBoop 6po)v Karacpepofjuevov tt/jo? votov, 
iireiBdv Kara rrjv Vdyyrjv yivrjrai ttoXlv, eiru- 
arpecpeiv irpo^ eco pe)(pi, HaXi/SoOpcov kol t% 
eh TY]v OdXaTTUV eK^oXrj<;. tcov Be avppeovrcov 
eh avTov OlBdurfv^ Tivd KaXel'^ Tpi(f)€ii' Be /cal 
KpoKoBelXov^; /cal BeX(pLva^. Xeyei Be koI dXXa 
rivd, avyfcexvpLevco<; Be Kal dpya><;, 0}V ov cjypop- 
TLcneov. TrpoaOetr) B^ dv Ti9 tovtoi<; /cal rd irapd 
Tov AapLaa/c'rjvov NiKoXdov. 

73. (prjal yap outo? ev 'Avrto-x^ela ry iirl 
Ad(f)vr) 7rapaTV')(^ecv rot? ^IvBcop irpeafieaiv, d^iy- 

1 iruv, omitted by all MSS. except E. 

2 Kadeif^euovs CDKFMx, Kadrj/xfvovs w, ivr]fjLixivovs moz and 

' Ol^dvfiv is probably corrupt. Corais conj. OlfidvT\v \ 
Kramer, 'lojxdvrjv ; C. Miiller Aioi^dfrjv or Aiapddvqv, 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 70-73 

skins, and carry wallets full of roots and drugs, pre- 
tending to cure people with these, along with 
witchery and enchantments and amulets ; and that 
the ** Naked " Pramnae, as their name implies, live 
naked, for the most part in the open air, practising 
endurance, as I have said before,^ for thirty-seven 
years ; and that women associate with them but do 
not have intercourse with them; and that these 
philosophers are held in exceptional esteem. 

71. They say that the " City " Pramnae wear linen 
garments and live in the city, or else out in the 
country, and go clad in the skins of fawns or gazelles ; 
but that, in general, the Indians wear white cloth- 
ing, white linen or cotton garments, contrary to the 
accounts of those who say that they wear highly 
coloured garments ; and that they all wear long 
hair and long beards, and that they braid their hair 
and surround it with a hgad-band. 

72. Artemidorus says thai the Ganges River flows 
down from the Emoda mountains towards the south, 
and that when it arrives at the city Ganges it turns 
towards the east to Palibothra and its outlet into the 
sea. And he calls one of its tributaries Oedanes, 
saying that it breeds both crocodiles and dolphins. 
And he goes on to_nientioji certain other things, but 
in such a confused and careless manner that they are 
not to be considered. But one might add to the 
accounts here given that of Nicolaiis Damascenus. 

73. He says that at Antioch, near Daphne, he 
chanced to meet the Indian ambassadors who had 

1 §§ 60 and 61 (above). 

^ Ka\€t, Casaubon and later editors, for /caAcij'. 




fjbevoi^ irapa Kaiaapa top leffaa-Tov 01)9 eK 
fxev tt}? eViCTToXj)? irkeiov^; SrjXovaOai, (TcoOrjvai, 
Be T/3et9 fjLovov^, ou? Ihelv (j>rj(Ti, tou? S* aXXov<; 
viTO /ii7]Kov<; TOiv 68(ov Bia(l)Oaprjiat to irXeov 
Ti]v 3' iTTKTToXrjv iXXrjvi^eiv iv St(f)66pa jeypap.- 
fievrjv, BrjXovorav, on Ilwyoo? elrj 6 ypd^lraf;, 
e^a/coaLwv Be dp^f^v /BaaiXecop, ofKoq irepX iroX- 
Xov iroLolro (f)i,Xo<; elvai KaiaapL, kol ejoipuo^ ecrj 
BloBov t€ irapex^i'^} ottt] ^ovXerai, koX a-vfiirpaT- 
recp, oaa KaX(o<{ e%6t. ravra pep e(pr) Xeyeip 
TTjp iiriaToXrjp, to, Be Kop^iaOepra Bcopa irpoae- 
peyK€ip OKTO) OLKeraf; yvp.pov<;, ip Trepi^oop^aai 
KaTa7r€7raap,€P0v<; apcop^aaip' elpai Be ra Bwpa 
TOP re 'Rpp^dp, cltto tcop copcop a<^r)p7]p,evop ck 
p-qiriov tov<; jSpax^opa^;, op koI yp^eh elBop^ep, 
Kal ex^Bpa<; p^eydXa^ Kal 6(f)ip tttj^cop Bexa koI 
X€X(OP7]p iroTapiiap rpLTTT^xyp, irepBiKd re pLei^ay 
7f7ro9. (Tvprjp Be, w? ^rja-i,^ kol 6 ^AOrjPrjdL 
C 720 KajaKavaa'^ eavTOP' iroielp Be tovto rov<; pbep 
errl KaKoirpayia^ ^7)T0VPTa<i diraXXayrfp tcop 
TrapoPTcop, Tov<i B' eV evirpayia, KaOdirep tov- 
TOP' diravTa yap KaTa ypcop^rjp irpd^aPTa p-e'^pi' 
pvp aTTcepaL Betp, p,ri tl tcop d^ovXrjTWP xRopl^optc 
avpureaor koI Bt} kul yeXcoPTa dXecrdai yvp,pbp 
eTraXrjXip^p^epop ^ ep TrepL^cop^aTi, eirl ttjp irvpap' 

^ (priffi, Corais, for (paai. 

^ After KaKOTTpayia w adds roiis 5e Sm 6.K\i)v riva Svcrrvx^av. 
^ For eVaAiAeijU/xeVov F, iiraX-qeiixixevov other MSS., Meineke 
writes Aitt* a\i]\i}ifx4vov (cp. Ajtt' a\ij\iij.iJ.4voi 14. 1. 44). 

^ So called from the fact that Hermes was usually repre- 
sented as a small god, and sometimes without hands or feet 


I GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 73 

been despatched to Caesar Augustus ; that the letter 
plainly indicated more than three ambassadors, but 
that only three had survived (whom he says he saw), 
but the rest, mostly by reason of the long journeys, 
had died ; and that the letter was written in Greek 
on a skin; and that it plainly showed that Porus 
was the writer, and that, although he was ruler of 
six hundred kings, still he was anxious to be a fdend 
to Caesar, and was ready, not only to allow him a 
plissage through his country, wherever he wished to 
go, but also to co-operate with him in anything that 
was honourable. Nicolaiis says that this was the 
content of the letter to Caesar, and that the gifts 
carried to Caesar were presented by eight naked 
servants, who were clad only in loin-cloths be- 
sprinkled with sweet-smelling odours ; and that the 
gifts consisted of the Hermes, ^ a man who was born 
without arms, whom I myself have seen, and large 
vipers, and a serpent ten cubits in length, and a river 
tortoise three cubits in length, and a partridge larger 
than a vulture; and they were accompanied also, 
according to him, by the man who burned himself 
up at Athens ; and that whereas some commit 
suicide when they suffer adversity, seeking release 
from the ills at hand, others do so when their lot 
is happy, as was the case with that man; for, he 
adds, although that man had fared as he wished up 
to that time, he thought it necessary then to depart 
this life, lest something untoward might happen 
to him if he tarried here; and that therefore he 
leaped upon the pyre with a laugh, his naked body 
anointed, wearing only a loin-cloth ; and that the 

(see Herodotus 2. 51). At Athens any four-cornered pillar 
ending in a head or bust was called " a Hermes." 



i7ny€ypd<f>0ai, Be rw rdcfxp' Zapfiavoyvy^'i^ 
'11^809 diTO Bapy6(Tr)<i Kara ra irdrpia IvBcov 
eOr] eavTov aTraOavaTLcra^ KelTat. 


1. Mera he rrjv ^IvBik^p iarcv rj ^Kpiavrj, fjiepl^ 
irpcoTTj Trj<; vtto Tlepaai^; r/)? fiera top ^IvBbv 
iTora/jLov Koi rwv dvco aarpaTreLcov rcov eVro? 
Tov TavpoVy TO, pev voria koI to, dpKTiKa p^ept) 
rfj avTjj OaXdrrrj koI toI<; avrol^ opeaiv d(f)opi- 
^opbivr), olairep koi t) 'IpBlkjj, koL tw avT& 
7roTap>ti) T<p ^\vBw, p,eaov '^^(pvaa avrov eavTrjt; 
T€ Kal Tr]<; ^lvBt,K7]<;, evrevOev Be irpb^i rrjv eairepav 
ifcreivop^evr] pexpi' t'^? dTro Kaa-irlcov irvXoov 
€t9 Kapp^avlav ypa(l)op,eprj<; ypap,p>fj<;, axrre elvai 
r€T pdirXevpov ro a-^^p^a. to p,ev ovv voriov 
nrXevpov diro tmv eKJBoXwv dpxerai tov '\vBov 
Kal T?}9 YlaTaX'r]vrj<^, TeXevTo, Be iTpo<; YLappavLav 
fcal TOV Uepo-iKov koXttov to aTopa, d/cpav 
e^ov €KK6Lp,evr)u iKav(o<; 7r;0O9 votov elTa eU tov 
KoXirov Xap^/Sdvei Kap^irrjv 609 eirl Ttjv HepalBa. 
OLKovai Be "Ap^ie^ irpoiTOV, opwvvpuoi, tm iroTap.a) 
"Ap^ec Tw opi^ovTL avTov^i dirb TOiv €^rj<; ^flpeLTMP, 
ocrov 'X^tXicov aTaBlcov e^ovTe^ nrapaXiav, co<i (prjai. 
^eap^o'^' ^IvBcjv B^ eaTl pb€pl<; Kal avTrj. cIt 
^flpecTaL eOvo<; avTovop^ov tovtcov S' 6 TrapdirXovi 
'■)(^LXicov oKTaKoaiwv, 6 Be tmv e^rj<i ^\')(6vo^dycov 

^$ a", Za j/aovos X''/7«*' '^' ^^^ Corais. 

^ The spelling of the name is doubtful. Dio Cassius (64. 9) 
refers to the same man as " Zarmarus " (see critical note). 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. i. 73-2. 1 

following words were inscribed on his tomb : " Here 
lies Zarmanochegas,^ an Indian from Bargosa, who 
immortalised himself in accordance with the ancestral 
customs of Indians." 


1. After India one comes to Ariana, the first por- 
tion of the country subject to the Persians after 2 
the Indus River and of the upper satrapies situated 
outside the Taurus. Ariana is bounded on the south 
and on the north by the same sea and the same 
mountains as India, as also by the same river, the 
Indus, which flows between itself and India; and 
from this river it extends towards the west as far 
as the line drawn from the Caspian Gates to Car- 
mania, so that its shape is quadrilateral. Now the 
southern side begins at the outlets of the Indus and 
at Patalene, and ends at Carmania and the mouth 
of the Persian Gulf, where it has a promontory that 
projects considerably towards the south; and then 
it takes a bend into the gulf in the direction of 
Persis. Ariana is inhabited first by the Arbies, 
whose name is like that of the River Arbis, which 
forms the boundary between them and the next 
tribe, the Oreitae ; and the Arbies have a seaboard 
about one thousand stadia in length, as Nearchus 
says ; but this too is a portion of India. Then one 
comes to the Oreitae, an autonomous tribe. The 
coasting voyage along the country of this tribe is 
one thousand eight hundred stadia in length, and 
the next, along that of the Ichthyophagi, seven 

2 i.e. " to the west of." 



€7rrafcior)(^L\iot rerpaKoaiot, ol Be tmv Kap/xavCcov 
rpia^lXioi einaKoaioL /Jbe^pi' Oe/^o-tSo?' wcr^' ol 
(TvjjLTravTef; /jLvpioi Bia^x^iXioi,^ ivva/coaioi. 

2. 'A\i,T€pr]<; 3' iarlv r) roiv ^\')(dvo^d>y(ov Kal 
dBepSpof; Tj irXeiaTr) irXrjv^ ^olvikwv koI aKavdr}^ 
TLVO<; Kal /jLvpL/C7j<;' Kal vScltcov Be Kal Tpo(j)rj<; 
rjfxepov G7rdvL<;' rot? 8' l')(Ovai '^pbiVTai Kal avrol 
Kal Opefijiara Kal roh ojippioi^ vBacn Kal opv- 
KToW Kal TO. Kpia Be rSdv Ope/jUfidTcop i^Ovoav 
TTpoa^aXXei' olKijaeifi Be iroiovvrat rol<; oareoi^ 
TMV Kr)TOiV ')(^pa)p,evoL Kal Koyx^^^ ocrrpecov to 
TrXeov, BoKoU jiev rat? irXeupaU Kal virepeia-fiaai, 
Ovpayfiaac Be ral^ aiayoaiv ol (nrovBvXoi B^ 
avTOL<; elaiv oXjjlol, ev oh TTTLdcrovai tov<; l')(9va<; 
ev rjXiq) KaT07rTr]aapTe<;' eZr* dproTroiovvrat, airov 

C 721 fjLiKpa KaTap,L^avT€<;' Kal yap fiuXoi avrol<; elai, 
(TiBrfpov jxr] ovTO^. Kal tovto pbev yrrov davfia- 
(TTov, Kal yap aXXoOev eveyKaadai Bwarov' dXXa 
TTco? eTTiKOTTTovaiv diroTpi^evTa'; ; ^ Xidoi<^ fievroc 
(f>aaLV, 0L<; Kal ra jSeXrj Kal ra aKovria jxara to, 
ireTTvpaKTco/jieva cltto^vvovo-l. tov<; 3' 1^0 va^, TOV<i 
fiev ev KXifidvoL^i KaToinoiaL, tov<; Be TrXetcrTOf? 
OD/jLo^ayovaf TrepiffdXXoprat Be Kal Biktvok; 


3. 'TirepKeirai Be rovrayv r) TeBpcoala, tt}? fiev 

^ Siax^^^^h Kramer and the later editors emend to 
Tpt<rxf^'ot ; but it is better to accept the reading of the 
MSS. and assume that Strabo does not include in his sum 
total the coast of the Arbies in India, " about one thousand 
stadia " in length. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 1-2 

thousand four hundred, and that along the country 
of the Carmanians as far as Persis, three thousand 
seven hundred, so that the total voyage is twelve 
thousand nine hundred stadia. y 

2. The country of the Ichthyophagi ^ is on the sea- r 
level ; and most of it is without, except palms 
and a kind of thorn and the tamarisk ; and there is 

a scarcity both of water and of foods produced by 
cultivation; and both the people and their cattle 
use fish for food and drink waters supplied by rains 
and wells ; and the meat of their cattle smells like 
fish ; and they build their dwellings mostly with the 
bones of whales and with oyster-shells, using the ribs 
of whales as beams and supports, and the jawbones 
as doorposts; and they use the vertebral bones of 
whales as mortars, in which they pound the fish after 
roasting them in the sun ; and then they make bread 
of this, mixing a small amount of flour with it, for 
they have grinding-mills, although they have no 
iron. And this is indeed not so surprising, for they 
could import grinding-mills from other places ; but 
how do they cut them anew when worn smooth? 
Why, with the same stones, they say, with which 
they sharpen arrows and javelins that have been 
hardened in fire. As for fish, they bake some in 
covered earthen vessels, but for the most part eat 
them raw ; and they catch them, among other ways, 
with nets made of palm-bark. /^ 

3. Above the country of the Ichthyophagi is 

2 Fish-eaters. 

2 ir\V, omitted by all MSS. except E2. 

' airoTpifievTas, Corais, for iiriTptfievra C, a7roTpt)8eWa other 




IvSiKTJ^ rJTTOV €fjL7rvpo<;, T^9 8' aX\?;9 'Aorba<; fiaX- 
\ov, fcal T0t9 Kap7rol<; kol roh vSaaiv epB€r)<; ttXtjv 
Oepov^fOv TTokv a/jieLVcov rrjf; TCi)v*l')(^duo(f)dy(ov ap- 
co/iaTocf)6po(; Be vdpBov /juiXiara Kac (T/Jivpvr]<;, Mare 
rrjp ^AXe^dpBpov arpaTiav oBevovaav dvrl bp6(f>ov 
KOL arpco/jLarcov tovtol<; ')(^pP]aOaL, evayBia^opivrjv 
d/jLa fcal vyieivorepov rov depa e)(^ovaav napa 
TOVTO' yeviadai 8' avroi<; Oepov<i rrjv iic t^? 
^IvBlkt)'!; d(f)oBov eViTT/Se? avveffr]' t6t€ yap op.- 
Ppov^ e'xeiv rrjv VeBpcoaiav kol tov<; iroTapov^ 
TrXrjpova-Oai koI ra vBpela, 'xetpoyvo^ 3' eTTiXel- 
ireLV' TTLTrreiv Be rov^ 6pffpov<i iv rot^ dvco 
p^epeai rot? 7rpoaapKTLot<; kol €771)9 twi^ opMV 
irXrjpov p.ev(ov Be tmv irorapLOiv, fcal rd ireBia 
rd irXfja-id^ovra ^ rfj OaXdrrrj iroTL^eaOat kol 
vBpeiwv evTTOpelv. irpoeTreTT^fre S* et9 rrjv epyp^ov 
peraXXevrd*; tcov vBpeiwv 6 ^acri,Xeu<; xal 701/9 
vavaraOpia avTW /cal rw aroXrp Karaa-Kevd- 

4. '^piXV y^P BieXoDV Ta9 BvudpL€t<;, rrj puiv 
avTO<i a>pp,rj(7€ Bed t/}9 TeBpcoaia^, d(f)i<TTdp,evo<; 
T7}9 daXdmi^ TO irXelajov irevraKoaiovf; ara- 
Blov<;, \v dpua koI t© vavTtKO) rrjv irapaXiav 
eTTLTTjBeLav Trapaa-Keud^oi,, iroXXdKi^ Be koX avvd- 
TTTcou rfj OaXdrrrj, tcaiirep diropov^i /cal rpa'x^eia'i 
e^ovarj'^ rd^; d/CTd<;' ttjv Be Trpoeirep.yjre puerd 
Kparepov Bid t^9 pbearoyaia^, dpa ')(eipovpevov ^ 
T6 Tr}v ^Apiavr]v kol 7rpol6vTO<; eirl tol'9 avTov<^ 
T07roi'9, e^' 01*9 ^AXe^avBpo^ rrjv iropelav eZ%6. 
TO Be vavTLfcbv ^edpx^p fcal ^Ovrjo-LKpiTq) tm 

^ Dhi read Kifxyd^ov-a. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 3-4 ^ 

situated Gedrosia, a country less torrid than India, 
but more torrid than the rest of Asia ; and since it 
is in lack of fruits and water, except in summer, it is 
not much better than the country of the Ichthyo- 
phagi. But it produces spices, in particular nard 
plants and myrrh trees, so that Alexander's army 
on their march used these for tent-coverings and 
bedding, at the same time enjoying thereby sweet 
odours and a more salubrious atmosphere ; and they 
made their return from India in the summer on 
purpose, for at that time Gedrosia has rains, and 
the rivers and the wells are filled, though in winter 
they fail, and the rains fall in the upper regions 
towards the north and near the mountains ; and 
when the rivers are filled the plains near the sea 
are watered and the wells are full. And the king 
sent persons before him into the desert country to 
dig wells and to prepare stations for himself and his 

4. For he divided his forces into three parts, and 
himself set out with one division through Gedrosia. 
He kept away from the sea no more than five hundred 
stadia at most, in order that he might at the same 
time equip the seaboard for the reception of his 
fleet ; and he often closely approached the sea, 
although its shores were hard to traverse and rugged. 
The second division he sent forward through the 
interior under the command of Craterus, who at the 
same time was to subdue Ariana and also to advance 
to the same region whither Alexander was directing 
his march. The fleet he gave over to Nearchus and 

2 ^xovarj, Tzschucke and the later editors, for e'xouo-rjs. 
^ X^ipovfiei'ov, Groskurd and later editors, for x^tpovM-^voi. 


apxifcv^epvrjTTj irapahov^ eKekevaev, 0LK6La<; ard- 
aeox; i'7rL\a/Jb0avo/jL6vov<; eiraKoXovSelv /cal dvTi- 
TTapaTrXelv avrou ry nropela. 

5. Kal h-q Kai cprjaiv 6 Nea/D%09, ^S^ tov 
^a(iL\eco<; reXovuro^ ttjv 686v, avTo<; /leroiTcopov 
Kara irXeidho^ iiriToXrjv edirepiav dp^aaOai tov 
ttXov, /jLTjirco fi€P Tcov 7rv€Vfidro)V oUeiMV ovtcov, 
Twv Se ^ap^dpcov iircx^eLpovvrcov avTOL<; koX 
i^eXavvovTcov' KaraOapprjaai ydp, diTeX66vTo<i 
TOV ^aacX6o)<i, koX eXevdepidaai,. Kparepo^; 8' 
aTTo TOV 'TSdaTTOv dp^d/j,evo<i 8t ' A pa)((OTCov rjei 
Kal ^payj(ov eh Y^appuaviav. YloXXd 8' eTaXai- 

C 722 TTcopec 6 ^AXe^avBpo^i Kad" oXrjv ttjv oSov Bia 
Xv7rpa<; looV iroppcodev S* opioiw^ ^ 67r€')(^opr)y€LTO 
fiLKpa Kal airdvia, cocttc Xl/jLcottcip to aTpaTevpLU' 
KoX TCL vTTO^vyia eireXLiTe, koX tcl cTKevr] KaTe- 
XeiireTO ip Tal<^ 6Boi<; Kal rot? (TTpaT07reBoi<;' 


Kal TOV eyKe^dXov. (paal Be (^tXoveLKrjaat, tov 
^ KXe^avBpov, Kaiirep elBoTa ra? dnopla^;, 7r/)09 
Tr)P KaTexpvdav Bo^av, o)? ^epLipapa^ puev ef ^IvBmv 
(f)evyovaa acoOeirj p^eTa dvBpwv co? SiKoai, }s.vpo<; 
Be eiTTd, el BvvaiTo avTO^; ToaovTO (TTpdTevp^a 
Biacrcoaai Bia t/}? avTrj<^ '^oi)pa<;, vlkwv Kal TavTa. 

6. ITpo? Be Tjj diropia ')(aXe'nov rjp Kal to 
Kavpia Kal to ^ddo<; t/)? yjrdppov Kal rj Oeppb6Tr]<^, 
ecTTL 8' oirov Kal dlve<; vyjrrjXov, m(tt€ irpb^ tm ^ 
Bva')(^epM<; dva^epeiv tcl aKeXrj, KaOdirep eK ffvOov, 

1 SfjLoloos, Corais, for ofxus. 

2 irphs T^ (omitted by onoz), Corais, for irphs r6, other MSS. 

1 See 15. 1. 5. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 4-6 

Onesicritus, the latter his master pilot, giving them 
orders to take an appropriate position, and to follow, 
and sail alongside, his line of march. 

5. Moreover, Nearchus says that when now the 
king was completing his journey he himself began 
the voyage, in the autumn, at the time of the 
rising of the Pleiad in the west ; and that the winds 
were not yet favourable, and that the barbarians 
attacked them and tried to drive them out ; for, he 
adds, the barbarians took courage when the king 
departed and acted like freemen. Craterus set out 
from the Hydaspes and went through the country 
of the Arachoti and of the Drangae into Carmania. 
But Alexander was in great distress throughout the 
whole journey, since he was marching through a 
wretched country ; and from a distance, likewise, he 
could procure additional supplies only in small 
quantities and at rare intervals, so that his army was 
famished; and the beasts of burden fagged out, 
and the baggage was left behind on the roads and in 
the camps ; but they were saved by the date palms, 
eating not only the fruit but also the cabbage at 
the top. They say that Alexander, although aware 
of the difficulties, conceived an ambition, in view of 
the prevailing opinion that Semiramis escaped in 
flight from India with only about twenty men and 
Cyrus with seven, to see whether he himself could 
safely lead that large army of his through the same 
country and win this victory too.^ 
^-6. In addition to the resourcelessness of the 
country, the heat of the sun was grievous, as also 
the depth and the heat of the sand ; and in some 
places there were sand-hills so high that, in addition 
to the difficulty of lifting one's legs, as out of a pit, 




Kol avaffdacL^ elvai koX KaraffdaeL^;' dvdyKTj 
S* rjv real araOfJiov^ iroielaOai fiaKpov<;, hia ra 
vhpela, BiaKoalcov kol rerpaKoaLcov araSicov, ecrri 
B' 6t€ Kal e^aKoaiwv, vvKToiropovvra^ to TrXeov. 
TToppco Be TMV vBpei(i)v iarpaToireBevovTO ev rpid- 
Kovra araBioL^ iroWaKL^ tov /jltj i/uLcpopeladaL 
Kara ^t^/ro?* iroWol yap ep.iri'TrTOvre'^ avv oirXoif; 
eiTiVov o)? av vTrojBpvx^oL, (pvacofievoi B^ eireirXeov 
efcireirvevKOTe^i kol ra vBpela ^pa'X^ea ovra Bii- 
(ftOeipoV ol 8' ev TM r)\iw fcard /jLearjv rrjv oBov 
dirrjyopevKOTe'i e/cecuTO vtto Blyjrov^' eireira rpo- 
ficoBei^ fjuera iraX/jiOV ^/eipMv koI aKeXcov eOvrjcTKOv 
TrapaTTXrjaia)';/ 0)9 av vtto ^ pLyov<; Kal <^piK7]<; 
€^6/jL€vol. avv60aLV€ Be tkjl Kal eKTpairop.evoi'i 
TTjv 6B0V KaraBapOeLv Kparovfievoiff vtto vttvov 
Kal KOTToV varepijaavTe^i 8' ol fxev dirdyXovTO 
TrXdvrj rcov 6B(ov Kal vtto aTropta? dTrdvrcov Kal 
Kavfiaro'^, ol B^ eacoOrjcrav, rrroXXa raXaiTrcopij- 
(TavT€<;' TToXXa Be KareKXvae Kal tcov (Tcofjudrcov 
Kal rayp 'XprjaTrjpLcov iTTiireacDV ')(^ei/jbdppou<i vvk- 
TCdp' Kal TTjs ^acnXiKT}^ Be KaraaKevrjf; €^rjXei(j)d7j 
TToXXi]' Kal TO)v KadoBrjycov Be^ Kar dyvoiav 
iroXv 669 TT)v fjueaoyaiav eKTpaTrofievcov, Mare 
fMTjKeri opav Tr}v ddXarrav, avveh 6 ^aai- 
X€U9, e^avT7]<; wpixr^ae, ^rjTrj(T(ov Tr}V yiova, Kai 
eiTeiBr) evpe Kal 6pv^a<; elBev vBcop ttoti/hov, 
fjueraTre/jLTreTaL to arparoTreBov, Kal Xolttov fi^XP^ 
rjfiepojv eTrrd TrXrjaLov rjei rr]<; 77401/09, eviropcov 
vBpeia^i' eireiT avdi<i eU ttjp fxeaoyaiav dve^a)- 

* vir6, omitted by MSS. except moxz. 

2 5€, omitted by moxz, re other MSS. ; emended by Corais, 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 6 

there were also ascents and descents to be made. 
And it was necessary also, on account of the wells, 
to make long marches of two hundred or three 
hundred stadia, and sometimes even six hundred, 
travelling mostly by night. But they would encamp 
at a distance from the wells, often at a distance of 
thirty stadia, in order that the soldiers might not, 
to satisfy their thirst, drink too much water; for 
many would plunge into the wells, armour and all, 
and drink as submerged men would ; and then, after 
expiring, would swell up and float on the surface 
and corrupt the wells, which were shallow; and 
others, exhausted by reason of thirst, would lie down 
in the middle of the road in the open sun, and then 
trembling, along with a jerking of hands and legs, 
they would die like persons seized with chills or 
ague. And in some cases soldiers would turn aside 
from the main road and fall asleep, being overcome 
by sleep and fatigue. And some, falling behind the 
army, perished by wandering from the roads and 
by reason of heat and lack of everything, though 
others arrived safely, but only after suffering many 
hardships ; and a torrential stream, coming on by 
night, overwhelmed both a large number of persons 
and numerous articles ; and much of the royal 
equipment was also swept away; and when the 
guides ignorantly turned aside so far into the interior 
that the sea was no longer visible, the king, per- 
ceiving their error, set out at once to seek for the 
shore; and when he found it, and by digging dis- 
covered potable water, he sent for the army, and 
thereafter kept close to shore for seven days, with a 
good supply of water ; and then he withdrew again 
into the interior. 



7. 'Hj/ Be Ti o/jlolov rfj Bd(l)vrj (fivrov, ov to 
y€V(rdfievov tmv viroi^vyiwv diriOvrjaKe fxera iiri- 
Xrjy^ria'; xal d(j)pov' dicavOa Be tov<; fcapirov^i eirl 

C 723 yr]<; KexvfJbevrj, KaOdirep ol (tlkvoi, ttXi^/jt;? rjv 
oTTov' rovTOV Be paviBe^;, eh ocfjOaX/jiov e/jLireaovaai, 
irav dirervcfyXovv ^a)ov. oXie oopiol (fjOLvifce^; eirvtyov 
ttoWoik;. Tjv Be KivBvvof; koX diro tmv ocpecov ev 
yap Tol<; dia-lv eire^VKei ^oravrj, ravTrj 8' viroBe- 
Bv/core^; eXdvdavov, rov^i Be TrXrjyevra^ dTre/creivop. 
ev Be Tot<; ^ilpeirai^ rd ro^evfiara ^piecrdaL Oava- 
aL/jLOL<; ^apfJbdKOL^ ecpaaau, ^vXtva ovra koX ireTTv- 
patcTWjMeva' rpwOevra Be UroXefiatop KLvBuveveiv 
ev VTTvw Be TrapaardvTa nvd tw ^AXe^dvBpw 
Bel^ai pi^av avToirpe/ivov, tjv KeXevaac rpl/Sovra 
iiriTiOevai Ta> rpcoOevn' eic Be rov virvov yevo- 
fievov, /jie/bLvr)/jL€vov Trj<; 6ylre(jo<; evpelv ^rjTovvra rrjv 
pl^av TToXXrjv ire^vKvlav koI 'X.prjaaaOac koI 
avTov Kol T0U9 dXXov<;' lB6vTa<; Be tov<; /3ap- 
Pdpov<; evprjfievov ro dXe^rj/jua vtttjkoov; yeveadat, 
T(o jSacriXel. elfcb<; Be riva pbrjvvaai rwv elBorcov 
TO Be fivOcoBe^ TrpoaeTeOr} KoXa/ceia^; xdpiv. eXOoov 
S' et? TO ffaalXeiov tcov VeBpwaicov e^r]KoaTalo<^ 
diro ^flpcov, Btava7rav(Ta<; ra ttXtjOt) puKpoVy diTrjpev 
eU TTjv Kapfiaviav. 

8. To fiev Br} voTLOV ttj^ ^Aptav7]<; irXevpov 
TOLavTrjv Tivd e%€t ttjv rr}? TrapaXla^ BtdOeaiv 

1 " Orae " seems surely to be a variant spelling of " Oreitae," 
as Groskurd points out. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 7-8 

7. There was a kind of plant like the laurel which 
caused any beast of burden which tasted of it to 
die with epilepsy, along with foaming at the mouth. 
And there was a prickly plant, the fruit of which 
strewed the ground, like cucumbers, and was full 
of juice; and if drops of this juice struck an eye 
of any creature, they always blinded it. Further, 
many were choked by eating unripe dates. And 
there was also danger from the snakes ; for herbs 
grew on the sand-hills, and beneath these herbs the 
snakes had crept unnoticed; and they killed every 
person they struck. It was said that among the 
Oreitae the arrows, which were made of wood and 
hardened in fire, were besmeared with deadly poisons ; 
and that Ptolemaeus was wounded and in danger of 
losing his life ; and that when Alexander was asleep 
someone stood beside him and showed him a root, 
branch and all, which he bade Alexander to crush 
and apply to the wound ; and that when Alexander 
awoke from his sleep he remembered the vision, 
sought for, and found, the root, which grew in 
abundance ; and that he made use of it, both he 
himself and the others ; and that when the barbarians 
saw that the antidote had been discovered they 
surrendered to the king. But it is reasonable to 
suppose that someone who knew of the antidote 
informed the king, and that the fabulous element 
was added for the sake of flattery. Having arrived 
at the royal seat of the Gedrosii on the sixtieth day 
after leaving the Orae,^ Alexander gave his multi- 
tudinous army only a short rest and then set out for 

8. Such, then, on the southern side of Ariana, is 
about the geographical position of the seaboard and 



Kal tt)? v7T€pK€L/Ji€vr)<; TrXrjaiOP yi]<; tt)? twi/ 
TeSpcoo-lcov Kal 'D^peiTcov. ttoXXt) 8' earl Kal 
et? rrjv fjiecToyaiav avkyovaa Kal rj Tehpwaia 
piexpi' Tou avvd-ylrat Apdyyai<; re Kal 'Apa^wrot? 
Kal Ilapo'7ra/jLifTd8ai<;, irepl S)v 'YLparoaOevrj^; ovt(o<; 
€ipr}K€V (ov yap exofiip ri Xeyeip ^eXnov irepl 
avTMv)' opi^eaOai fiev yap (prjat rrjv ^Apiavrjv 
eK fxev Twv irpo^ eco rw ^IvSo), 7r/309 votov he rfj 
fieydXj) OaXdrrrjy irpo^ dpKTOV Be tm HapOTrafiLacp 
Kal rot? ef?}? opeac p^^XP'' Kacr7rt&)z^ ttvXmv, tcl 
he TTpo^ eairepav tol^ avTOL<; 6poi<;, ot? rj jxev 
HapOvTjvTj TTpb^i Mr)SiaVy r) he,avLa tt/oo? ttjv I 
IlapaLTaKrjvrjv Kal Hepalha htcopio-rai' irXdro^ ■ 
§£ tt)? Xdipci'i TO Tov 'Jvhov p^rjKO^ TO dlTO TOV 
UapoTTap^iaov p^expi' Toiiv eKJSoXMV, pvptoc Kal 
hi(Txi'Xiot (TTdhiOL (ol he Tpiaxi^Xiov^i (l)aaL)' p.rjK0<; 
he diro K.a(T7rto)v irvXoiv, o)? ev tol<; 'A(TiaTiK0L<: 
(TTadp,ol<; dvayeypaiTTai, hiTTov, P'^XP'' /^^^ 
^AXelavhpeia<i t?)? iv ^ApL0L<; aTro Kacnriayv 
TTvXcbv hia T7]<; UapOvala^; pbia Kal rj avTrj oSo9* 
elO^ r) pev eir evOela^ hia r?)? ^aKTpiavi]^ Kal 
Tr)9 v7repl3dae(o<; tov 6pov<; el<; ^OpToairava ^ eirl ^ 
Tr}v eK HdKTpcov Tpiohov, rjTL<; iaTlv ev toI<; Hapo- 
7rap.i(rdhai<;' rj h' eKTpeireTai p,LKpov diro t?)? 
'Ayota? 7r/309 votov eh Ilpo(f)0aaLav Trj<; Apay- 
yiavijf;' elra TrdXiv rj Xolitt] p^expi' twv opcov t^9 

^ 'OprSfTirava, Casaubon and later editors, for ^Op6<nrava, 
2 eTTt, Groskurd, for St4. 

1 Strabo refers to his description in §§ 1-3 (above). 

2 Ariana, not Gedrosia, as some think. 

3 Merely a portion of Ariana. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 8 

of the lands of the Gedrosii and Oreitae, which lands 
are situated next above the seaboard.^ It ^ is a large 
country, and even Gedrosia ^ reaches up into the 
interior as far as the Drangae, the Arachoti, and the 
Paropamisadae, concerning whom Eratosthenes has 
spoken as follows (for I am unable to give any better 
description). He says that Ariana is bounded on 
the east by the Indus River, on the south by the 
great sea, on the north by the Paropamisus moun- 
tain and the mountains that follow it as far as the 
Caspian Gates, and that its parts on the west are 
marked by the same boundaries by which Parthia is 
separated from Media and Carmania from Parae- 
tacene and Persis. He says that the breadth of the 
country is the length of the Indus from the Paro- 
pamisus mountain to the outlets, a distance of twelve 
thousand stadia (though some say thirteen thousand) ; 
and that its length from the Caspian Gates, as 
recorded in the work entitled Asiatic Stathmi,^ is 
stated in two ways : that is, as far as Alexandreia in 
the country of the Arii, from the Caspian Gates 
through the country of the Parthians, there is one 
and the same road ; and then, from there, one road 
leads in a straight line through Bactriana and over 
the mountain pass into Ortospana to the meeting of 
the three roads from Bactra, which city is in the 
country of the Paropamisadae ; whereas the other 
turns off slightly from Aria towards the south to 
Prophthasia in Drangiana, and the remainder of it 
leads back to the boundaries of India and to the 

* i.e. the various Halting -places in Asia. The same records 
have already been referred to in 15. 1. 11. The author of 
this work appears to have been a certain Amyntas, who 
accompanied Alexander on his expedition (see Athenaeus 11. 
500 D, 12. 529 E, 2. 67 a, and Aelian 17. 17). 



^lvSLKr](; KOi Tov ^IvSov' M(TT€ jxaicpoTepa eCTTLV 

avrr) r) Bia to)v Apayycov ical ^Apa)(^cjTcbv, arahicov 

fjivpicov iTevTaKLa)(^i\i(Ov TpiaKoaioov rj iraaa. el 

Q 724 S?7 Tt9 a(\>e\oi tov^ xCkiov^'^ TpiaKoaiov^, e^oi 

/i^"\ av TO XotTTOv TO eV ev6eia<;^ fjuijKOf; t?}? %a)yoa9, 

I /jLvpLcov Kol T6TpaKL(T')(^L\i(ov' ov TToXv yap eXarrov 

1 ro^. Trj<; irapaXia^, Kav irapav^wcri TLve<; avro^ 

7rpo<; Tot9 fivpLOL<i TTjv K.ap/JLavlav e^aKia^^iXccov 

ridevre^i' fj yap avv^ roh koXitoi^; (pai'ovvraL 

TiOivTCf; Tf avv rfj eVro? tov HepaLKOv koXttov 

irapaXia ttj Kapfiavncfj. iireicTeiveTaL he tov- 

vo/xa T% ^Apiav7]<; fiexpt' P'epov'^ tlvo's Kal Hepo-cov 

Kal MijBcDV Kal €TI tmv tt/jo? apKTOV BaKTpLCOV 

Kal '^oyBiavMV elal yap tto)? Kal ofioyXcoTTOt 

irapa jxiKpov. 

9. 'H he Td^i<; tmv eOvwv TOiavTr)' irapa fiev 
TOV '\vhov ol UapoTTafjLiadhai, mp vrrepKeiTai o 
YlapoiraiMiao^ dpo<;, etr' ' Apa-)(^(OTol tt/^o? votov, 
cIt e(f>€^7]<; 7r/)09 votov Tehpcoarjpol avv tol<; 
dXXoL<; T0t9 T^i' irapaXlav e^ovaiv airaai he 
irapa tcl ttXcltt] tS)v ')(^copiwv irapaKeLTai 6 ^ivho^. 
TovTcov h' (cK fiepov;) tcov irapd tov 'Ivhov eyovai 
Tiva 'Ivhoi, TTpoTepov ovTa Tiepawv a d^eiXeTO 
fiev 6 ^AXe^avhpo<; tmv ^ Apiavwv Kal KaTotKLa<; 
lhia<; avveaT^aaTO, ehcoKe he ^eXevKO<; 6 I^lkcltcdo 
XavhpoKOTTO), o-vvOe/jLevo<; eTTLya/jLiav Kal dvTi- 
Xaffcov eXecpavTa^ TrevTaKoaiov;. rot? Uapoira- 
fjLicrdhaL^ he irapaKeiVTai irpo^ Tr)v eairipav 'Apioi, 
TOL<; he 'A/)a%ft)T0i9 Apdyyai, Kal tol<; Tehp(0(noL<;' 

^ Instead of X'^^ows Di read rpicrx^^iovs. 

^ t6, Groskurd inserts. ^ aurS x, avrwv other MSS. 

* yap (Tvv F2:, yap ti.v avv other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 8-9 

Indus ; so that this road which leads through the 
country of the Drangae and Arachoti is longer, its 
entire length being fifteen thousand three hundred 
stadia. But if one should subtract one thousand 
three hundred, one would have as the remainder the 
length of the country in a straight line, fourteen 
thousand stadia; for the length of the seacoast is 
not much less,^ although some writers increase the 
total, putting down, in addition to the ten thousand 
stadia, Carmania with six thousand more ; for they 
obviously reckon the length either along with the 
gulfs or along with the part of the Carmanian sea- 
coast that is inside the Persian Gulf; and the name 
of Ariana is further extended to a part of Persia and 
of Media, as also to the Bactrians and Sogdians on V^ 
the north ; for these speak approximately the same 
language, with but slight variations. 

9. The geographical position of the tribes is as 
follows : along the Indus are the Paropamisadae, 
above whom lies the Paropamisus mountain: then, 
towards the south, the Arachoti : then next, towards 
the south, the Gedroseni, with the other tribes that 
occupy the seaboard; and the Indus lies, latitudin- 
ally, alongside all these places ; and of these places, 
in part, some that lie along the Indus are held by 
Indians, although they formerly belonged to the 
Persians. Alexander took these away from the 
Arians and established settlements of his own, but 
Seleucus Nicator gave them to Sandrocottus, upon 
terms of intermarriage and of receiving in exchange 
five hundred elephants. Alongside the Paromisadae, 
on the west, are situated the Arii, and alongside the 
Arochoti and Gedrosii the Drangae; but the Arii 

1 The length given in § 1 (above) is 13,900. 



ol S' "ApiOL rot? ^pdyyai'; a/ma fcal 'jTpo<; apxrov 
TrapciKeivrai koI tt/oo? eairepav, eyKV/cXovfMevot, 
fXLKpd TTO)?. r) he 3aKTpiav7] rfj re ^Apla 7rp6<i 
dpKTOV^ TrapaKeirac kol rot? Ilap07rafMiadBaL<i, 
8t' wvirep ^AXi^apSpo^ virepepaXe top KavKaaov, 
iXavvcov TTjv iirl ^aKTpcov TTyoo? kairepav Be 
e</>ef^9 elaL tol<; ^ Kpioi^ YlapOvatoi koI tcl irepl 
Ta9 KaaTTLovf; TruXa?* 7r/)09 votov Be TOVTOi<i rj 
epr)fjLO<; rrjf; Kap/jiavLa<;, elO^ rj Xolttt) Kap/jLavia 
KoX TeSp(0(7ia. 

10. Vvolri K av Tf? TCL irepl rrjv XexOelaav 
opecvrjv en fidWov, TrpoaLaropyjaa^i rrjv oBov, y 
e)(^p7J(TaT0 BicoKcov Tov<i irepl Brjaabv co? eVt 
BdKTpcov 'AX€^avBpo<i eV t?}? IlapOvr]P7]<;. 6t9 
yap rrjv 'Apiavrjv r)Kev' eW et? Apdyya<;, ottov 
^tXayrav dvetXe top liapfieviwvo^ vlov, (pcopdaa^; 
eni^ovXtjv eTre/JL'^e Be fcal €i? 'FtK^drava tou9 
Kal rov irarepa avrov dveXovvra^, 6i^ kolvcovov 
T7}9 eTTi^ovXTJf!. (jiaal B' avTov^ eirl BpofidBcov 
KafJLrjXdyv oBov r)/iep(bv rpidKovra rj kol rerra- 
pdfcovra evBeKaraiovi Biavvaat Kal reXevrrjaat 
TT/V TTpd^iv. ol Be ^pdyyai irepai^ovTe^ rdXXa 
Kara rov ^iov oivov airavL^ovai, yiverat Be irap 
avTol<; KaTTLTepo<i. elr eK Apayycov eiri re to 1)9 
EvepyeTa^ rjKev, 01)9 Kvpo<; ovtco<; a)v6p,aa€, Kal 
TO 1)9 'Apa^ft)T0U9, elra Bid tmv UapOTra/jLiaaBcov 
C 725 VTTO nX€ia§09 Bvaiv earc 8' opetvr] Kal Kext^ovo- 
fioXy-jTO Tore, axrre %aXe7rw9 ooBevero' irvKval 
ixevroi Kcofxai Bexofievai irdvTcov eviropoi irXrjv 

^ &pKTov, Kramer and later editors, for api<rrep6v. 

1 i.e. Philotas. ^ i.e. " Benefactors." 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 9-10 

are situated alongside the Drangae on the north as 
well as on the west, almost surrounding a small part 
of their country. Bactriana lies to the north along- 
side both Aria and the Paropamisadae, through 
whose country Alexander passed over the Caucasus 
on his march to Bactra. Towards the west, next to 
the Arii, are situated the Parthians and the region 
round the Caspian Gates ; and to the south of these 
lies the desert of Carmania; and then follows the 
rest of Carmania and Gedrosia. 

10. One would understand still better the accounts 
of the aforesaid mountainous country if one inquired 
further into the route which Alexander took in his 
pursuit of Bessus from the Parthian territory towards 
Bactriana; for he came into Ariana, and then 
amongst the Drangae, where he put to death the 
son of Parmenio,^ whom he caught in a plot ; and he 
also sent persons to Ecbatana to put to death the 
father of Philotas, as an accomplice in the plot. It 
is said that these persons, riding on dromedaries, 
completed in eleven days a journey of thirty days, 
or even forty, and accomplished their undertaking. 
The Drangae, who otherwise are imitators of the 
Persians in their mode of life, have only scanty 
supplies of wine, but they have tin in their country. 
Then, from the Drangae, Alexander went to the 
Evergetae,2 who were so named by Cyrus ,^ and to 
the Arachoti ; and then, at the setting of the Pleiad, 
through the country of the Paropamisadae, a country 
which is mountainous, and at that time was covered 
with snow, so that it was hard to travel. However, 
numerous villages, well supplied with everything 

^ Cyrus the Elder — in return for their kindly services when 
he marched through the desert of Carmania (Arrian 3. 27, 37). 



iXalov irapefivOovvTo ra? hvdKoXLa^' el^ov re iv 
apLarepa Ta<; aKp(opeia<;. ecm he ra /xea-rjfi^piva 
fjuev Tov 6pov<; rod YlapoTrap^corov ^IvhiKci re koI 
^Apiavd' ra Be irpocrapKria ra fiev tt/do? eairepav 
BaKrpta, ra Be 7r/309 eo) rwv opopcop^ rol^; 
BaKrpioi^ ^apffdpcov. Bia'^eipdaa^ 3' avroOi, 
vrrepSe^iov 6%ft)i' rrjv ^IvBiKrjv, Kal ttoXiv Kri(Ta<; 
vTTeprjKpLaev eh rrjv BaKrptavrjv Sea 'yjriXwv oScov 
7r\r)V reppivOov OapvoaBov^ oXiyt]';, drropovpevo<s 
Kal rpo^rj<^, a>are raL<; roiv Krr)V(op aap^l ')(pr]adai, 
Kal ravraL<; wpual^ Sia rrjv d^vXiav 7rpo<; Be rrjv 
oopoairlav TreirriKov r)v avrot<; ro (TiXf^iov, ttoXv 
7re(f>vK6<;. irevreKaiBeKaralo^i Be diro tt)? Kricr- 
OeL(Trj<; 7r6Xeco<; Kal rcov ')(^eLp,aBi(DV riKev eh 
"ABpayfra, ttoXlv rr}^ BaKrpiavr]<;. 

11. tie pi ravra Be irov ra p^epr] rr}<i opuopov rfj 
IvBcKrj Kal rrjv X.aapr)VT}v elvai Gvp^aivev ean 
Be ra)v viro rol<; llapOvaloi<i avrrj irpoaey^ecrrdrr] 
ry ^IvBiK^' Bie^ei Be rrj^ ^Apiavrj<i Bi ^Apa)(^o)r(av 
Kal T?)? Xe')(del(Trj<:; 6peivr]<; a-raBLOv<; pvpiov<^ evva- 
KLaxiXi,ov<i. ravrrjv Be rrjv ')(^copav Bte^LODV K/ja- 
reyoo?, Kara(Trpe(f)6pevo<i dpa rov<; d7ret.0ovvra<;, yei 
avp,pL^ai rrjv ra')(^iarrjv airevBwv rw jSaa-tXel. Kal 

^ ra 5e irphs ecu twv 6/j.6p(ou, lacuna supplied by Jones. to7s 
BoKTpiois fiapfidpojv omitted by E (this MS., however, leaves 
a space of about three words) and by moz ; rots BaKrpiois 
fiap^dpoLs iwx, Casaubon and Corais (who, however, place an 
asterisk before the words) ; Kramer conj. ra Se irphs %'ju 
5o75joj'<£ (citing 11. 8. 8, 11. 11. 2, 3); Muller-Diibner and 
Meineke merely indicate a lacuna before rots Bavrpiois 

1 Strabo seems to refer to the juice of the "terebinth" 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. lo-ii 

except oil, received them and alleviated their 
troubles; and they had the mountain summits on 
their left. Now the southern parts of the Paro- 
pamisus mountain belong to India and Ariana ; but 
as for the parts on the north, those towards the west 
belong to the Bactrians, whereas those towards the 
east belong to the barbarians who border on the 
Bactrians. He spent the winter here, with India 
above him to the right, and founded a city, and then 
passed over the top of the mountain into Bactriana, 
through roads that were bare of everything except a 
few terebinth trees of the shrub kind ; and was so 
in lack of food that it was necessary to eat the flesh 
of the beasts of burden, and, for lack of wood, even 
to eat it raw. But the silphium, which grew in 
abundance there,i was helpful in the digestion of the 
raw food. On the fifteenth day after founding the 
city and leaving his winter quarters, he came to 
Adrapsa,2 a city in Bactriana. 

11. Somewhere in the neighbourhood of these 
parts of the country that borders on India lies 
Chaarene; and this, of all the countries subject to 
the Parthians, lies closest to India. It is distant 
from Ariana,^ through the land of the Arachoti and 
the above-mentioned mountainous country, nineteen 
thousand stadia.* Craterus traversed this country, 
at the same time subduing all who refused to submit, 
and went by the quickest route, being eager to join 

2 " Adrapsa " is probably an error for " Gadrapsa " (see 
Vol. V, p. 280, note 3). 

^ An error, apparently, for Aria. 

* This figure, as given in the MSS., is preposterous. But a 
slight emendation yields " ten, or nine, thousand stadia," 
which is more nearly correct. 



Br) irepl TOv<i avTOv<; ')(p6vov<; a')(eh6v ri avveBpa/jbov 
et? Tr)v Kapfiavlav at ire^al Bvvd/Ji,€i<; ajji^oTepaL. 
KoX fxiKpov varepov ol irepl Neap')(^ov elaeirXeov 
eU TOP TiepaiKov koXttov, ttoWcl Ta\ai,7ro)prj(TavT6<; 
Sea rrjv aXrjv koI Tr)v TaXaiTTWpiav koX to, fieyeOrj 

12. EIko<; fxev ovv irpo^ virep^oXrjv rjhokeaxv 
K6vai rroWa tov<; wXeva-avTa^;, o/zo)? B' ovv elpj]- 
KacTi irapaBrfKovvre^ afia Koi to Trapaarav avTol<i 
7rdOo<;, BiOTi it poarBoKLa jxaXkov rj kI,vBvvo<; vTrijpx^ 
Tol<i aK,7)6eai. to Be /uLaXicTTa TapuTTOV (pvarjT^jpcov 
fieyidrj, povv direpya^ofjievcov /xeyav dOpoov /cat 
d^Xvv eK TMV dva<pV(Tr]/idT(ov, Mcne to, irpo ttoBmv 
fieprj pLTj opdaOar iirel 8' ol /€aOr}y€fi6v€<; tov 
ttXov, BeBtoTcov TavTa twv dvOpcoircoi', Tr)v 8' 
alTiav ovx opcovTcov, i/jLTjuvaav, otl Orjpia etrj, 
Taxa 8' diraXXdTTOtTO adXiriyyof; d/covaavTa 
Koi KpoTOv, eK TOVTOV ^Niupxo^ TaL<; vavalv eirrjye 
fiev TO podioVy KaGi* airep eKcoXvov, /cat a/ia rat? 
o-dXiTiy^iv e(^6j3er to, Be drfpia eBvvev, eW dve- 
<f>aiv€TO KUTa irpvfivav, coo-Te vavfjbaxia<; dycoviav 
irapetxGV dXX' auTu/ca dcplaTaTo, 

13. Aeyovac fiev ovv koi ol vvv irXeovTC'; eh 
'IvBov^ fieyeOr) dr)pi(ov koX ein^avela^y dXX^ ovTe 
dOpooav ovT eirKpepop^evcov iroXXuKL^i, dXX diroao- 
^rjdevTa Tjj /cpavyrj koX tj} (jaXiriyyi dircCKKaT- 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 11-13 

the king ; and indeed both forces of infantry gathered 
together in Carmania at about the same time. And 
a Httle later Nearchus sailed with his fleet into the 
Persian Gulf, having often suffered distress because 
of his wanderings and hardships and the huge 

12. Now it is reasonable to suppose that those who 
made the journey by sea have prated in many cases 
to the point of exaggeration ; but nevertheless their 
statements show indirectly at the same time the 
trouble with which they were afflicted — that under- 
lying their real hardships there was apprehension 
rather than peril. But what disturbed them most 
was the spouting whales, which, by their spoutings, 
would emit such massive streams of water and mist 
all at once that the sailors could not see a thing 
that lay before them. But the pilots of the voyage 
informed the sailors, who were frightened at this and 
did not see the cause of it, that it was caused by 
creatures in the sea, and that one could get rid of 
them by sounding trumpets and making loud noises ; 
and consequently Nearchus led his fleet towards the 
tumultuous spoutings of the whales, where they 
impeded his progress, and at the same time frightened 
them with trumpets ; and the whales first dived, and 
then showed up at the sterns of the ships, thus 
affording the spectacle of a naval combat, but 
immediately made off. 

13. Those who now sail to India, however, also 
speak of the size of these creatures and of their 
manner of appearance, but do not speak of them 
either as appearing in large groups or as often 
making attacks, though they do speak of them as 
being scared away and got rid of by shouts and 



C 726 reaOai. (jyacl B* avra fxev fir) 7r\')](rid^€iv rfj 
ryfj, ra 3* 6(Trd BiaXvOivTcov yjnXwdevra ckkv- 
ixaiveadai paBCa><; koI ')(opr}ry€lv rr]v Xe^Oelaav 
v\r)v TOi? '\')(dvo<f)d^oL<; irepl ra? KaXvjSoiroLia';. 
/jbeyedo^i Be tmv ktjtcop ^rjaiv 6 ^eap)(^o<i rpLcov 
KoX eLKOCTiv bpyvLcov. iricnevOev ri Be iKavco^ 
vTTOTCov iv Tw (TToXft) (J)7](tIv Niap^o^i e^eXey^ai 
■x/reu^o? 6v ct)9 €cr) ti<; iv r^ iropw vrjao^, r) 
d<f)avi^oi Tou? irpocTopfjiiaOeina^' Kepfcovpov yap 
Tiva irXeovra, eireiBr) /card rrfv vrjaov ravrrjv 
eyey ovei, fiTjKerL opaOrjvai' 7reiJb(j)6evTa<; Be TLva<; 
iirl rr)V ^rJTrjcriv ix^rjvaL jjuev jxtj Oappelv et9 t^i' 
vrjcrov eKirXeovra^, dvaKaXelv Be /cpavyfj Tov<i 
dpOpcoTTov^i, fi7}Bevo<; B' v7raKOvovro<;, eiraveXOelv, 
dirdvTcov B' aiTKOfjuevcov ttjp vPjaov, avTo^; ecfyrj 
irXevaaL Kal Trpoaop/jiLaOeU eK/Srjvai fiera [xepov<; 
Tcov orvfJbirXevadvTwv Kal TrepteXOetv rrjv vrjaov 
tw9 B' ovBev €vpc(TKev lxvo<; tcov ^rjrovfMevcov, 
uTToyvovTa eiraveXOelv Kal BiBd^ai tou? dvOpoo- 
TTOf?, ft)9 rj jjiev vrjao^i '\jrevBrj rrjv airLav e^oi 
(Kal yap avrcp Kal tol<; avveK^dcnv 6 avro^ 
virdp^ai av^ cj)d6po<;), d\Xo<; Be ri? rw KepKOvpo) 
rpoiTo^ rod d^avtafXov av/JLJSair}, jjLVpiwv ovrcov 

14. 'H Be Kapfiavia reXevraia jxev eari rrj(; 
diro rod ^IvBov ^ irapaXia'^, dpKriKwrepa B earl 
TToXv rrj<; rod ^IvBov eK/3oXi]<;- ro fievroL irpSirov 
avrrj<; aKpov eKKeirai 7rpo<; vorov et? rrjv fjueydXTjv 

^ 6.V, added by moz and the editors. 

2 The words irapaXlas . . . "ivSov are omitted by all MSS. 
except EF. 

1 15. 2. 2. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 13-14 

trumpets. They say that these creatures do not 
approach the land, but that the bones of those that 
have died, when bared of flesh, are readily thrown 
ashore by the waves, and supply the Ichthyophagi 
vdth the above-mentioned material for the construc- 
tion of their huts.^ According to Nearchus, the size 
of the whiles is twenty-three fathoms.^ Nearchus 
says that he found to be false a thing confidently 
believed by the sailors in the fleet — I mean their 
belief that there was an island in the passage which 
caused the disappearance of all who moored near it ; 
for he says that, although a certain light boat on a 
voyage was no longer to be seen after it approached 
this island, and although certain men sent in quest 
of the lost people sailed out past the island and 
would not venture to disembark upon it, but called 
the people with loud outcry, and, when no one 
answered their cry, came on back, yet he himself, 
though one and all charged their disappearance to 
the island, sailed thither, moored there, disembarked 
with a part of those who sailed with him, and went 
all over it ; but that he found no trace of the people 
sought, gave up his search, came on back, and in- 
formed his people that the charge against the island 
was false (for otherwise both he himself and those 
who disembarked with him would have met with 
the same destruction), but that the disappearance of 
the light boat took place in some other way, since 
countless other ways were possible. 

14. Carmania is last on the seaboard that begins 
at the Indus, though it is much more to the north 
than the outlet of the Indus. The first promontory 
of Carmania, however, extends out towards the 

2 i.e. about 140 feet in length. 


OdXarrav, iroirjcraaa ^ he to GTO\xa rov YlepcriKOV 
koXttov 7rpo<i Tr]v airo tt}? euBaijjLOVOs: ^Apa/Sla^; 
aKpav, iv aTroy^et, ovaav, Ka/jLTrreTai irpo^ rov 
UepcTifcov koXttov, eco? av avvdy^r) rfi Tiepaihi,' 
ttoWtj Se KoX 6v ^ rfj /jbeaoyaia icrrlv eKreivo/jLevrj 
fieTa^v T?)9 Vehpwcria^ koX t?}? Tlepaiho^, irapaX- 
Xdrrovaa irXeov tt}? VeBpcoaw irpo^ rrjv dpKTOV. 
SrjXoi S' 77 evKapiria' koX yap 7rd/jL<f>opo<; koI 
fMeyaX6BevBpo<; ttXtjv €Xaia<; Kal iroTafiol^ Kardp- 
pvro^. r) he Vehpcoala hia^epei fxiicpov rrj^ tcov 
^l)(^Ovo(f)dya)v, war dKapiria Karex^i 7roXXdKi<;' 
Bib (puXdrrovcri rov eviavcnov Kapirov eh errj 
irXeicd rafiievofjuepoi.. 'Ovr)aLKpLTO<i Be Xeyei irora- 
fjLOV ev ry Kap/jLavia Karacj^epovra yjri^y/jLara 
Xpvo'ov' Kal opvKTOV Be elvat, fieraXXov Kal 
dpyvpov Kal ')(^aXKov Kal /jLlXtov oprj re elvai 
Bvo, TO fiev dpcrevLKOv, to Be aX.09. e^j^ei Be 
TLva Kal eprj/jLov (TwdirT ovaav tjBtj ttj Ylapdvaia 
Kal Tjj TiapairaKrivfj. yeoipyia S' e;^et irapa- 
TTXrjaLa tol<; IlepaiKol<;, Ta re dXXa Kal dfjLireXov 
TavTT)<; B^ 77 Kapfjiavia Xeyo/jLevrj "Trap* tj/jllv Kal 
Bltttj^vv e%6£ 7roXXdKi<; tov ^orpvv, irvKvoppcoyd 
C 727 T€ ovra Kal /JueyaXoppcoya, rjv elKo<; eKel euepveaTe- 
pav elvaL. 'y^payvraL 8' 6vol<; ol ttoXXoI Kal irpb^ 
TToXe/jLov airdvei tcov 'lttttcov ovov re Bvovai tw 
"Apet, ovnep Kal^ ae^ovTai dewv fiovov, Kal elai 
iToXefJLKTTaL yafiel B' o\jBei<^, irplv av iroXefxiov 

^ 'iToi-i](Ta(Ta, Kramer, for Troii](Tas. ^ iu, E inserts. 

^ ovTrep Kai, Oorais, from conj. of Bertram, for tv ir4p<Tai. 

1 So the Greek word, but of course Strabo means yellow 
orpiment (arsenic trisulphide). 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 14 

south into the great sea ; and Carmania, after form 
ing, along with the cape that extends from Arabia 
FeHx, which is in full view, the mouth of the Persian 
Gulf, bends towards the Persian Gulf until it borders 
on Persis. Carmania is a large country and, in the 
interior, extends Ibetween Gedrosia and Persis, 
although it deviates more towards the north than 
Gedrosia. This is plainly indicated by its fruitful- 
ness ; for it produces all manner of fruits, is full of 
large trees except the olive, and is also watered by 
rivers. Gedrosia differs but little from the country 
ofThe Ichthyophagi, and therefore often suffers crop 
failures ; and on this account they keep the annual 
crop in storage, dealing it out for several years. 
Onesicritus speaks of a river in Carmania that brings 
down gold-dust; and he says that there are also 
mines of silver and copper and ruddle, and also that 
there are two mountains, one consisting of arsenic ^ 
and the other of salt. Carmania also has a desert 
which borders at once ^ upon Parthia and Paraeta- 
cene. And it has farm crops similar to those of the 
Persians, the vine among all the rest. It is from this 
vine that " the Carmanian," as we here call it, 
originated — a vine which often has clusters of even 
two cubits,^ these clusters being thick with large 
grapes ; and it is reasonable to suppose that this 
vine is more flourishing there than here. Because 
of scarcity of horses most of the Carmanians use w 
asses, even for war; and they sacrifice an ass to /A 
Ares, the only god they worship, and they are a 
warlike people. No one marries before he has cut 

2 i.e. at its north-western corner. 
' In circumference, surely. 



K€(j)a\r]p a7roT€fiQ)v dveveyfcr) iirl top ^aaiXia' 
6 he TO Kpaviov fxev iirl tmv ^acikeiwv dvariOrjo-i, 
TTjv Be ryXMTTav XeiTTOTOfjL'ijaa'; Kal^ KaTafjiL^a<; 
dXevpo), y€vad/j.6vo<i avro<; BlBcoai rw dveveyKavri 
Kol TOt? olKeloi^ Karao-LTTjaaaOaL' evBo^oraro'; 8' 
iarlp, w irXelarat Kej)aXa\ dvrjvexOvcrav. lS\eap^o<^ 
Be rd TrXetara eOr] koI Tr)v BidXe/crov tmv Kap- 
fjLaviTcov YlepaiKu re fcal Mr)BiKd e'lprjxe. rb Be 
arofia rov HepaiKov koXttov ov ^ fxel^ov BidpfxaTO^ 


1. Mera Be Kap/iaviav rj Uepal^ ean, ttoXXt) 
fiev ev TTJ irapaXia rod djr^ auT% ovo/na^ojuievov 
koXttov, TToXij Be fxei^wv ev rfj /jLeaoyaCa, koI 
fidXiara iirl iJbrjKos ro diro rov vorov /cal tt)? 
Kappai'la^ iirl rd<; dpfcrov^ Kal rd irepl MrjBiav 
eOvT). rpirrr]^ 3* e'crrl Kal rfj (pvaei Kal rrj rcop 
depcov Kpdcrei. r) fiev yap nrapaXia Kav/juarijpd 
re Kal d/jufMcoBrj^; ^ Kal aTraviart} Kap7rol<^ earc 
irXrjV ^oLviKcov (ocrov ev rerpaKC(T')(t,Xioif; Kal 
rerpaKoaLOi<; rj rpiaKoaLoi<; e^era^op^evrj araBtot^i, 
Karaarpe(f)ovaa eh irorafiov fxeyiarov rcov ravrr), 
KaXovfievov ^Opoariv)' t) 3' virep ravrr)<; earl 
irdfi^opo'^ Kal rrreBivr) Kal Ope/jufidrcov dpiarr) 
T/oo<^o9, 7rorafjiOL<; re Kal XifjuvaL^ TrXrjOvei. rpirrj 
B' iarlv r) 7rpo<i ffoppdv %ei/^e/9£09 Kal opeivrj' irpof; 
Be ral<i ea^ariai^; elaiv ol KafiTjXo/Boo-KoL /a^/co? 

^ KOI, added by vz and the editors. 

2 ov, inserted by Corais. 

^ rpiTT-f] Ex, TpLTT] other MSS. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. 2. 14-3. i 

off the head of an enemy and brought it to the king ; 
and the king stores the skull in the royal palace ; 
and he then minces the tongue, mixes it with flour, 
tastes it himself, and gives it to the man who brought 
it to him, to be eaten by himself and family; and 
that king is held in the highest repute to whom the 
most heads have been brought. Nearchus states 
that the language and most of the customs of the 
Carmam'ans are like those of the Medes and Persians. 
The voyage across the mouth of the Persian Gulf 
requires no more than one day. 


1. After Carmania one comes to Persis. A large 
portion of this country lies on the seaboard of the 
gulf which is named after it, but a much larger 
portion of it lies in the interior, particularly in the 
direction of its length, that is, from the south and 
Carmania towards the north and the tribes of Media. 
Persjs is of a threefold character, both in its nature 
and in the temperature of its air. For, in the first 
place, its seaboard is burning hot, sandy, and stinted 
of fruits except dates (its length is reckoned at about 
forty-four, or forty-three, hundred stadia, and it 
terminates at the largest of the rivers in that part 
of the world, the Oroatis, as it is called) ; secondly, 
the portion above the seaboard produces everything, 
is level, and is excellent for the rearing of cattle, 
and also abounds with rivers and lakes ; the third 
portion, that on the north, is wintry and moun- 
tainous ; and it is on the borders of this portion that 
the camel-breeders live. Now, according to Eratos- 

* dfifjLwSTis, Tyrwhitt, for ave/icoSTjs ; so the later editors. 


/jLev ovv iart Kar ^EparoaOevrj ro eVt ra^; 
dpKTOV^ Kol ra? Kao-Trtou? irvXa^ irepl oKraKia- 
%tXta)i/, Kara Tiva<; TTpOTrnrTOvaa^ afcpa<!, Xoittt} 
S* earlv iirl KaorirLOVi 'TTv\a<; ov irXetov ij rcov 
Sia'^iXicoV 7r\dT0<; Be to iv rfj fjueaoyaia to airo 
'^ovacov et? UepaiiroXLV ^ (rrdSLoi T€TpaKt<T')(^i,Xioi 
BiaKoaioi, KCLvrevOev eirl tov<; tt)? Kapfiavla<; opov<; 
dXkoL 'x^LXlol e^aKoaiOL. (pvXa Se^ oI/c€l rrjv 
')(^copav oX re IlaTefcr^o/jet? Xe^yofxevoi KaX oi 
*AxctifJi€vlBai, Kal ol MaYot* ovTOi fxev ovv aefivov 
Tiv6<; elai fiiov ^rfKwTaiy YLvprioi Be Kal Ma/jSot^ 
XrjarptKOi, dXXoi, Be yecopyiKoL 

2. '$x^B6v Be Ti Kal rj '^ovaU yitepo? yeyevrjrat 
T% neyocr/8o9, fJLera^u avrrj^ Keifievr) Kal t^9 Ba/Sf- 
Xct)VLa'i, e^ovaa ttoXiv d^ioXoycdTaTTjv ra Xovaa. 
ol yap Hepo-af. KparrjaavTe^ yirjBwv Kal 6 Kvpc;, 
opcovre^ ttjv fiev oiKelap yrjv eir^ €a)(^dTOC<; ttov 
Tarro/uLevy^v, rrjv Be ^ovaiBa evBorepfo Kal irXr]- 
(TLairepav rfj ^a^vXcovla Kal to?? dX\,oi<i eOveaiv, 
evTavOa eOevro to rijf; rfyefiovla^ fiaaiXeiov' dfia 
Kal TO o/jLopov T?}? ')(^copa<; diroBe^dpLevoL Kal to 
C 728 d^iwfia tt)? 7ro\e&)9 Kal KpeljTOv to pbrjBeiTOTe 
KaO^ eavTTjv Tr)v ^ovalBa TrpayfidTcov fieydXcov 
e'Trrj(3oXov yeyovevai, dXX^ del v(f eTep0L<; virdp^ai 
Kal iv /Jiepei TeTa^Oai'^ a-varij/jLarof; /neu^ovo^;, 
ttXtjv el dpa to iraXaiov to Kara tou? rjpcoa^. 
Xeyerai yap Br) Kal Kriafxa TlOcovov Mc/jlvovo^ 
irarpo'^, kvkXov e)(ovaa eKarov Kal etKoai o-raBlcov, 

^ UepaiiroXis E, UfpffaitroXis other MSS. 

2 Se, the editors, for re. 

' MapSot, Casaubon, for ^lapaoi. 

* reraxOai, Corais, for Tera/CTat. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 1^2 

thenes, the length of the country towards the north 
and the Caspian Gates is about eight thousand stadia, 
if reckoned from certain promontories,^ and the 
remainder to the Caspian Gates is not more than 
two thousand stadia ; ^ and the breadth, in the 
interior, from Susa to PersepoHs, is four thousand 
two hundred stadia, and thence to the borders of 
Carmania sixteen hundred more. The tribes which 
inhabit the country are the Pateischoreis, as they 
are called, and the Achaemenidae and the Magi. 

\ Now the Magi follow with zeal a kind of august life, 
whereas the Cyrtii and the Mardi are brigands and 
others are farmers. 

2. I might almost say that Susis also is a part of 
Persis ; it lies between Persis and Babylonia and has 
a most notable city, Susa. For the Persians and 
Cyrus, after mastering the Medes, saw that their 
native land was situated rather on the extremities 

. of their empire, and that Susa was farther in and 
nearer to Babylonia and the other tribes, and there- 
fore established the royal seat of their empire at 
Susa. At the same time, also, they were pleased 
with the high standing of the city and with the fact 
that its territory bordered on Persis, and, better still, 
with the fact that it had never of itself achieved any- 
thing of importance, but always had been subject to 
others and accounted merely a part of a larger 
political organisation, except, perhaps, in ancient 
times, in the times of the heroes. For Susa too is 
said to have been founded by Tithonus the father 
of Memnon, with a circuit of one hundred and 

1 The text seems to be corrupt. A clearer statement of 
this same dimension, as quoted from Eratosthenes, is given in 
2. 1. 26. 

2 In 2. 1. 26 the text reads "about three thousand stadia." 


7rapa/jLi]fcr)<; rw cr^?;/xaTt* rj 8* aKp67roXi<; ixaXeLTO 
M.€/j,v6viov' Xeyovrat 8e Kal KiaaiOL ol Xovaior 
(j)r]al Be fcal AtV^yXo? Tr)V jxrjTepa M€/jlvovo<; 
Kiaalav. TaSTJvai Be Xeyerai Mc/jlvcov irepl 
HdXrov T?}? Zvpia<; irapa l^aBdv Trora/mov, co? 
elp-qKe ^LfJLwvihi^^ iv MifivovL SiOvpa/jL^cp tmv 
A7]XiaK(av, to Be rel^o^ ^koBo/xtjto Trj<; TroXeo)? 
fcal lepa koX ^aalXeta irapaTrXi^aiw^, Mairep ra 
T(ov ^affvXcovLcov ef ottt?}? irXivdov Kal dcKJxiX- 
TOVy KaOdirep elprjKaai rive^. TioXvKXeiTO^ re 
Bia/coaicov (f)7)(T\ rov kvkXov koI drei'X^LorTov. 

3. Koa/jLi]aavT€<; Be ra iv ^ovctol^ ^aaCXeia 
fMaXiaTa twv dXXcov, ovBev y^ttov koI rd iv 
HepaeTToXet, Kal rd iv Ila(TapydBai<; i^€Ti/jL7]aav' 
Kal r) ye yd^a Kal ol drjaavpol Kal rd fivrniara 
ivravOa rjv toU Tle/jo-ai?, 009 iv tottol^; ipvpivore- 
poL<; Kal djia 7rpoyoviKOL<;. rjv Be Kal dXXa 
^aaiXeia rd iv Td/Sai^ iv to?9 dveoTepco ttov 
fxepecTi TTj^ TlepalBo^i Kal rd iv rfj irapaXia rd 
Kard TrjV TaoKrjv^ Xeyo/juevrjv. ravra fjuev rd 
Kara rrjv rwv Hepa-cov dp')(rjv, ol S' varepov 
dXXoi^ i^pT^crciVTO, 0)9 6tVo9, evTeXearepoi^ tktlv, 
are Kal t^9 TlepalBo^; yXaTT(t)/jLevr]<i vtto re tc!)v 
MaKcBovcov Kal en jxdXXov virb tmv TiapOvaiwv. 
Kal ydp el ^aaiXevovTai fiexpi' vvv lBiov ffaaiXea 
e;^oi^T69 ol Yiepaai, rfj ye Bwd/juei, TrXelarov 
diToXeiiTovTai Kal Ta> UapOvaicov irpoae'X^ova-i 

4. Td fiev ovv ^ovaa iv fieaoyaioi'^ Kelrai iirl 
T<p X.od(T7rrj TroTa/jLO) irepanepw Kard to ^evy/ia, 

^ TaoKTjy, Casaubon, for ''H/ctji' DA, ^Oktjv {'OK-fiv F), other 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 2-4 

twenty stadia, and oblong in shape ; and its acropolis 
was called Memnonium; and the Susians are also 
called Cissians ; and Aeschylus ^ calls the mother of 
Memnon Cissia. Memnon is said to have been 
buried in the neighbourhood of Paltus in Syria, by 
the river Badas, as Simonides states in his dithyramb 
entitled Memnon, one of his Delian poems. The wall 
and the temples and the royal palace were built like 
those of the Babylonians, of baked brick and asphalt, 
as some -writers state. Polycleitus says that the city 
is two hundred stadia in circuit and that it has no 

3. Although they adorned the palace at Susa more 
than any other, they esteemed no less highly the 
palaces at Persepolis and Pasargadae ; at any rate, 
the treasure and the riches and the tombs of the 
Persians were there, since they were on sites that 
were at the same time hereditary and more strongly 
fortified by nature. And there were also other 
palaces — that at Gabae, somewhere in the upper 
parts of Persis, and that on the coast near Taoce, as 
it is called. These were the palaces in the time of 
the empire of the Persians, but the kings of later 
times used others, naturally less sumptuous, since 
Persis had been weakened, not only by the Mace- 
donians, but still more so by the Parthians. For 
although the Persians are still under the rule of a 
king, having a king of their own, yet they are most 
deficient in power and are subject to the king of the 

4. Now Susa is situated in the interior on the 
Choaspes River at the far end of the bridge, but its 

1 Persae 17. 118. 



ry Se %&)/)« I^^XP'' '"'V^ Oa\dTT7}<; KaOy/cei' /cat eariv 
avTrj<; rj irapakia fiexpi' to)v eK^oXoov axe^op n 
Tov Tiypio<; airo rwv opwv tt)? Yi€pcrLKrj<i irapakia'^ 
araBlcov co? Tpiaxf^Xiwv. pel he Bia t?}? x^P^^ ^ 
l^odaTTTjf; eh rrjv avrrjv jeXevToyv irapoXiav, 
diro TMv Ov^icov ra<i oLpx^<; ^X^^' Trape/i- 
TTLiTTec yap rt? opeivr) rpax^lcL kul dTTorofio^i 
fjueTa^v r(bv ^ov(tlcov kol ty}^ Ilep(TLBo<;, areva 
exovaa Bva-TrdpoSa kul dv6.pco7rov<; XrjaTd^i, o'l 
/jLi(TOov<i eirpuTTovro fcal avrov^; tou? ^acriXia^; 
Kara ttjp i/c liovawv eh Ilepaa^ elo-^oXrjv. 
(prjal Be TIoXvkX€lto<; eh \lfivr)v tlvcl avjx^dXXeLV 

TOV T€ X.od(T7rr}V KOL TOV ^jvXaiOV -^ /Cal eTL TOP 

Tiypcv, eW eKeWev eh ttjv OdXaTTav eKBiBovai' 
7rp6<; Be Tjj Xi/jLPrj kol e/jLTTopiOP elpai, tcop ttotu- 
C 729 ficop fiev ov Bexo/Jbevcov to, ere Trj<; 6aXdTTr]<i, ovBe 
KUTaTrefiTrovTcov Bia tov<; KaTapdKTa<; eTVLTTjBe^ 
yevofievov^i, '^e^fj 8' einropevofxevwv' 6/CTaKoaLOv^ 
yap elpau aTaBiov^ eh ^ovaa Xeyovacp.^ dXXoi 
Be (f)a(Ti Toi'9 Bia Xovaicop iroTajLtov'; eh ev peufxa 
TO TOV TiypLo<; (TV/jLTrlTTTeiv KaTa^ ra? /xeTa^v 
Bcd)pvya<; tov ^ivcppaToV Bta Be tovto KaTa ra? 
etc^oXd<; ovo/jud^ecrdai, UaaLTiypiv. 

5. ^eapxo^ Be tov irapdirXovv Tr]<; %ov(TiBo<i 
T€vayQ)Br] (f)7]aa<; irepa^; avTov Xeyei tov ?^v(^pdTrjv 
TTOTajiiov' 7rpo<; Be tw aTOfiaTL K(ii)/jLr)p olKelaOai 
TTJV vTToBexo/J'evijp TO, eK TTJf; 'A/)a/3ta9 ^opTLW 
(TVpdTTTeiv yap icpe^ij^; Trjp tcop ^Apd^cop irapaXlap 
TO) aTO/JLUTL TOV EiV(j)pdTOV Kal TOV TiadiTtypio^, 

^ CDohxz read Ei/Aeoy. 

2 &\\oi, after xiyovtnv, Corais omits, 

^ Kara, Corais and Meineke, for /cat. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 4-5 

territory extends down to the sea ; and its seaboard 
is about three thousand stadia in length, extending 
from the boundaries of the Persian seaboard approxi- 
mately to the outlets of the Tigris. The Choaspes 
River flows through Susis, terminating at the same 
seaboard, and has its sources in the territory of the 
Uxii ; for a kind of mountainous country intrudes 
between the Susians and Persis ; it is rugged and 
sheer, and has narrow defiles that are hard to pass, 
and was inhabited by brigands, who would exact 
payments even from the kings themselves when they 
passed from Susis into Persis. Polycleitus says that 
the Choaspes, the Eulaeus, and also the Tigris meet 
in a kind of lake, and then empty from that lake 
into the sea; and that there is an emporium near 
the lake, since, on account of the cataracts, purposely 
constructed, the rivers cannot receive the mer- 
chandise that comes in from the sea nor bring down 
any either, and that all traffic is carried on by land ; 
for the distance to Susa is said to be eight hundred ^ 
stadia. Others, however, say that the rivers which 
flow through Susis meet in one stream, that of the 
Tigris, opposite the intermediate canals of the 
Euphrates ; and that on this account the Tigris, at 
its outlets, has the name of Pasitigris.^ 

5. Nearchus says that the coast of Persis is covered 
with shoal-waters and that it ends at the Euphrates 
River ; and that at the mouth of this river there is 
an inhabited village which receives the merchandise 
from Arabia ; for the seaboard of the Arabians borders 
next on the mouth of the Euphrates and the Pasiti- 

1 Apparently an error for eighteen hundred. 

2 The Pasitigris, properly so called, is one of the rivers 
which flow from Susis (see Arrian, Anab. 3. 17. 1, Ind. 42. 4, 
and Pliny, 6. 129 and 145). 



TO Se fiera^v irav iirexctv Xi/juvrjv, rr)v V7ro8€)(^o- 
fieurjv TOP TbypLV. avairXevaavri Be Ta> Ylaai- 
Tiypei (TraBLOv; irevri^Kovra /cal CKarov, rrjv 
(j-)(ehiav elvai rrjv dyovaav iirl 'Eovacov i/c t?}? 
IlepcrtSo?, airkypvaav ^ovacov (TTahiov^ e^rjfcovra' 
TOP Be HaaLTtypLV arro tov ^OpodriBo^! Bii'^eip Trepl 
Bia')(i,\iOV<; (TTaBiov<i' Bia Be rr)? XlfiP7]<; eirX to 
aTOfxa TOV TLypio<; tov avdifKovv elvai aTaBioav 
e^aKO(TL(ov' TrXrjaiov Be tov aT6fiaT0<i kco/itjv 
olKelaOai ttjv ^ovaiavrjv, Bie^ovaav twv ^ovawv 
crTaBLov<; irevTaKOdiov^' diro Be tov o-T6p,aT0<i tov 
¥iV<f)pdTov KoX P'expi^ Ba/3v\(bvo<; tov dvairXovv 
elvai Bia yrj<; ^ olKOvp,evr)<; AraXw? (TTaBlcov irXeiovcdv 
rj Tpta'X^LXioDV. *Ov7}alKpLTO<; Be irdvTa^i (^rjalv 
eKpdXXsLV eh ttjv Xl/j,V7]v, tov Te ^v^paTrjv /cal 
TOV TlypLv* ixTreaovTa Be irdXiv tov Kv(f)pdT7]v 
€K T779 Xlp^vrj<; iBi(p (jTop,aTi 7rp6<; ttjv ddXaTTav 

6. "Eo-Ti Be Koi dXXa irXeiw aTeva BieK^dX- 
XovTi TO, eV T0t9 Ouftot? KaT avTrjV ttjv UepcriBa, 
a Koi avTCL /3ta BirjXOev ^AXe^avBpo<;, Arara re Td<; 
IlepatKa<; 7rv\a<; koI kut dXXov<; tottou? Bie^ioDV 
T-qv ')((i)pav, Kol KaTOTTTevaai (nrevBoDV tcl /cvpLco- 
TUTa fiept] Kol TCL ya^o(f)vXdKia, a ToaovTOL^ 
')(p6voL<; e^eireirXrjpWTo, ol<i iBaa /jLoXoyrjaav Tlepaat 
TTJV ^AaCaV TTOTa/AOu? Be Bie^rj TrXeiou^; tov^ 
BiappeovTa<; Tr)v y^oopav koX KaTUCpepop^ivovf; eh 
TOV HepaLKOv koXttov. p,€Ta yap tov XodaTrijv 6 
KoTTyoara? €(TtI Kal 6 Tla(TlTiypi<;, 09 eK t?}9 

^ yrjs, Tzschucke, from conj. of Casaubon, for ttjs. 

^ Apparently an error for six hundred. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 5-6 

gris, the whole of the intervening space being occupied 
by a lake, that is, the lake that receives the Tigris ; 
and that on sailing up the Pasitigris one hundred and 
fifty stadia one comes to the raft-bridge that leads 
from Persis to Susa, being sixty ^ stadia distant 
from Susa; and that the Pasitigris is about two 
thousand stadia distant from the Oroatis ; and that 
the inland voyage on the lake to the mouth of the 
Tigris is six hundred stadia; and that near the 
mouth there is an inhabited Susian village, ^ which is 
five hundred stadia distant from Susa ; and that the 
voyage inland from the mouth of the Euphrates to 
Babylon, through a very prosperous land, is more 
than three thousand stadia. Onesicritus says that 
all the rivers empty into the lake, both the Euphrates 
and the Tigris ; but that the Euphrates, again issuing 
from the lake, joins with the sea by its own separate 

6. There are also several other narrow defiles as 
one passes out through the territory of the Uxii in 
the neighbourhood of Persis itself; and Alexander 
forced his way through these passes too, both at the 
Persian Gates and at other places, when he was 
passing through the country and was eager to spy 
out the most important parts of the country, and 
the treasure-holds, which had become filled with 
treasures in those long periods of time in which the 
Persians had collected tribute from Asia; and he 
crossed several rivers that flowed through the 
country and down into the Persian Gulf. For after 
the Choaspes, one comes to the Copratas River and 
the Pasitigris, which latter also flows from the 

2 The name of this village, according to Arrian {Indica 42), 
was Aginis. 

M 2 


Oufta? KoX avTO^ pel' ean Se koX Kvpo<; Trorafio^, 
Blcl rr}? KOikrj<i KaXovfiivrj^; liepalSof; picov ire pi 
IlaaapydSa<;y ov fiereXajBe to ovofxa ^aaiXev^, 
dvrl ^ AypaBdrov /JL€TOVO/J.aa0el<i Kvpo<;. Ttpo^ 
avrfi Be Trj Uepa-eTroXec top ^Apd^rjv BiejSrj. rjv 
he 7) WepaeiToXL^^ fiera SoOcra fcdWiara Kare- 
<Ticeva(Tfievri /jLeylaTrj ttoX*?,^ e^ovaa ^aaiXeia 
€K7rp€7ri], fcal fidXia-ra rfj iroXvTeXela tmv ksl- 
fievoov. pel 8' 6 ^Apd^rj<; e/c tcov UapaLraKwV ^ 
au/jL^dXXec 8' et9 avrov 6 M^So?, etc MT^St'a? 
6p/jLr)6€L<;. (j)epovTat Se Bv avXa)vo<; iraix^opov 
avvdiTTOVTO^ rfj l^apfiavia koX rot? ecoOivoU 
/lepeai tt)? ')(^ci)pa<;, KaOdirep koI avrr) r) Hepae- 
/ TToXt?. iveTT%jj(Te Be 6 ^AXe^avBpo^ ra ev 

C 730 TlepcreiToXei ^ jSaaiXeia, TLjjLcopcov rot? ''EXXrjaiv, 
OTL KaKeivwv lepa koi 7r6Xei<i ol Uepaai rrvpl koI 
aiBi]p(p Bi€7r6p0r)aav. 

7, EZr* €t9 UaaapydBa*; ^K€' koX tovto B^ rjv 
ffaalXeiov dp^alov. evravOa Be koI tou Kvpov 
rd^ov elBev ev irapaBeia-w, irvpyov ov fieyav, rw 
Baael tcov BevBpcov evairoKeKpyfifxevov, /caro) i^ev 
arepeov, dvco Be (TTeyrjv e^ovTU koI ar^Kov, o-T€vr)V 
reXeaxi e^ovTa Tr)v etaoBov' Bt ^9 irapeXdelv 
eia-eo ^rjaiv 'ApiaTo^ovXo^, KeXev(TavTo<i tov 
^acrtXeo)^, koX Koa/jbrjaat tov Td^oV IBelv Be 
kXlvtjv re ^(^pvarjv koX Tpdire^av avv eKTrco/jLaac 
Kal TTveXov ')(pv(Trjv kol io-OrJTa iroXXrjv k6(t/jlov t€ 
XiOoKoXXrjTOv' KUTO, fxev ovv ttjv TTpd)Tr}v eTTiBr]- 
filav TavT IBetv, vaTepov Be avXrjOrjvai Kal to. 

^ Ufpa-eiroXis DEi, Uep(raiiro\ts other MSS. 

* The words fierk . . . itJais are found only in F. 

' CDFh read naperdKCDv. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 6-7 

country of the Uxii. There is also a river Cyrus, 
which flows through Code ^ Persis, as it is called, in 
the neighbourhood of Pasargadae ; and the king 
assumed the name of this river, changing his name 
from Agradatus to Cyrus. Alexander crossed the 
Araxes near Persepolis itself. Persepolis, next to 
Susa, was the most beautifully constructed city, and 
the largest, having a palace that was remarkable, 
particularly in respect to the high value of its 
treasures. The Araxes flows from the country of 
the Paraetaci ; and this river is joined by the Medus, 
which has its source in Media. These rivers run 
through a very productive valley which borders on 
Carmania and the eastern parts of the country, as 
does also Persepolis itself. Alexander burnt up the 
palace at Persepolis, to avenge the Greeks, because 
the Persians had destroyed both temples and cities 
of the Greeks by fire and sword. 

7. Alexander then went to Pasargadae ; and this 
too was an ancient royal residence. Here he saw 
also, in a park, the tomb of Cyrus ; it was a small 
tower and was concealed within the dense growth of 
trees. The tomb was solid below, but had a roof and 
sepulchre above, which latter had an extremely 
narrow entrance. Aristobulus says that at the 
behest of the king he passed through this entrance 
and decorated the tomb ; and that he saw a golden 
couch, a table with cups, a golden coffin, and numerous 
garments and ornaments set with precious stones; 
and that he saw all these things on his first visit, 
but that on a later visit the place had been robbed 

1 Hollow. 

* UepadiroKis . . . TlepafvSKei DEA, nepcatiroAts . . . 
nep<roiir<^ other MSS. 




/ji€v aWa €KK0fjLia6rjvat, ttjv 8e kXlvtjv OpavaOrjvai 
fjLouov Kal rrjv irveXov, fieraOevTcov rov veKpov, hd 
ov ^ hrfKov ^yevecrOaL, Biori TrpovofjuevTMV epyov rjv, 
ov^l Tov aarpaTTOv, KaraXiirovTcov a /jlt) Svvarbv 
rjv paBico^; etCKop^iaaV crv/iiffrjvaL Be ravra, Kaiirep 
(pvXaKij'i irepiKeLjJLevT]^ ^dyayv, crlrKTiv Xa/jufiavov- 
Tcov KaO^ r]iJLepav irpo^aTov, Bia fi7)vo<; 8' Xitttov. 
aX\! 6 iKT07nor/JLo<; ttJ? ^ AXe^dvBpov crrpaTid<i et? 
lidfCTpa Kal ^lvBov<; iroXXd re dXXa vecorepKrdijvat 
7rap€(TK€uaa€, Kal Brj Kal tovB^ ev tmv vewTcpLcr- 
OevTwv virrjp^ev. ovtco fiep ovv 'Apiaro^ovXo^ 
€ip7jK€, Kal TO eiriypajxp.a Be aTropji^rj/jLovevet tovto' 
0) dvOpcdire, iyo) Kvp6<; elfii, 6 rrjv dpXV^ toI<; 
Hep(Tai<; KTrjadfJuevo^i Kal ti)? *Ao'ta9 ^aaiXetx;* 
fiT) OVV (l>dovrjarj<; fioi rov /ubV7]/iaT0<;. ^Ovrjai- 
KpLT0<; Be TOV p,ev irvpyov BeKaareyov eiprjKe, Kal 
ev jiev Tjj dvcordTCt) areyr} KelaOai tov K.vpov, 
eiriypafifia 5' elvai 'KXXtjvikov, Tl€pcnKo2<i Ke- 
-X^apayfievov ypdiifMaaiv' evOdS* eyot) KeLfiai KOpo? 
PacTiXem ^aaiXrjwv' Kal dXXo irepai^ov 'irpo<; tov 
avTov vovv. 

8. M.efjbvi]TaL 8' ^Ovr]aLKptTo<; Kal to eirl rw ^ 
Aapelov Td(l>q) ypdfjufia ToBe- (J)lXo<; rjv rol'^ <j)iXoL<s' 
linrevf; Kal to^ottj^; dpicrT0<; iyevo/jLTjv" ^ Kvvrjywv 
eKpaTOVv irdvTa irocetv rjBvvdfirjv. "AyotCTO? 5' 
'ZaXa/xivto<; ttoXv fxev ecTTi vecoTepo^; tovtcov, 
Xeyei Be Biareyov tov irvpyov Kal pueyav, ev Be rfj 

1 8t' ov, Tyrwhitt, for 5' ov ; so the later editors. 

2 ry moxz, TOV other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 7-8 

and everything had been carried off except the couch 
and the coffin, which had only been broken to pieces, 
and that the robbers had removed the corpse to 
another place, a fact which plainly proved that it 
was an act of plunderers, not of the satrap, since they 
left behind only what could not easily be carried off; 
and that the robbery took place even though the 
tomb was surrounded by a guard of Magi, who 
received for their maintenance a sheep every day 
and a horse every month.^ But just as the remote- 
ness of the countries to which Alexander's army 
advanced, Bactra and India, had led to numerous 
other revolutionary acts, so too this was one of the 
revolutionary acts. Now Aristobulus so states it, 
and he goes on to record the following inscription on 
the tomb : "0 man, I am Cyrus, who acquired the 
empire for the Persians and was king of Asia ; grudge 
me not, therefore, my monument." Onesicritus, 
however, states that the tower had ten stories and 
that Cyrus lay in the uppermost story, and that 
there was one inscription in Greek, carved in Persian 
letters, " Here I lie, Cyrus, king of kings," and 
another written in the Persian language with the 
same meaning. 

8. Onesicritus records also the following inscription 
on the tomb of Dareius : " I was friend to my 
friends ; as horseman and bowman I proved myself 
superior to all others; as hunter I prevailed; I 
could do everything." Aristus of Salamis is indeed 
a much later writer than these, but he says that the 
tower has only two stories and is large ; that it was 

1 The horse, of course, was sacrificed to Cyrus (cf. Arrian 
6. 29). 

• iyey6fi'nv, Xylanijer, for yev6firiv. 



Uepaojv SiaSoxv IBpOaOai, (fivXarreaOai he rov 
Td(f)ov' iTTLypa/jifJLa Be to \€')(6ev 'EWtjvckov Kal 
aXXo UepaiKov 7rpo<i top avTov vovv. roi)? Be 
WaaapydBa^ irl/jL'qcre Kupo?, on rrju va-rdrrjp 
p^d')(rjv evLKrjaev 'Aa-rvdyrjv evravda top M.fjBov, 
Kal Tr]v dp')(r]v Trj<; *Acrta9 /ji€ri]veyKev eh eavrov 
Kal iroXiv eKTiae Kal ^aa-lXeiop KareaKevaae ttJ? 
vLkt)^ jjLvrjfjLelov. 
C 731 9. lldvra Be rd iv rfj UepauBL %p?;yu,aTa e'fe- 
GKevdaaro eh rd Xovaa, Kal avrd drjcravpcov Kal 
KaraaKevrjf; fiea-rd' ouBe tovO^ rjyelTO to ^aai- 
\etov, dXkd TTjv Ba/Si/Xw/^a, Kal BievoeiTO TavTrjv 
TrpoaKaTaaKevd^etv' KuvTavOa 8' eKeiVTO OrjaavpoL 
(^aal Be, %&)/)t9 tmv ev ^a/SvXoovi Kal tmv ev tm 
GTpaToireBw tmv irapd ^ TavTa purj \7}(f)0evT(ov 
avTa TO- ev Xov(toi<; Kal ra ev Hepa-lBi, TeTTapa<; 
p,vpidBa^ Ta\dvT(ov e^eTaaOrjvac' TLve<i Be Kal 
irevTe Xeyovaiv dWoc Be irdvTa irdvToOev crvvax- 
drjvai irapaBeBcoKao-LV et? ^EK/3dTava oKTWKaLBeKa 
/jLvpidBa<; TaXdvTcov' ra Be Aapeuay (fiuyovTi e'/c r/j? 
M.7]Bla<; avveKKOfiia-devTa TdXavTa oKTaKia^ikta 
BnjpTTaaav ol Bo\o(f)ovr](TavTe<; avTov. 

10, Tr]v yovv Ba^vXcova 6 ^AXe^avBpo<; irpoe- 
KpLvev, 6p(x)v Kal TO) p^eyeOei ttoXv virep^aXXovcrav 
Kal Tot? dXXoi^. evBaifMcov 8* ovo-a rj Xovah, 
eKTTvpov Tov depa e^ei Kal'^ Kavp^aTypov, Kal 
jjbdXiaTa TOV irepl Trjv ttoXlv, a>'i (prjaLV eKelvo<;' 

^ irapi, Corais, for ircpi. 

2 Kal, added by YAw and the editors. 

^ i.e. when the empire passed from the Medes to the Per- 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 8-10 

built at the time of the succession of the Persians/ 
and that the tomb was kept under guard ; and that 
there was one inscription written in Greek, that 
quoted above, and another written in the Persian 
language with the same meaning. Cyrus held 
Pasargadae in honour, because he there conquered 
Astyages the Mede in his last battle, transferred to 
himself the empire of Asia, founded a city, and con- 
structed a palace as a memorial of his victory. 

9. Alexander carried off with him all the wealth 
in Persis to Susa, which was also full of treasures and 
equipment; and neither did he regard Susa as the 
royal residence, but rather Babylon, which he 
intended to build up still further; and there too 
treasures lay stored. They say that, apart from the 
treasures in Babylon and in the camp, which were 
not included in the total, the value of those in Susis 
and Persis alone was reckoned at forty thousand" 
talents, though some say fifty; and others have 
reported that all treasures from all sources were 
brought together at Ecbatana and that they were 
valued at one hundred and eighty thousand talents ; 
and the treasures which were carried along with 
Dareius in his flight from Media, eight thousand 
talents in value, were taken as booty by those who 
slew him. 

10. At all events, Alexander preferred Babylon, 
since he saw that it far surpassed the others, not only 
in its size, but also in all other respects. Although 
Susis is fertile, it has a hot an d scorching atmosphere, 
and particularly in the neighlSourhood of the city, 
according to that writer.^ At any rate, he says that 

2 Whether Aristobulus or Nearchus or Onesicritus, the 
translator does not know. 



ra? yovv cravpa<^ kol tov<; 6<f)€i<;, Oepov^ aK/JLd^0PT0<i 
Tov rfXiov Kara fjLea-rjfi/SpLav, Bt,a/3rjvat /Jby (pOdveiv 
TCif; 68ov<; ra? iv rfj iroXei, a)OC iv fjL€aai<; irepi- 
(jyXeyeaOar oirep tt)? Yiepaiho^ /mrjSafjLov avfi- 
Baiv€LV, Kaiirep voricoTepa^ ov(Tr)<;' Xovrpa Be 
yjrv^pa irporeOevTa eKOepfialpeo-Oai 7rapaxpV/^^> 
ra? Be fcpLOa<; hiaaTrapeLaa^; eh tov tjXiov dXXea- 
6ai,^ KaOdirep iv Toh L7rvoL<; rd^; Kd')(^pv^' ^ Bto 
KoX Tat<: ariyac^ iirl Bvo TTT/^^^et? Tr)v yrjv eTTLTideor- 
Oai, vTTo Be TOV /3dpov<; dvajKd^eo-Oai aT€vov<; 
/jb€v fxaKpov^^ Be iroieladai tou? olkov;, diropov- 
fievovi fiaKpSyv fiev Bokcov, Beo/jL€vov<; Be fieyd- 
Xcov oiKCDV Bid TO 7rv2yo<;. iBiov Be tl irda')(^eiv 
TTjv (f)0iviKLV7]v BoKov (TTepedv yap ovaav, ira- 
Xaiov/jLevrjv ovk eh to xdTco ttjv evBoaiv Xap,- 
^dveiv, dXX^ eh to dvco /jiipo^ KvpTOVcdai tw 
jSdpei, Kol ffeXTiov dve^eiv tyjv opo^ijv. acTCov 
Be TO)v KavfidTcov XeyeTav to virepKeladai irpo^ 
dpKTOV 6p7} vyfrrjXd Ta Trpoe/cBexofieva dirav- 
ra? Toy? ^opeLOV^ dvefiov<;' virepireTeh Brj 
TTveovTe^ diTO Tcav aKpcoTrjplcov /jLeTecopoi re tmv 
ireBlwv ov TrpoadTTTovTat, dXXd irapeXavvova-iv^ 
eh Ta voTLoorepa tt)? Xovo-iBo<;' avTrj Be vrjveiiiaL^ 
/caTe%6Tai, Kal fidXiaTa totc, TjviKa eTrjalai Ttjv 
dXXrjv yrjv /caTaylrv^ovaLV eKKaofxevr^v viro Toiyv 

11. IloXvcnTo<i B' dyav eaTiv, axjTe exuTov- 
Td'^ovv Bi ofxaXov Kal /cpc6r)v Kal irvpov eKTpe- 
(peiv, ecTTL 8' OTe Kal BiaKoatovTdxovv' Bioirep 

^ aWeaOai, Corais and Meineke, who cite Plutarch {A/, x. 
35) and Theophrastus (Hist. Plant. 8. 11), for aKi\de(r6a.i moz, 
aXfaiviaQai other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. lo-ii 

when the sun is hottest, at noon, the Uzards and the 
snakes could not cross the streets in the city quickly 
enough to prevent their being burnt to death in the 
middle of the streets. He says that this is the case 
nowhere in Persis, although Persis lies more to the 
south ; and that cold water for baths is put out in 
the sun and immediately heated, and that barley 
spread out in the sun bounces like parched barley in 
ovens ; and that on this account earth is put on the 
roofs of the houses to the depth of two cubits, and 
that by reason of this weight the inhabitants are 
forced to build their houses both narrow and long; 
and that, although they are in want of long beams, 
yet they need large houses on account of the suffo- 
cating heat; and that the palm-tree beam has a 
peculiar property, for, although it is rigid, it does 
not, when aged, give way downwards, but curves 
upwards because of the weight and better supports 
the roof. It is said that the cause of the heat is 
the fact that lofty mountains lie above the country 
on the north and that these mountains intercept all 
the northern winds. Accordingly, these winds, 
blowing aloft from the tops of the mountains and 
high above the plains, do not touch the plains, 
although they blow on the more southerly parts of 
Susis. But calm prevails here, particularly at the 
time when the Etesian winds cool the rest of the 
land that is scorched by heat. 

11. Susis abounds so exceedingly in grain that 
both barley and wheat regularly produce one hundred • 
fold, and sometimes even two hundred; on this 

^ Kdxpvs, F Epit., Kdyxpvs E, KeyKpvs CDh, Keyxpovs moxz^ 
^ Xylander and Tzschucke emend fiaKpovs to fiiKpovs. 
* E reads npoa-ehavvovat, 



ouSe 7rvKva<; ra^; avXaKa^ re/jLVOvar ttvkvov- 
fievai yap KcoXvovaip al pl^ai rrjv ffXdarrjv. rrjv 
8' d/uLireXov ov (f>vofjL6V7jv irporepov Ma^eSoi^e? 
Karecpvrevaav kclk^I koI iv BaffvXcovc, ov 
ra(pp€V0VT€<;, dXXd iraTTdXov<; KaTaaeGihrjpd)- 
C 732 fievov^ ^ i^ dtcpwv 7n]TT0VTe<i, elr i^aipovvTe^, 
olvtI B^ avTcov rd KX^fiara KadLevre^ evOio)^, r} 
fiev Brj fjLeaoyaia^ roiavrrj' rj Be irapaXia reva- 
yd}Br]<; i(rrl koX dXifievo'^' Bid touto yovv Kai 
^r)orLV 6 Neapxo'i /jLr]Be KaOoBrjjcov iiriy^opiddv 
Tvy)(^du€cv, rjviKa rw aroXo) TrapiirXei 7r/309 t7}v 
Baj3vXwviav eK t^? 'Ii^St/tr}?, otl 7rpo(T6p/JLOV<; ovk 
€L')(eVy^ ovB^ dvOpcoTTCov evTTopelv ol6<; t* rjv tmp 
r)yi]ao/jL€V(ov Kar ifnreiplav. 

12. TeiTVia Be rfj XovalBt t^? Baj3vXwvia^ rf 
^LraKTjvr) jxev irporepov, ' AiroXXcovidri'; Be vcttc- 
pov irpoaayopevOelaa. diro rcov dpKrcov S* 
vTrep/ceiVTaL d/jLcpoiv tt/jo? eco ^KXvfialoi re koX 
TlapaLTaKrjvol, XrjarpiKol dvBpe^ xal opeivfj 
rpaxela ireiroidoTev fidXXov B' ol UapairaKrjvol 
Tot? 'ATroXXeoi^tarat? eTrlKeiprai, ware Kal ^eipov 
eKeivov<; BiariOeaatv. ol Be 'EXu/taZot KdKeivoi<; 
Kal TOt? ^ovaioi^, tovtol^^ Be Kal ol Ov^ioi 
TrpoaTToXe/jiovatv r/rrov Be vvv, 009 etVo?, Bid 
T)]V Tcbv UapOvalayv la')(^uv, ixf ol<; elaiv diravref; 
ol Tavry, ev fiev ovv TrparTovrcov eKelvcov, ev 

1 Karacrca-i^'npwfjLfi/ovs, Kramer, from conj. of Corais, for 
are (T€aibr)pa>}i4vovs CDYhi {moz omits are), KaTeaea-iSripai- 
fxivovs other MSS. 

2 The words Toiaurrj . . . yovv are transferred to this 
position by Corais, Groskurd and Meineke (Kramer ap- 
proving) from their position in the MSS. after roiavrr] at 
end of § 12. Instead of these words the MSS. read (after 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 11-12 

account, also, the people do not cut the furrows 
close together, for the crowding of the roots hinders 
the sprouting. The vine did not grow there until 
the Macedonians planted it, both there and at Baby- 
lon ; however, they did not dig trenches, but only 
thrust into the ground iron-pointed stakes, and then 
pulled them out and replaced them at once with the 
plants. Such, then, is the interior; but the sea- 
board is full of shallows and without harbours. On 
this account, at any rate, Nearchus goes on to say 
that he met with no native guides when he was 
sailing along the coast with his fleet from India to 
Babylonia ; that the coast had no mooring-places, and 
that he was also unable to find any experienced 
people to guide him. 

12. Neighbouring Susis is the part of Babylonia 
which was formerly called Sitacene, but is now called 
Apolloniatis. Above both, on the north and towards 
the east, lie the countries of the Elymaei and the 
Paraetaceni, who are predatory peoples and rely on 
the ruggedness of their mountains. But the Paraeta- 
ceni are situated closer to the ApoUioniatae, and 
therefore treat them worse. The Elymaei carry on 
war against both that people and the Susians, whereas 
the Uxii too carry on war against the Elymaei ; but 
less so at the present time, in all probability, because 
of the might of the Parthians, to whom all the peoples 
in that part of the world are subject. Now when the 
Parthians fare well, all their subjects fare well too, 

ljLi(r6yaia) the words iroWaKis, Koi 5^ koI icp' rj/xwu &\\ot' 
&A\oes (ruj/€/8»j, which, except for the form of the verb ffwifit], 
are repeated by the MSS. towards the end of § 12 and 
rightly omitted by the editors. 

^ fix^v, Kramer and later editors, for exety. 


TTpdrrova-Lv a7ravT€<; koI ol virrjKooi avTMv ara- 
aia^6vT(ov Be, oirep (Tvix^aivei ttoWolkl^;, koX Srj 
KoX e<^* Tj/JLCJV, dXXoT dXXco<; av/jL/3aLV€i Kal ov 
TO, avrd irda-r toI<^ jiev yap avvrjveyKev rj ra- 
paxVt ToU Be irapa yvoo/iirjv dTTTjvrrjaev. rj fiev 
Bt) %ft)/9a 77 re Ilepcr/? Kal rj %ov(Tiavr) Tocavrr]. 

13. Ta B* ^ €07] TO, HepaiKa xal tovtol^ Ka\ 
yirjBoi^ TCL avrd teal dX\oi<; ifKeioaiy irepl cov 
elprjKaat fiev TrXetou?, rd Be Kaipia Kal ^/jllu 
XeKTeov. Tlepaai toIvvv dyaXfiara [xev Kal 
^(o/jLOv<i ou;^ IBpvovTai, Ovovai S' ev v's^rjXa) tottco, 
TOP ovpavov r)yovp.evoL Ala' tl/jloocti Be KaVHXiov, 
ov KaXovcri MlOprjv, Kal l^eXrjvr^v Kal ^ K(f)poBiTr]v 
Kal TTvp Kal yrjv Kal dv€/jLov<; Kal vBcop' dvovcn 
B^ ev KaOapa> totto) Karev^dfievoL, Trapaarrjad- 
fievoi TO lepelov earefijievov' p^eXiaavro^ Be rov 
Mdyov rd Kpea rov v<f>rjyov/jLevov ttjv lepovpyiav 
diriaat, BteXofievoi, tol<; Oeol<; ovBev dirovel/jbavTef; 
pepo^' rijf; ydp '>^v')(r}<i (paai rod lepeiov BelaOai 
TOP Oeov, dXXov Be ovBev6<;' o/zo)? ^e rov iirlTrXov 
Ti /jLiKpov TtdeadLVy ct)9 Xeyovai tiv€<;, eVt to Trvp. 

14. Aia(j)ep6vTco<; Be tm irvpl Kal tm vBart 
Ovovai, TO) fxev irvpl, 7rpo(TTi6evTe<; i^pd ^vXa 
Tov Xeirov; ')((opL<i, Trc/jLeXrjv eiTLTidevTe^; dvoaOev 
elO* v^diTTOvaiVy eXaiov Karax^ovre^i, ov (f>va(ovT€<;, 
dXXd piirl^ovTe^' tou? Be (f)V(Tr](TavTa<; rj veKpov 
eirl irvp devra^ ^ rj ^oX^irov Oavarovar ra) B' 

^ 5', Corais and later editors insert. 
^ DM read iviQhras. 

1 The Sun. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 12-14 

but when there is an insurrection, as is often the 
case, even indeed in our own times, the results are 
different at different times and not the same for all ; 
for some have benefited by disturbances, whereas 
others have been disappointed in their expectations. 
Such, then, are the countries of Persis and Susis. 

13. But the Persian customs are the same as those 
of these peoples and the Medes and several other 
peoples ; and while several writers have made state- 
ments about all these peoples, I too must tell what 
is suitable to my purpose. Now the Persians do not 
erect statues or altars, but offer sacrifice on a high 
place, regarding the heavens as Zeus ; and they also 
worship Helius,^ whom they call Mithras, and 
Selene ^ and Aphrodite, and fire and earth and winds 
and water; 3 and with earnest prayer they offer 
sacrifice in a purified place, presenting the victim 
crowned ; * and when the Magus, who directs the 
sacrifice, has divided the meat the people go away 
with their shares, without setting apart a portion 
for the gods, for they say that the god requires 
only the soul of the victim and nothing else ; but 
still, according to some writers, they place a small 
portion of the caul upon the fire. 

14. But it is especially to fire and water that they 
offer sacrifice. To fire they offer sacrifice by adding 
dry wood without the bark and by placing fat on 
top of it ; and then they pour oil upon it and light 
it below, not blowing with their breath, but fanning 
it ; and those who blow the fire with their breath 
or put anything dead or filthy upon it are put to 

2 The Moon. » So Herodotus 1. 131. 

* Herodotus (1. 132) says that he who offers the sacrifice 
wears a crown. 


vSart, iirl XifiTrjv t) irorafiov rj Kpijvijv iXOovra, 
/SoOpov 6pv^avT€^ et9 tovtov (T(f)aycd^ovTai, 
C 733 (jivXaTTOfjuevoi, fiij n rov ttXtjctlov i/^aro? at- 
/jLax^^LTj, o)9 fJLiavovvTe<;' etr eVt juLvppivrjv rj 
8d(j)vrjv Bia06VT€<i ra Kpia, pd^Boi^ XeTrxot? 
icfidinovTai ol Mayot koL eTrahovaiv, uTroa-Triv- 
BqvTe<; eXaiov o/jlou ydXaKTL koI /jbeXin KCKpa- 
fievov ovK et9 irvp, ouS' ^ vBcop, dXX' et9 TovBa(f>o<i' 
Ta9 B^ eVcoSa? woLOVvraL ttoXvv 'Xpovov pd^Bcov 
jMvpiKivwv XeiTTOdv Beap^Tjv KaTe)(^ovT6^. 

15. ^\Lv Be TTJ KaTTTraBofCia (iroXv yap^ i/cel^ icrri 
TO T(i)vM.dycov (pOXov, o'l koI Tlvpaidoc KaXovvrar 
iToXXd Be fcal rcov HepcTLKOJv Oecov lepd) ovBe 
/jLa^ 6vovai,v, dXXa Kopp,5i rivc, (w? av 
virepcp TUTTTOi^re?. eaTL Be koX UvpaiOeia, crrjKoi 
TLV€<; d^LoXoyor iv Be tovtoi<; iJLeaoL<i ^(Ofjiof;, iv 
u) TToXXr) re (tttoBo^, koI irvp da^earov (pvXdr- 
TovcTLv ol lAdyor koI Kad'' rjpepav Be €lai6pTe<;, 
eTTaBovcTLv copav a')(^eB6v ri, irpo rov 7rupo<; rrjv 
Bea-firjv rcjv pd/3B(ov exovTe^, Ttdpa<i irepiKei- 
jievoL TTiXcords, KadeiKvia^^ eKarepwOev p^XP^ '^^^ 
KaXvineLv rd %6t\7; Td<i irapayvadlBa^. ravrd * 
S' ev T0i9 T/}? 'Az^airtSo? ^ Kal rov ^D^pbdvov lepol^ 
vevopnarai,' tovtwv Be koI arj/coi, elai, Kal ^oavov 
rov ^ripidvov TTOpLTrevet. ravra pev ovv r]pel<i 
€(opdKap,€v, eKelva 8' ev ral^ laropiaLfi Xeyerai Kal 
rd e(f)e^7]<;. 

^ ov5' X, ovx other MSS. 

2 Instead of yap, Dh read fiaWov. 

3 ^K6?, Meineke inserts, omitting ia-ri ; Jones, however, 
retains the etm, following Groskurd and Kramer. 

* TouTo, Corais, for ravra. 
^jAvatn^os, Xylander, vai'Tiios. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 14-15 

death. And to water they offer sacrifice by going 
to a lake or river or spring, where, having dug a 
trench leading thereto, they slaughter a victim, being 
on their guard lest any of the water near by should 
be made bloody, believing that the blood would 
pollute the water ; and then, placing pieces of meat 
on myrtle or laurel branches, the Magi touch them 
with slender wands and make incantations, pouring 
oil mixed with both milk and honey, though not into 
fire or water, but upon the ground ; and they carry 
on their incantations for a long time, holding in 
their hands a bundle of slender myrtle wands. 

15. In Cappadocia (for there the sect of the Magi, 
who are also called Pyraethi,i is large, and in that 
country are also many temples of the Persian gods), 
the people do not sacrifice victims with a sword 
either, but with a kind of tree-trunk, beating them 
to death as vidth a cudgel. They also have Pyrae- 
theia, noteworthy enclosures ; and in the midst of 
these there is an altar, on which there is a large 
quantity of ashes and where the Magi keep the fire 
ever burning. And there, entering daily, they make 
incantations for about an hour, holding before the 
fire their bundle of rods and wearing round their 
heads high turbans of felt, which reach down over 
their cheeks far enough to cover their lips. The 
same customs are observed in the temples of Anaitis 
and Omanus; and these temples also have sacred 
enclosures; and the people carry in procession a 
wooden statue of Omanus. Now I have seen this 
myself; but those other things, as also what follows, 
are recorded in the histories. 

1 Fire-kindlers. 



16. Et9 yap TTora/JLov our ovpovcriv ovre 
VLTTTOvrai Uepaai, ovSe Xovovrai ovSk ve/cpov 
ififiaXKovcnv '^ ovB^ dWa tmv Sokovvtcov elvai 
fjLV(Tap(ov. 6t(o ^ av Ovacdat Oero, tt/jcoto) tw irvpl 

17. ^aaiXevovTai, S' vtto tmv utto yivov^:' 6 
3* aTreiOcov airoTfirjOelfi K6(f)a\i]v Koi jSpa^lova 
pLirTerat. ya/jLovcri Se TroXXa? Kal dpM jraWa- 
Ka<; rpe<^ovai TrXetou? 'TTo\vTeKvia<i ')(^dpiv, TiOeacn 
Se KOI ol PaaiXel^i dO\a 7To\vT€KVia<; Kar €to9* 
TO, Sk Tpe<j>6/J.eva P'^XP^ iroov rerTapcov ovk dyerat 
TOi? yoveudLV eh oyjrtv, ol Be ydp^oi Kara ra? 
dpxd^ tt}? eapivrjf; i(Tr}p,epLa<; iTrireXovvTar irap- 
epx^TUi S' €7rl TOP 6d\ap.ov, 7rpO(f>ay(ov p,rfKov rj 
Kap^riXov p,ve\6v, dWo S' ovhev rrjv rjp^ipav ifceivyv. 

18. 'Atto Be irevre ercov ew? rerdprov Kal 
elfcoarov iraiBevovrai ro^eveiv fcal dKovri^etv Kal 
iTTTrd^eadai Kal dXrjOeveLv, BiBaaKaXoLf; re \6y(ov 
Tol^ (T(o<ppoveaTdToi<; %/3wz^Ta*, ol Kal to p,vO(oBe<; 
TTyoo? TO avp^cpipov dvdyovTe^ irapairXeKovaL, Kal 
fieXov^ X^P^^ '^^^ /^ct' (pBr]<; epya Oecov t€ Kal 
dvBpfav T(ov dpL(TTO)v dvaBiB6vTe<;. avvdyovai, 8* 
eh eva tottov, '>^6^(p x^^^^^ '^P^ opdpov Bte- 
yeipovTe^ co? iirl e^OTrXicriav rj Orjpav' rafai/re? 
8' dvd TrevTrjKovTa 'Y)yep>bva toov ^acriXeco'; Tivd 

C 734 TTaiBcdv avToh rj aaTpdirov TpexovTi KeXevovaiv 
eTreaOai, %ft)/9toi^ dcpopla-avTe^ TpidKOVTa rj rerra- 
paKOVTa aTaBicov, diraiTOvcn Be Kal Xoyov 'eKd- 

^ QDmoxz read iKfidWovaiv. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 16-18 

16. For the Persians neither urinate, nor wash 
themselves, in a river ; nor yet bathe therein or cast 
therein anything dead or any other thing that is 
considered unclean. And to whatever god they offer 
sacrifice, to him they first offer prayer with fire. 

17. They are governed by hereditary kings. And 
he who is disobedient has his l^ead and arms cut off 
and his body cast forth. The* men marry n>any 
Avives, and at the same time maintain several concu- 
bines, for the sake of having many children. The 
kings set forth prizes annually for those who have 
the most children ; but the children are not brought 
into the presence of their parents until they are four 
years old. Marriages are consummated at the 
beginning of the vernal equinox; and the bride- 
groom passes to the bridal chamber, having first 
eaten an apple or a camel's marrow, but nothing 
else during that day. 

18. From five years of age to twenty-four they are 
trained to use the bow, to throw the javelin, to ride 
horseback, and to speak the truth ; and they use as 
teachers of science their wisest men, who also inter- 
weave their teachings with the mythical element, 
thus reducing that element to a useful purpose, and 
rehearse both with song and without song the deeds 
both of the gods and of the noblest men. And 
these teachers wake the boys up before dawn by 
the sound of brazen instruments, and assemble them 
in one place, as though for arming themselves or for 
a hunt; and then they divide the boys into com- 
panies of fifty, appoint one of the sons of the king 
or of a satrap as leader of each company, and order 
them to follow their leader in a race, having marked 
off a distance of thirty or forty stadia. They require 



arov ^a6rifiaT0<;, ajxa koX ixeyaXo^coviav koI 
TTvevjJba KaX irXevpav a(TKovvT€<;y koI irpo^ Kavfia 
Be KoX irpo^ yjrvxo's /cal ofjL^pov; Kal ^(^etfidppcov 
hiafidaei^, Mar dffpoxct (jyvXarreiv Koi oirXa Kal 
iaOrjra, /cal Troi/jbaiveiv Se Kal dypavKelv Kal 
KapTTOtf; dypLot<; ^/jr/tx^at, repfiivOw, hpvo^aXd- 
voL^y d'^pdSi, KaXovvrai^ 8* ovtoc KdpSaK€<;, dirb 
K\oiTeia<; Tpe^ofxevor KdpSa yap to dvBpct)B6<i Kal 
TToXe/MiKov XiyeraL. tj Se KaO^ rj/jbipav hiaira 
dpTo<; fjuerd to yvfivdcnov Kal fid^a Kal KdphajJLOv 
Kal d\(f)v %o^'8/^09 Kal Kpea otttcl rj €<j)Od ef 
vBaT0<;, iTOTov 6* vBcop. Orjpevovai Be aavvia dcj)* 
XiTTTcov ffdWovT€<; Kal TO^evfiaTa Kal a-(f)€vBo- 
vovvTe<i.^ BeiXrjf; Be (pvTovpyelv Kal pi^OTOfieiv 
d(TKovac Kal oirXoiroielv Kal Xlva Kal dpKV^ 
(f)iXoT€')(y6iv. ov')(^ diTTOVTai Be twv drjpevfidToyv 
at iratBe^;, dWd KOfjLi^eiv oiKaBe edo^. TudeTai 
S* VTTO Tov ^a(Ti\ea)<; aOXa Bpo/jLOv Kal tmv 
dWcov TMV ^ iv TOt? irevTdOXoL^, Koa/jLOvvTat 8' 
ol 7ralBe<i ')(^pva(b, to TrvpcoTrov TiOcfjuevcov iv Ti/irj' 
Bio ovBe veKpa> Trpoa-cpipova-i,, Kaddirep ovBe to 
irvp, KaTa ti/jl^v, 

1 Meineke, following conj. of Corais, Groskurdand Kramer, 
ejects the words KaXovvrai . . . \4yeraii 

2 (TfevSovovuTes, Meineke emends to (r<}>ep5ovwvT€s. 

^ &\\(i>v Tu>v, Meineke, following Groskurd, inserts. 

* The tree is the Pistacia terebinthus. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 18 

them also to give an account of each lesson, at the 
same time training them in loud speaking and in 
breathing, and in the use of their lungs, and also 
training them to endure heat and cold and rains, 
and to cross torrential streams in such a way as to 
keep both armour and clothing dry, and also to tend 
flocks and live outdoors all night and eat wild fruits, 
such as pistachio nuts,^ acorns, and wild pears. 
These are called Cardaces, since they live on thievery, 
for " carda " means the nianly and warlike spirit. ^ 
Their daily food after their gymnastic exercises con- 
sists of bread, barley-cake, cardamum,^ grains of 
salt, and roasted or boiled meat ; but their drink is 
water. They hunt by throwing spears from horse- 
back, and with bows and slings ; and late in the 
afternoon they are trained in the planting of trees 
and in the cutting and gathering of roots.* The 
boys do not touch the meat of wild animals, though 
it is the custom to bring them home. Prizes are 
offered by the king for victory in running and in the 
four other contests of the pentathla.^ The boys are 
adorned with gold, since the people hold in honour 
the fiery appearance of that metal; and on this 
account, in honour of its fiery appearance, they do 
not apply gold, just as they do not apply fire, to a 
dead body. 

2 This statement appears to be an interpolation (see critical 

3 The Nasturtium orientate, also called Tropaeolum majus. 
The plant, a kind of cress, contains a pungent juice ; and its 
seeds are prepared and eaten like our mustard. 

* i.e. for medicinal purposes. 

5 The pentathla were (1) jumping, (2) discus-throwing, 
(3) running, (4) wrestling, and (5) javelin-throwing (if not 



19. ZTparevovrat Be fcal ap^ovaiv airo etKoaiv 
ircov €(o<i irevTrjicovTa, ire^oi re koI lirirel^' 
ayopd<i Be ov^ ainovTai, ovre yap ttcoXovctiv ovt 
CDVovvrai, oirXi^ovTai Be yeppfo po/jL^oeiBet, irapa^ 
Be ra^; (paperpaf; aaydpei^ exovai, koL kottlBu^, 
irepl Be rfj Ke^aXfj TrCXij/jia Trvpycorov, Ocopa^ 8* 
e<TTcv avTOt'; (ftoXiBcoTo^;. iadrjt; Be tol<; ijyepoat, 
fiev ava^upU rpiirXy], ^(itcdv Be %eiy0^5a)T0? BnrXov<; 
60)9 yovaro^i, o virevBvTT]^ fiev Xeu/cov, dv6Lvo<; 5' 
o eirdvw ifiaTiov Be Oepov<; fiev iropcpvpovv rj 
avBivoVy ^eip^odvo^ B^ dvOivov, rtdpai irapairXr}- 
acat rat? rcov M.dya)V, viroBrj/ia koIXov BittXovv. 
TOi? Be TToXXot? ^(^iTaiV ea)9 fieaoKvrj/iiiOV koX 
Bt7rXov<;, pdKo<; Be aivBoviov rt 'rrepl ry KecjiaXfj' 
ex^f^ B^ 6Ka(TT0<; ro^ov Koi ^(pevBoPTjv, Benrvova-i 
Be ^ 7roXvreXa)<; Uepaaiy TtOevTe<; koX oXo/jieXrj koi 
TToXXa Kol TTOLKiXa' Koapo^ re Xap,7rpb<; (rrpco- 
p,vfj<; ifCTTcop^drcov re koL tcov aXXcov, coare xP^'^^fp 
Kot dpyvpfp /caraXap^TTeaOac. 

20. 'Kv olv(p TO, peyiara fiouXevovrac, kol 
^e/Saiorepa tmv ev VTjyjret rlOevrai. tmv Kajd 
Td<; 6Bov<; avvavrcovrcov rov^; puev yv(oplpLOV<; koI 
l(roTipbov<; (fxXovcTi TrpoaiovTe^,^ rot? Be raTreivo- 
Tepoa Trapa^aXXovav ttjv yvdOov koi Be^ovTai 
ravry to cj^iXrjpa' ol 8' eTi TaireivorepoL Trpoa/cv- 

C 735 vovat pLovov. ddTTTOvaL Be K7]pa> irepLTrXdaavref; 
rd (TcopLara, tov^ Be Mdyov<; ov Odirrovatv, aXX' 

1 E reads Trepi 2 g^'^ omitted by all MSS. except Ei». 
^ wpoarlovTes D, irpoariovras other MSS. 

GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 19-20 

19. They serve in the army and hold commands 
from twenty to fifty years of age, both as foot- 
soldiers and as horsemen ; and they do not approach 
a market-place, for they neither sell nor buy. They 
arm themselves with a rhomboidal wicker-shield; 
and besides quivers they have swords and knives; 
and on their heads they wear a tower-like hat ; and 
their breastplates are made of scales of iron. The 
garb of the commanders consists of three-ply trousers, 
and of a double tunic, with sleeves, that reaches to 
the knees, the under garment being white and the 
upper vari-coloured. In summer they wear a purple or 
vari-coloured cloak, in winter a vari-coloured one only ; 
and their turbans are similar to those of the Magi ; 
and they wear a deep double shoe. Most of the people 
wear a double tunic that reaches to the middle of 
the shin, and a piece of linen cloth round the head ; 
and each man has a bow and a sling. Persians dine 
in an extravagant manner, serving whole animals in 
great numbers and of various kinds; and their 
couches, as also their drinking-cups and everything 
else, are so brilliantly ornamented that they gleam 
with gold and silver. 

20. They carry on their most important delibera- 
tions when drinking wine ; and they regard decisions 
then made as more lasting than those made when 
they are sober. When they meet people on the 
streets, they approach and kiss those with whom 
they are acquainted and who are of equal rank, and 
to those of lower rank they offer the cheek and in 
that way receive the kiss ; but those of still lower 
rank merely make obeisance. They smear the 
bodies of the dead with wax before they bury them, 
though they do not bury the Magi but leave their 



ol(ovo^p(t)TOV<; ^ iojai,' TOVTOt<; Be koI /jurjrpdo-c 
(Tvvep")(e(j6av irdrpiov vevofiiarai. roiavra fjuev 
TO, eOtj. 

21. "EiCTTL S' t<jft)9 Kal ravra tmv iOi/jLwv, d 

0aatXia)V iirl r?)? dKpa<; Ihia TreTroirjo-Oai oc/crjaiv 
Kal 6r)(Tavpov<i Kal 7rapa6eaeL<^ cov eirpdrrovro 
4>6pwv, viro/jLVi]fiara rr)? olKovofiia^;' Trpdrreadai 
8' eK jxev T>)9 irapaXia^ dpyvpiov, eV Be Tr]<; 
p.eao'yala^ a ^epei eKdarr) %ft>/3a, aiare Kal 
')^pd)/jLara Kal ^dpfxaKa Kal Tpi^a rj ^ epeav ij tl 
TOLOvd' erepov Kal dpe/jL/jLara o/jlolco^;. top Be 
Biard^avra tov<; <^6pov^ Aapelov elvat, rov^ 
y[aKp6)(^eipa, Kal KdWiarov dvdpcoTrcov, ttXtjv 
rov jJLrjKOVi tcov ^pa^^tovwv Kal tmv 'Kr]ye(iiV' 
diTTeadaL yap Kal tcov yopdrcoV rov Be irXelarov 
'X^pvaov Kal dpyvpov iv KaTaaK€vai<; elvai, vo- 
pbidfiaTi Be ov ttoWw' irpo^; re ra? Ba)ped<; eKeiva 
Kej(^apLaixeva vofiL^eiv fiaWov Kal 7rpo<; Kei/jLrjXloyv 
diroOeaiv to Be vo/jLiafxa to tt^o? Ta9 %/06ta9 
dpKovv iKavov elvaiy KOTTTeiv Be irdXiv to tol<; 
dvaXcofiaaL au/jLjuLeTpov. 

22. Ta yap ovv eOrj o-cocppovtKa to, irXeico' Bid 
Be Tov ttXovtov et9 Tpv(f>rjv i^eirecrov ol ffaaiXeh, 
wcrre irvpov jiev ef "Ao-fa9 Trj<; AioXLBo<; fjuerrje- 
aav, olvov 5* eK XvpLa<; tov ^oXv/jLcoviov, vBwp Be 

^ olwuofipcoTovs C, oiwvo^6Tovs w, olwvofipSrovs other MSS. 

2 C. Miiller {Ind. Far. LecL, p. 1035) would emend 
no\vKpLTos to UoAvKXeiTos (cp. reference to him in 15. 3. 2). 

^ ^, Kramer inserts {kuI, Corais). 

* rhv MaKpSxeipa . . . yovdrwv, Meineke, following conj, of 
Kramer, ejects. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 20-22 

bodies to be eaten by birds ; and these Magi, by 
ancestral custom, consort even with their mothers. 
Such are the customs of the Persians. 

21. Perhaps also the following, mentioned by 
Polycritus,^ is one of their customs. He says that 
in Susa each one of the kings built for himself on 
the acropolis a separate habitation, treasure-houses, 
and storage places for what tributes they each 
exacted, as memorials of his administration; and 
that they exacted silver from the people on the sea- 
board, and from the people in the interior such 
things as each country produced, so that they also 
received dyes, drugs, hair, or wool, or something else 
of the kind, and likewise cattle ; and that the king 
who arranged the separate tributes was Dareius, 
called the Long-armed, and the most handsome of 
men, except for the length of his arms, for they 
reached even to his knees ; ^ and that most of the 
gold and silver is used in articles of equipment, but 
not much in money; and that they consider those 
metals as better adapted for presents and for de- 
positing in storehouses ; and that so much coined 
money as suffices their needs is enough; and that 
they coin only what money is commensurate with 
their expenditures. 

22. For their customs are in general temperate ; 
but on account of their wealth the kings fell into 
such luxury that they sent for wheat from Assus in 
Aeolis, for Chalymonian wine from Syria, and for 

^ An error, apparently, for Polycleitus (see critical note). 

2 This is thought by various editors to be an interpolation 
(see critical note). Plutarch {Artaxerxes 1) refers to Arta- 
xerxes as having been surnamed " Long-armed " because his 
right arm was longer than his left ; but the above statement 
in regard to Dareius lacks corroboration. 



e/c Tov "EvXaiov irdvTcov iXacj^poraTov, cdcr iv 
^K.TTLKy KOTvXrj Bpux/^V cL^oXKOTepov elvaL. 

23. Xvve^T] Be rot? Il6paai<; ivBo^oTdroi^ ye- 
veadai tmv ^ap/Sdpcop irapa rot? "¥iWr](7LV, otl 
TMV fjikv dWcov ovB6V€<; TOiv T?59 ^Aai,a<i dp^dvTwv 
*K\\riv(ov r)p^av, ovS* fjEeiaav ovS* eKelvoL tov- 
TOv<;, ovB* ol ''EXX77Z/69 Tov^ pap^dpovf;, aXV eirl 
jjLiKpov fJLOvov ifc Trj<; woppcoOev aKorj^;. "0/jL7]po<; 
yovv oijre ttjv tS)v Xvpcov ovt€ ttjp tmv M.rjB(iyv 
dp')(r)v dlBev ovBe yap dv, Sijfia<; Alyv7rTLa<i 
ovofid^cov Kal TOV eKel koI tov iv ^oivlkt) ttXov- 
Tov, TOV iv ^afivXCiVL koX Nlvq) ^ Kal *FiK^aTdvoi<; 
irapeaiooTrrjae. TrpcoTOC Be Hipaai fcal ^KXXrjvcov 
iirrjp^av, AvBol Be iirrjp^av fievy dXX' ovtg tt]^ 
*A<7t<Z9 6Xrj<; iirdp^avTC';,^ dXXd jxepov^ tivo^ 
fxLKpov, TOV ivTo<; " AXvo^ fiovov, Koi TavT iir 
oXiyov 'X^povov tov /caTa Kpotaov /cal 'AXvdTTr)v. 
KpaTTjOevTe^i S' vtto HepcrcoVy el fcat tl Trj<; B6^ri<; 
r^v auTOt?, d<f>r)peTri(Tav Tovd' l'Tt' i/ceLVWv. Ylepaai 
B\ d(f)^ ov KaTeXvcrav to, M.i]B(ov, evdv<i Kal Av- 
B(bv iKpdTTjaav Kal tov<; KaTo, Tr)v ^Acriav'FiXXr]- 
va<; viTT^Koovi ea^ov vdTepov Be Kal Bieffrja-av 
C 736 619 TTjv 'EiXXdBa, Kal rjTTrjOivTe^ 7roXXo2<; Kal 
TToXXdKi^ dythcnv? o/iG)9 BieTeXeaav ttjv ^Aaiav 

fJLeXpt' "T^^V ^Vt OaXaTTT) TOTTCOV /CaT6%OI/T€9, 60)9 V7T0 

^aKeBovcov KaTeTroXefirjOrjo-av. 

1 Kal lilvcp, omitted by moz, NeiKcp CDYhvwx, Xoixrois i. 

2 ^irap|aj/Tes, omitted by mo^z, Corais and Meineke. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 22-23 

water from the Eulaeus, which is so far the lightest 
of all waters that an Attic cotyle ^ of it weighs a 
drachm less than other waters. 

23. The Persians, of all the barbarians, became the 
most famous among the Greeks, because none of the 
other barbarians who ruled Asia ruled Greeks ; 
neither were these people acquainted with the 
Greeks nor yet the Greeks with the barbarians, 
except for a short time by distant hearsay. Homer, 
at any rate, knows neither of the empire of the 
Syrians nor of that of the Medes; for otherwise, 
^ince he names Aegyptian Thebes and mentions the 
wealth there and the wealth in Phoenicia, he would 
not have passed by in silence that in Babylon and 
Ninus and Ecbatana. The Persians were the first 
people to rule over Greeks. The Lydians had indeed 
ruled over Greeks, but not also over the whole of 
Asia — only over a small part of it, that inside the 
Halys River, and that too for only a short time, in 
the time of Croesus and Alyattes. But the Lydians 
were mastered by the Persians and deprived by them 
of whatever glory they had. The Persians, as soon 
as they broke up the power of the Medes, immedi- 
ately mastered the Lydians and also got as their 
subjects the Greeks in Asia; and later they even 
crossed over into Greece ; and, though often defeated 
in many battles, still they continued to hold the 
country as far as the places on the sea until they 
were subdued by the Macedonians. 

1 Nearly half a pint. 

^ F reads iroWols koI TroWaKois (sic) aywcriy Kal iroWaKis ; 
moz iroWols aywoiv Kal ^^o\^a.K^s. Kramer and C. Miiller 
would read -noWoh Koi ixeyaKois aySxriy. 



24. 'O fikv ovv eh ttjv rjyefiovLav KaTaajrjcra^ 
avTov<s K{)/?09 rjv BtaBe^dfievof; Be tovtov Kafiffv- 
ar)<; fto? VTTO Tfov M^aymv KareXvdrj' toi^tou? B' 
aveXovre^ ol eirra Yiepaai Aapelo) tw 'T(TTda7re(o<; 
irapeBoaav ttjv dp-)(i]v' eW ol diro tovtov Bia- 
BexofievoL fcaTeXrj^av eh "Apa-t)v, ov diroKTelva^; 
Ba7r7)09 evpov^o^i KaTedTrjae Aapecov, ovk ovTa 
rod yevov<; twv ^aaiKeoDV. tovtov Be KaToKvaa^; 
^A\e^apBpo<i avT0<i rjp^e ^ Be/ca rj euBetca eTrf etr' 
eh irXeiou^ tou? BiaBe^a/ievov^; koX tov<; eTnyovov^; 
TOVTwv [xepLadelaa rj 7)y efiovia t^9 'Aaia<; Bie- 
XvOt)' avve/jLeive 8' ocrov irevTijKovTa enl Toh 
BtaKoaiOL^; er?;. vvv 8' rjBr] KaO' avTOv<; crvvedTWTe^; 
01 llepaai fiacriXea^i exovcnv vtdjkoov^; eTepoi^i 
^acnXevau, irpoTepov fiev Ma/ceSocri, vvv Be 

^ Instead of 5e«o, DA and Corals read SciSc/ca. 


GEOGRAPHY, 15. 3. 24 

24. Now the man who estabUshed the Persians in 
their hegemony was Cyrus.^ Cyrus was succeeded 
by his son Cambyses, who was deposed by the Magi. 
The Magi were slain by the Seven Persians, who 
then gave over the empire to Dareius, the son of 
Hystaspes. And then the successors of Dareius came 
to an end with Arses. Arses was slain by Bagoiis 
the eunuch, who set up as king another Dareius, 
who was not of the royal family. Him Alexander 
deposed, and reigned himself for ten or eleven years. 
And then the hegemony of Asia was divided amongst 
his several successors and their descendants, and 
then dissolved. The hegemony of the Persians over 
Asia lasted about two hundred and fifty years. But 
now, though again organised into a state of their 
own, the Persians have kings that are subject to 
other kings, formerly to the kings of Macedonia, 
but now to those of the Parthians. 

1 Cyrus the Elder. 




1. Tfj Be HepaiBi, koX rfj ^ovatavj} crvvaTrrovcnv 
ol ^AaarvpLoV koXovctl S' ovtch ttjv 3affv\covLav 
Kal iroWrjv Trj<; kvkXo) 7?)?, ^9 iv /Jbipei kuI rj 
^Arovpla eariv, iv fjirep rj Ntz^o? /cal rj ^ATToWcovid- 
T^9 Kal 'Ei\v/jLatoi /cal UapatraKat Kal rj irepl to 
Zdypov ^ 6po<i XaXwi^tTi? ^ Kal ra irepl ttjv Nlvov 
Trehia, AoXo/jLrjv^ re Kal KaXa^r;i/>) Kal ^a^rjvr] 
Kal ^ABiaffrjpij, Kal ra rrj^ Meo-OTrora/jila^i eOvrj 
ra irepl Tcpo8vaiov<; Kal tov<; irepl ^iai^LV 
Mu^Soi^a? P'^XP^ '^^^ Zeyy/xaro? tov Kara rov 
^v(f>pdTr]v Kal Trj<{ irepav tov FtVippdrov ttoWt],^ 
ffv *'Apaf3€<; Kare^^ovai, Kal ol Ihlco^i viro tmv vvv 

C 737 Xeyop^evoi Xvpoc p^ixP'' ^I'Xlkcov koI ^oivIkcov Kal 
^lovBaLcov * Kal r7]<; daXdrrrj^; t>}9 Kara to 
AlyvTTTiov TTeXayo^i koX tov ^laaiKov koXttov. 

2. AoKel Be to to}v Xvpcov ovopa SiaTelvaL diro 
pLGv T% Ba^vXcovLa<i P'ixP'' "^^^ ^laaiKOv koXttov, 
diro Be TOVTov p^expi' tov Kv^eivov to iraXatov. 
ol yovv K.aTr7rdBoKe<; dp^cpoTepoi, oIl re tt/jo? tm 
Tavpo) Kal ol tt/oo? tw TLovto), p^expi' vvv AevKo- 

^ zdypov E, Zdypiov Dhix Tzschucke, Corais. 
^ XaAwvtTts Casaubon, for XaXuvlr-ns D, Xawv^ris other MSS. 
' iroW-f], Kramer, for woWrjs. 

* 'lovdala>v, in marg. FCs, for Atfivuv. Corais writes Kal 
^lovSaicov Ka\ Aifivwv. 



1. The country of the Assyrians borders on Persis 
and Susiana. This name ^ is given to Babylonia and 
to much of the country all round, which latter, in 
part, is also called Aturia, in which are Ninus, 
ApoUoniatis, the Elymaei, the Paraetacae, the 
Chalonitis in the neighbourhood of Mt. Zagrus, the 
plains in the neighbourhood of Ninus, and also Dolo- 
mene and Calachene and Chazene and Adiabene, 
and the tribes of Mesopotamia in the neighbour- 
hood of the Gordyaeans, and the Mygdonians in the 
neighbourhood of Nisibis, as far as the Zeugma ^ of 
the Euphrates, as also much of the country on the 
far side of the Euphrates, which is occupied by 
Arabians, and those people who in a special sense of 
the term are called by the men of to-day Syrians, 
who extend as far as the Cilicians and the Phoe- 
nicians and the Judaeans and the sea that is opposite 
the Aegyptian Sea and the Gulf of Issus. 

2. It seems that the name of the Syrians extended 
not only from Babylonia to the Gulf of Issus, but also 
in ancient times from this gulf to the Euxine. At 
any rate, both tribes of the Cappadocians, both 
those near the Taurus and those near the Pontus, 
have to the present time been called " White 

^ i.e. " Assyria." * Bridge. 



(Tvpoi fcaXovvrai, ft>9 av ovto)v tivmv "Evpcov koX 
fjL6\dv(ov' ovToi S* elalv ol €kt6<; tov Tavpov 
Xeyo) Be Tavpov, fJ^^XP'' '^^^ ^Apavov BiaTeivwv 
Tovvop.a. ol 5' iaTOpovvT€<i Trjv Xvpoyv CLPXV^ 
orav (f)0}crc M.r]Sov<^ p,€V vtto TiepcJMv KaraXvOrjvai, 
'^vpovfi Be VTTO M.'^Bcov, ovK aX\,ov<; TLva<; TOv<i 
^vpov<; Xeyovaiv, dWa tou9 ev Bafiv\a)vt koX 
^LV(p KareaKevaa-p.evov; to ^aaiXeiov' wv 6 p.ev 
Nlvo(; rjv 6 ttjv Nivov ev rfj ^Arovpia KTiaa<;, rj Be 
Tovrov yvprj, rjirep /cal BieBe^aro tov dvBpa, 
Se/ityoayLti9' ^^9 ecTTi KTicrpa t] BaffvXcov. ovroi 
Be efcpuTrjo-av t?59 'Acrta9, Kal Trjf; ^€pipdp,i,Bo<i, 
^ft)yot9 Ta)v ev Ba^vXcDvi epycov, iroXXa ^ fcal dXXa 
KaTCL irdaav yrjv ax^Bov BeiKvvTai, oar) ttj^ 
r}'TTeipov TavT7]<; eVrt, ra re ^co/xara, a Brj KaXovav 
^€/jLtpdp,i,Bo<;y Kal relxv koX epvp,dTwv KaTacFKevaX 
Kal (TVpiyycov tmv ev uvtol^ koI vBpeiwv Kal 
KXip,dK(cv Kal Bicopvycov ev 7roTa/.coL<; Kal Xip,vai<; 
Kal oBmv Kal ye(j>vp(t)v. direXiTTov Be to?9 p.e6^ 
eavTov<i T-i^v dpxv^ t^^XP^ '^^'^ XapBavaTrdXov Kal 
^Ap^aKOV ^ yLterecTTr; 8' etV yi^Bov<; vaTepov.^ 

3. 'H pev ovv NtVo9 * 7r6Xi<; rj<^avLa6r] irapa- 
XpTjp^a p,€Td ^ Tr)v Tcov ^vpcov KaTdXvaiv. iroXv 
Be pel^oDV rjv Trj<; Ba^vXcovo<;, ev ireBiw Kei/xevr] 
T^9 ^ At ovpLa<;' r) B' ' At ovpla toU irepl " Ap^rfka 
T07rot9 opop6<i^ eaTLy peTa^v exovaa tov Avkov 
TTOTapov. TO, p,ev ovv "ApfirjXa Trj<; Ba(BvX(ovla<; 
vTrdpx^ii a KaT avTr]v eaTiV ev Be tj} Trepaia tov 

1 All MSS. except E read Se after ttoAAo. 

2 'ApfiaKov, Casaubon, for *Opfi<iKov, 

' Dhi read aii^fpov. * "Hivctiv GDYhiw. 

^ Kara Es. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 2-3 

Syrians," ^ as though some Syrians were black, these V 
being the Syrians who Uve outside the Taurus ; 
and when I say '* Taurus," I am extending the 
name as far as the Amanus. When those who have 
written histories of the Syrian empire say that the 
Medes were overthrown by the Persians and the 
Syrians by the Medes, they mean by the Syrians no 
other people than those who built the royal palaces 
in Babylon and Ninus ; and, of these Syrians, Ninus 
was the man who founded Ninus in Aturia, and his 
wife, Semiramis, was the woman who succeeded her 
husband and founded Babylon. These two gained 
the mastery of Asia ; and as for Semiramis, apart 
from her works at Babylon, many others are also 
to be seen throughout almost the whole of that 
continent, I mean the mounds called the Mounds 
of Semiramis, and walls, and the construction of 
fortifications with aqueducts therein, and of reser- 
voirs for drinking-water, and of ladder-Hke ascents 
of mountains, and of channels in rivers and lakes, 
and of roads and bridges. And they left to their 
successors their empire until the time of the empires 
of Sardanapalus and Arbaces. But later the empire 
passed over to the Medes. 

3. Now the city Ninus ^ was wiped out immedi- 
ately after the overthrow of the Syrians. ^ It was 
much greater than Babylon, and was situated in the 
plain of Aturia. Aturia borders on the region of 
Arbela, with the Lycus River lying between them. 
Now Arbela, which lies opposite to Babylonia, 
belongs to that country ; and in the country on the 

1 Cf. 12. 3. 9. 2 Nineveh. ^ 608 b.c. 

• ^/xopos Exz, HfMoios other MSS. 



AvKov TO, T7J<; *ATovpia<; TreBia rfj NtVoi) irepiKeL- 
rat. iv Be rfj ^Krovpia iarl TavydfiTjXa kco/jLt}, 
iv y avvifir) viKijOrjvaL koI airo^dXetv ttjv ap^7]v 
Aapecov. eari fxev ovv totto? eTriarnxo^ ovto<; koI 
Tovvofxa, fiedepjjLrjvevdev yap eari Ka/jurjXov ol/co<i' 
Q)v6/jLa(T€ S* ovTO) Aapelo^; 6 ^Taraairew, Krrj/j,a 
Bov<; eh Biarpo^r^v ry KafxrjXw rrj o-vveKireirovrj- 
Kvla fidXtara ttjv oBov ttjv Blcl Trj<^ eprjiiov 
^Kvdia<; fiera tmv (f)opTio)V, iv oh rjv Kal rj 
BiaTpo<^r] Tft) PacTiXel. ol fievroi Ma/ceB6v€<i, tovto 
fxev 6p(t)VT€<i koo/jLlov euTeXe?, ra Be "Ap/SrjXa 
KaroiKiav d^ioXoyov {Krla/ia, w? (paaiv, ^Kp^rjXov 
rov 'AdfMOveo)^), irepl "Kp^rfKa rrjv fid)(V^ '^'^^ 
VLKTjv Kare^rjiJLLCTav /cat rot? crvyypa(j)€vaiv ovrco 

4. Mera Be "ApffrjXa koX to l^iKUTopcov opo^ 
(o TTpoawvoixaaev ^ AXe^avBpo^;, VLKrjaa^^ ttjv irepl 
"Ap^TjXa ixd')(r)v) 6 Kdirpo^; earl TrorayLto? ev taw 

C 738 BiaarijfiaTt, oatp koI 6 Avfco<;' rj Be xd>pa 'Apra- 
K-qvT) ^ Xeyerai. irepl "Ap^rfKa Be eari Kal 
Ar]/jL7]Tpia<; ir6Xi<;' eW^ rj tov vd<j)6a irrjyr] Kal rd 
irupd Kal TO t*)? ^Avea^ ^ lepov Kal XaBpdKai, to 
Aapelov tov 'TaTdaireco /SaaiXeiov, Kal o 
K.v7rapL(Tact)v koI rj tov Kdirpov Bid^aau^, avvdir- 
Tovaa 7]Br] ^eXevKeia Kal BafivXayvi. 

5. 'H Be Ba/SvXcDV Ka\ avTrj fiev eaTiv ev 
ireBiw, TOV Be kvkXov €)(ei tov ret^^ou? TptaKoaicov 
oyBorjKovTa irevTe aTaBlcov, irdxo<; Be tov ret^ou? 

1 'ApraK-nvii is otherwise unknown. Groskurd conj. 'Ap/Srj 
Xvvfi (noting 'ApfieKlns in Ptolemaeus 6. 1 and Pliny 6. 13. 
16) ; Kramer prefers 'ASia^rjpr} ; C. Miiller conj. Tapafx-nvi]. 

2 'Aveas, Xylander and Kramer emend to 'A/co(os; Corais 
conj. ^AvatriSos. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 3-5 

far side of the Lycus River lie the plains of Aturia, 
which surround Ninus. In Aturia is a village Gau- 
gainela, where Dareius was conquered and lost his 
empire. Now this is a famous place, as is also its 
name, which, being interpreted, means ** Camel's 
House." Dareius, the son of Hystaspes, so named 
it, having given it as an estate for the maintenance 
of the camel which helped most on the toilsome 
journey through the deserts of Scythia with the 
burdens containing sustenance and support for the 
king. However, the Macedonians, seeing that this 
was a cheap village, but that Arbela was a notable 
settlement (founded, as it is said, by Arbelus, the 
son of Athmoneus), announced that the battle and 
victory took place near Arbela and so transmitted 
their account to the historians. 

4. After Arbela and Mt. Nicatorium ^ (a name 
applied to it by Alexander after his victory in the 
neighbourhood of Arbela), one comes to the Caprus 
River, which lies at the same distance from Arbela 
as the Lycus. The country is called Artacene.^ 
Near Arbela lies the city Demetrias ; and then one 
comes to the fountain of naphtha, and to the fires, 
and to the temple of Anea,^ and to Sandracae, and 
to the royal palace of Dareius the son of Hystaspes, 
and to Cyparisson, and to the crossing of the Caprus 
River, where, at last, one is close to Seleuceia and 

5. Babylon, too, Ues in a plain; and the circuit 
of its wall is three hundred and eighty-five stadia. 
The thickness of its wall is thirty-two feet; the 

1 " Mount of Victory." 

2 Probably an error for Adiabene(see 16. 1. 8 and 16. 1. 18). 
' Apparently the same as the goddess Anaitis (cf. 11. 8. 4 

and 15. 3. 15) 



TToBojv Svo Kol rpid/covra, v'\lro<; Be tcov fxev jxeaoirvp- 
yioyp 7Trj^eL<^ TrevTiJKovra, rcov Be Trvpjojv €^7)K0VTa, 
r) Be irdpoBo^ roL<; eirl tou ret^j^^ou?, ware ^ Tedpnnra 
evavTLoBpojJLelv dXkrjXoi<; paBico^i' Bioirep tmv 
eirra Oeafidrcji^ Xeyerat koI tovto kol 6 Kpe/xaa- 
TO? KTjTTO^, ^X^^ ^^ Terpaydovo) axVM'CLTt eKdarrjv 
irXevpdv rerrdpcov TrXeOpcov' avve^^erat Be yjra- 
XiBco/juaai KafjLapcoTol<i, eirl TrerrMv lBpv/bLevoi<; 
Kv^oeiBdov dWoi^ eiT dWoL<;' oi Be Trerrol KolXoi 
7r\i]pei<; yrj<;, ware Be^aadai (pvrd BevBpwv rwv 
p,€yi<TTa>p, e^ ottt?)? ttXlvOov koX dcr^dXrov 
KareaKevaa fJuevoL Koi avrol kol at -yjraXiBe^; koL 
rd KafiapdifxaTa. rj 8' dvwrdTOi) GTeyr] irpoa- 
^d(Tei<; KXifxaKOird^i e%€^, TrapaKeifMevov; B' avraU 
KOL Ko^Xi'CL'^i Bl oiv TO vBwp dvrjyov eh rov ktjttop 
diro Tov ^vcppdrov (Ti»z^e%co? ol tt/jo? tovto T€Tay- 
/xevoL. 6 yap iroTap})'^ Bid fiear]<; pel Trj<; TroXeo)? 
(TTaBialo<; to irXdTO^' eirl Be Ta> iroTajLLO) 6 /ctJtto?. 
eaTi Be koX 6 tov ^tjXov Td<^o^ avToOc, vvv fiev 
KaTeaKa/jLp.evoi;*'Zep^r}<; B' avTov KaTeairacrev, w? 
^acnV rjv Be irvpapX^ TCTpdycovo^ i^ oirTrj^ 
ttXivOov, koX avTTj (TTaBiaia to vyjro^, cFTaBiaia 
Be Kol e/cdaTT] twv irXevpwv' fjv ^ AXe^avBpo^ 
e^ovXeTO dvaaKevdaai, rrroXv 8' ^v epyov kol 
TToXXov xpopov {avTT] yap r] %o{}9 et9 dvaKdOapaiv 
p,vploL<; dvBpdai Bvelv /jltjvcov epyov rjv), waT ovk 
e<^6r] TO eyx^i^pV^^^ eTrtTeXeaai' rrapa^pPj/jia yap 
7] v6ao<; fcal rj TeXevTT) avveTreae Ta> /SacriXel. 

^ &(rT€ Dhi, Corais, and Meineke, for us, 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 5 

height thereof between the towers is fifty cubits ^ ; 
that of the towers is sixty cubits ; and the passage 
on top of the wall is such that four-horse chariots 
can easily pass one another ; and it is on this account 
that this and the hanging garden are called one of 
the Seven Wonders of the World. The garden is 
quadrangular in shape, and each side is four plethra 
in length. It consists of arched vaults, which are 
situated, one after another, on checkered, cube-like 
foundations. The checkered foundations, which are 
hollowed out, are covered so deep with earth that 
they admit of the largest of trees, having been 
constructed of baked brick and asphalt- — the founda- 
tions themselves aiid the vaults and the arches. 
The ascent to the uppermost terrace-roofs is made 
by a stairway ; and alongside these stairs there were 
screws, through which the water was continually 
conducted up into the garden from the Euphrates 
by those appointed for this purpose. For the river, 
a stadium in width, flows through the middle of the 
city ; and the garden is on the bank of the river. 
Here too is the tomb of Belus, now in ruins, having 
been demolished by Xerxes, as it is said. It was a 
quadrangular pyramid of baked brick, not only being 
a stadium in nSght, but also having sides a stadium 
in length. Alexander intended to repair this pyra- 
mid ; but it would have been a large task and would 
have required a long time (for merely the clearing 
away of the mound was a task for ten thousand men 
for two months), so that he could not finish what he 
had attempted ; for immediately the king was over- 
taken by disease and death. None of his successors 

1 Cp. the account of Herodotus (1. 178), who gives much 
larger dimensions. 



T(S)v 8* varepov ovBel^; i^povTiaeV aXKa koX ra 
Xoiira ot}\Lj(Dpi]6r] koI Karijpeiyjrav rijfi TroX-eo)? ra 
fiev 01 Tlepaai, ra 8* o y^povo^ koI t] tmv Ma/ce- 
hovwv oXcycopla irepl ra roiavra, koI fjudXta-ra 
€7r€LBr) rrjv XeXev/ceiav eVt tw Ttypet ttXtj&lov rrjf; 
BaffvXcovof; iv TpLaKoaioi<; ttov araBiOL^; ereiXi^ae 
SeXeu/co? 6 NLKiircop. /cal yap iKelvo<; /cat ol /juer 
avTov airavTe^ irepl ravrrjv iairovBaaav rrjv 
iroXiv /cal to ^aalXeiov evravOa fier'^veyKav' 
fcal Sr] Kal vvv r) fiev yeyove Ba/SvXcovo^; 

/Jb€L^(i)V, T) B' €pr]/J,0<; 7) TTOXXlj, OXTT cV aVTTj^ jJbT] 

av OKVYjaai riva elirelv, oirep e(f)7] rt? icav 
fcoy/jiiKMv iirl tmv MeyaXoiroXtTcov tmv iv 

^\ iprjfiia /jbeydXrj ^(ttIv rj "MeydXrj ttoX*?. 

C 739 Bia Be rrjv ti}? vX7]<; (tttolviv ifc ^olvlkIvcov ^vXcov at 
OLKoBo/Jial crvvreXovvTai Kal Bokol<; Kal (XTuXoi?* 
irepl Be tov? (TtvXov<; (7Tpe(f)0vre<; €k rrj? KaXdjjir]^ 
(T^otvla TrepiTiOeaaiv, elr eiraXei^iOVTe^i ')(^po)ixa(TL 
KaTaypd(f)ovai, ra^ Be 6vpa<i da-^dXrw' v\jrr]Xal 
Be Kal avrai Kal ol oIkol, Ka/xapwrol iravre^; Bia 
rrjp d^vXiav» yfnXr) yap rj %co/3a Kal OafjiV(t)Br)(; rj 
ttoXXt] ttXtjv ^OLViKo<i' ovTO<i Be TrXeto-To? ev rfj 
Ba^vXcovla, ttoXu? Be Kal ev Xovo'ol^ Kal iv rfj 
irapaXia rfj ^ Ylepa-iBc Kal iv rfj K.apfiavia. 
Kepdjxw S' ov %/9(wz/Taf ovBe yap Karofiffpovvrai. 
irapaiTXrjaLa Be Kal ra iv ^ovaoi^ Kal rfj 

6. *A^(opiaro B' iv ry Ba^vXoavia^ KaroiKia 

^ rfj, Meineke inserts. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 5-6 

cared for this matter ; and even what was left of the 
city was neglected and thrown into ruins, partly by 
the Persians and partly by time and by the indiffer- 
ence of the Macedonians to things of this kind, and 
in particular after Seleucus Nicator had fortified 
Seleuceia on the Tigris near Babylon, at a distance 
of about three hundred stadia therefrom. For not 
only he, but also all his successors, were strongly 
interested in Seleuceia and transferred the royal 
residence to it. What is more, Seleuceia at the 
present time has become larger than Babylon, 
whereas the greater part of Babylon is so deserted 
that one would not hesitate to say what one of the 
comic poets said in reference to the Megalopolitans 
in Arcadia: " The Great City ^ is a great desert." ^ 
On account of the scarcity of timber their buildings 
are finished with beams and pillars of palm-wood. 
They wind ropes of twisted reed round the pillars ; 
and then they plaster them and paint them with 
colours, though they coat the doors with asphalt. 
Both these and the private homes are built high, 
all being vaulted on account of the lack of timber ; 
for, with the exception of the palm tree, most of 
the country is bare of trees and bears shrubs only. 
The palm is most abundant in Babylonia, and is 
found in abundance in Susa and on the coast of 
Persis and in Carmania. They do not use tiles 
much on their houses, for they get no rain ; and 
this is likewise the case both in Susa and Sitacene. 
6. In Babylonia a settlement is set apart for the 

1 " Megalopolis " means " Great City." 

2 Strabo makes the same quotation in 8. 8. 1. 

2 BafiuKwvi, Groskurd and Meineke emend to BafivKwvi, 



Tot^; €7rLX(Dpiot^ (fiiXoo-ocpOL^, TOfc? ^aXSaioif; 
TT poaayop€vofji€voi<; y ol irepl daTpovofiiav elo-l ro 
irXeov' TrpoairoLOvvrat he Ttv6<; koX yeveOXtaXo- 
yeiv, ou<; ov KaraBe'X^ovraL ol erepoc. eari Se /cat 
(f)v\6v TL TO TO)v ^aXSaicov Kol %w/3a T^9 Haj3v- 
Xwvia^ VTT iK€Lvo)v oLKo/iiivr), TrXrjcnd^ovaa koI 
T0i<i ^Apa'^L Koi TTJ Kara Ilepcra? Xeyofiivr) 
Oakdrrrj. eari Be kol rcov XaXSaucov rwv dorrpo- 
vofjbiKoyv yevrj irXeiw' koX yap 'Op)(^i]voL Tive^ irpoa- 
ayopevovrai koX 3opat7r7rr]vol Koi dXXoi TrXetoL'?, 
CO? dv Kara alpicrei^iy dXXa koi dXXa vefJLOVTe^ irepl 
Tcov avTcbv Boyfiara. fiefivrjvrai, Be koX tmv dvSpcov 
ivicov ol jiiaOrjpaTi/coi, KaOdirep KfSryi/a re /cal 
Nafiovpiavov koI ^ovBLvov. koX ^eXevKO^ S* o diro 
T/)? XeXevKeLa<; XaXBalof; earL koI dXXot irXeiov^ 
d^ioXoyoL dvBpe<;. 

7. Ta Be BopdiTTTra lepd TroXt? earlv ^ KprefiiBo'^ 
Ka\ ^A'7r6XXa)vo<i, Xivopyelov p.eya. irXfjOvovai 
Be ev avrfi vvKreplBe^; /ii€L^ov<; ttoXv tmv ev dXXoi^ 
TQ7roi<s' dXldKovTai S' ei9 ^pcocriv koX rapi- 

8. JlepLe'x^eTai 8' 97 %<w/3a tmv HajSyXoyvLcov diro 
jxev tt)? r)0v<i vtto re ^ovatcov kol ^EXv/jLalcov kuI 
UapairaKrjvMV, diro Be r^? /jL€(Tr]fi^pia<i vtto rod 
llepaiKov KoXirov koi t&v XaXBalcov P'expf' 
'Apd^cov TMP Meo-rjvcov,^ diro Be t?}? eairepa^ vtto 
re ^ Apd(3(t)V t(ov ^/crjvircbv P'expi' t^9 ^ ABLa^7]vrj<; 
KOL T/J9 VopBvaia^, diro Be rcov dpKTcov vivo re 
^ApfxevLOdv KoX yirjB(DV /^e^/Jt Tov Tidypov kuI tmv 
irepl avTov ^ edvwv, 

^ Meo-Tjywj', Letronne, for 'EM<n)vu)v F, 'AA.ccrjfcSi' other 
MSS. ; so later editors. ^ avT6v, Jones, for a.vr6. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 1.6-8 

local philosophers, the Chaldaeans, as they are V 
called, who are concerned mostly with astronomy; 
but some of these, who are not approved of by the 
others, profess to be genethlialogists.^ There is 
also a tribe of the Chaldaeans, and a territory 
inhabited by them, in the neighbourhood of the 
Arabians and of the Persian Sea, as it is called. 
\ There are also several tribes of the Chaldaean as- 
tronomers. For example, some are called Orcheni, 
others Borsippeni, and several others by different 
names, as though divided into different sects which 
hold to various different dogmas about the same 
subjects. And the mathematicians make mention 
of some of these men ; as, for example, Cidenas and 
Naburianus and Sudinus. Seleucus of Seleuceia is 
also a Chaldaean, as are also several other noteworthy 

7. Borsippa is a city sacred to Artemis and Apollo ; 
and it manufactures linen in great quantities. It 
abounds in bats, much larger in size than those in 
other places ; and these bats are caught and salted 
for food. 

8. The country of the Babylonians is surrounded 
on the east by the Susians and Elymaeans and 
Paraetacenians, and on the south by the Persian 
Gulf and the Chaldaeans as far as the Mesenian ^ 
Arabians, and on the west by the Arabians called 
Scenitae,^ as far as Adiabene and Gordyaea, and on 
the north by the Armenians and the Medes as far 
as the Zagrus and the tribes about that river. 

^ i.e. to be astrologers, or to know how to cast 

2 Cf. " Mesene " in 2. 1. 31. 
» "Tent-dwellers." 



9. Atappetrai 6' viro TrXeiovcov fxev TTorafjucjv r) 
X'^pf^y P'G'ylaTcop Be rov re Kvcjipdrov kclI tov 
Ttypio^' iiera yap rov^ ^IvhiKov^ ovroi Xiyovrat 
hevrepeveiv Kara ra voria fieprj r?}? 'Atrta? ol 
TTorapLoi' exovai 5' dvairXov^;, 6 fiev iirl ttjv 
"^flmv fcul ^ Tr)V vvv ^ekevKeiav (r) Se 'XItt*? kco/jltj 
e/bLTTopiov T(ov kvkXo) tottcov), 6 S* eVl Ba^uXo)va, 
C 740 irXeiovayv rj Tpi<j)(t^XLa)v araBicov. ol jxev ovv 
Ylepaai tov<; dvuTrXov^ eVtTTySe? KcoXvetv OeXovre^, 
(poffo) TMv e^wOev icfioScov, KaTapdKra<; x^ipoTroirj- 
Tou? KaT€aK€vdfC€iaav' 6 Be ^AX€^avBpo<; einoDV, 
6crov<; ol6<; re rjv, dveaKevaae, koI p^dXcara toi)? 
iirl Ttjp ^Uttiv. eTreixeXrjOi] Be /cat twv Biwpvywv 
TrXrj/jL/jLvpel yap 6 Eu(/)/9aT»y? Kara rrjv dp^V^ tov 
Oepov<;, diro tov eapof; dp^d/jLevo<i, rjvLKa njKovrai 
al x^6ve<; at diro tt)? ^Ap/nevia^;, coctt dvdyKrj 
Xifivd^eiv^ Kal KaraxXv^eaOac ra? dpovpa<^, el 
fir] Bio'X'^Tevei Tt9 Ta<f)peiaL^ Kal Bicopv^i to eKiriTT- 
Tov TOV pov Kol eiriTToXd^ov vBcop, Kaddirep Koi 
iv AlyvTTTa) to tov l^elXoV evTevOev fxev ovv 
al BL(i)pvye<i yeyevrjvTai' XP^^^ ^^ eaTiv virovp- 
yla<i /JL€ydXr)<;' ^adela yap rj yvf Kal p^aXaKT) 
Kal evevBoTO<;, c^are Kal eKcrvpeTav paBl(o<; 
VTTO TO)V pevfidroju Kal yvp,vol to, ireBia, irXrjpoc 
Be ra? Bcoypvya^i Kal to. cTTOfiaTa avT&v ep.(j)pdTTet> 
paBlco^ T) %oi)?* ovTco Be avp^fialvec irdXiv ttjv 
vTrepxyo'i'^ T(ov vBdTcov eh tcl 7rpb<i TJj OaXaTTj) 
ireBia i kit lit rov a av Xlfjuva^ diroTeXelv Kal eXrj Kal 

^ Meissner would omit kuI. But according to Strabo's 
visage SeAeu/femj/ might be appositional with '^nmv with the 
Kai quite as well as without it. 

2 \ifxvdie<xeai DM. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 9 

9. The country is traversed by several rivers, 
though the largest are the Euphrates and the Tigris. 
Next to the Indian rivers these two, among those 
in the southern parts of Asia, are said to hold the 
second place. And they are navigable inland : 
the Tigris to Opis and the present Seleuceia ^ (the 
village Opis is an emporium of the places situated 
round it) and the Euphrates to Babylon, a distance 
of more than three thousand stadia. Now the 
Persians, wishing on purpose to prevent voyaging 
up these rivers, for fear of attacks from without, had 
constructed artificial cataracts, but Alexander, when 
he went against them, destroyed as many of them as 
he could, and in particular those to Opis. He also 
paid careful attention to the canals ; for the Euphrates 
rises to flood-tide at the beginning of summer, 
beginning first to rise in the spring when the snows 
in Armenia melt ; so that of necessity it forms lakes 
and deluges the ploughed lands, unless the excess 
of the stream, or the surface water, is distributed 
by means of trenches and canals, as is the case with 
the Nile in Aegypt. Now this is the origin of the 
canals ; but there is need of much labour to keep 
them up, for the soil is so deep and soft and yielding 
that it is easily swept out by the streams, and the 
plains are laid bare, and the canals are easily filled, 
and their mouths choked, by the silt ; and thus it 
results again that the overflow of the waters, empty- 
ing into the plains near the sea, forms lakes and 
marshes and reed-beds, which last supply reeds from 

^ Bruno Meissner (Klio, Beitrdge zur Alten Geschichte, 
XIX. 1925, p. 103), comparing 2. 1. 26, understands Strabo 
to mean that Opis and "the present Seleuceia " are identical 
(see critical note). 



Koka/jLoovaf;, ef a)v KaXdfiiva TrXeKerat Travrola 
(7Kev7)^ TCL fiev vypov BeKTiKO, ry aa-cjxzXrw irepi- 
aXsK^ovTcov, Tot9 S' aX\oL<; ■\jn\co<; ')(pco/jL6V(ov' /cat 
laria Se iroiovvTaL KaXdfiiva, '\^Ld6oL<i fj pL-^l 

10. To fiev ovv iravTCLiraaL /cooXvetv rrjv TOiavrrjv 
7rX7]/jL/JLvpav ov^ ^^^^ '^^ tVo)?, to Se rrjv Svvarrjv 
7rpd(T(f)€p6iv ^orjOeiav rjyepovwv d<ya6o)v iariv. 
T) Be ^orjOeia avrrj' rrjv fiev TroXXrjv 7rap6K)(^vaiv 
i/jL(f)pd^€i KcoXveiv, T7)v Be TrXrjpccaiv, tjv rj %oi}9 
ipyd^erai, rovvavriov dvaKaddpaei tmv Bicopvycov 
KOI e^avoi^ei rSdv (Tro/jbdrayp, 77 fiev ovv dva/cd- 
dap(7i<i paBia, rj Be efjL(j)pa^t-<; 7ToXv')(^eipLa<; Belrar 
evevBoTo<i yap ova a rj yrj koI puaXaKT] rrjv e7n(J)oprj- 
Oelaav 01)% vTro/jbivet X^^^^ dXX^ eiKovcra avpe<j)eX- 
Kerat KaKelvrjv /cal iroiei Buaeyx(i>aTOv ^ to arofia. 
Kol yap Kol rd^ov^; Bee vrpo? to ra^etw? KXeiaOrjvai 
ra? BLCopvya<; real p,r) irdv GKireaelv i^ avTCOv to 
vBfop. ^ripavdeicrai yap tov 6epov<; ^rjpaivovai 
Kal TOV 7roTa/.i6v' Ta7r€iv(i)0el<; Be Td<; eVo;^eTeta9 
ov BvvaTai Trapexj^crO ai KaTcu Kaipov mv Belrai 
irXelaTov tov Oepov<; ep^irvpo^ ova a rj ydypa kol 
KavpaTTjpd' Bia^epei 8' ovBev rj tw TrXrjdei tcjv 
vBdTcov KaTaicXv^eadai tou? Kapirov^, rj ttj Xei- 
'\jrvBpla Tw Bi-y^reL Bia(f)6€Lp€a6aL' d/xa Be Kal T0v<i 
avdirXov^, ttoXv to ^p^l^^^l^ov e^ovTa^i, del Xvpatvo- 
fievov^;^ UTT* dp,(f)0Tepwv twv Xe^^evTcov nraOoyv, 
ovx olov re eiravopOovv, el fir) Ta^p P'^v e^avol- 
yoiTO ^ TO, aTopta to)v Bicopvycov, Ta^p Be KXeiotTO 

'^ Sv(r€yx(»<yToi'f Schneider, for SytreVx&'o'Toi/ F, Sucevx^o'Toi' 
other MSS. 

2 After Xvfiaivofiepovs all MSS. except F read yap ; before 
that word Meineke, from conj. of Corais, inserts Se. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 9-10 

which all kinds of reed-vessels are woven. Some 
of these vessels, when smeared all over with asphalt, 
can hold water, whereas the others are used in their 
bare state. They also make reed-sails, which are 
similar to rush-mats or wicker-work. 

10. Now it is impossible, perhaps, altogether to 
prevent overflows of this kind, but it is the part of 
good rulers to afford all possible aid. The aid 
required is this : to prevent most of the overflowing 
by means of dams, and to prevent the filling up 
effected by the silt, on the contrary, by keeping the 
canals cleared and the mouths opened up. Now 
the clearing of the canals is easy, but the building 
of dams requires the work of many hands; for, 
since the earth readily gives in and is soft, it does 
not support the silt that is brought upon it, but 
yields to the silt, and draws it on, along with itself, 
and makes the mouth hard to dam. And indeed 
there is also need of quick work in order to close 
the canals quickly and to prevent all the water from 
emptying out of them. For when they dry up in 
the summer, they dry up the river too; and when 
the river is lowered it cannot supply the sluices with 
water at the time needed, since the water is needed 
most in summer, when the country is fiery hot and 
scorched; and it makes no difference whether the 
crops are submerged by the abundance of water, 
or are destroyed by thirst for water. At the same 
time, also, the voyages inland, with their many 
advantages, were always being thwarted by the two 
above-mentioned causes, and it was impossible to 
correct the trouble unless the mouths of the canals 
were quickly opened up and quickly closed, and 

^ i^avoiyoiTo, Kramer, for KXeioivro ; so the later editors. 



Kal at Sioopvye^ ael fierpid^oiev, atcTTe fitjre^ 
irXeovd^eLV ev avrai^ to vScop firjr iXXetTretv. 
C 741 11. <t>r}al 8^ 'ApLaro^ovXof; rbv ^AXe^avSpov 
avTov, dvairXeovra Kal Kv/Sepvoovra to (TKn(j>o<;, 
eiTLffKoiTelv Koi dvaKaOaipeiv ra? Bi(opvya<; fxeTa 
Tov TrXrjOov^ tcov avvaKoXovdrjaavTcov' co? 8' 
auTO)<; Kol TO, aTOfXia i/jL^puTTCLV, tcl 5' dvouyeiv 
KaTavorjaavTa he filap ttjv fidXiaTa Teivovaav ^ 
eVt TCi eXrj koI Ta<; Xifjuva^; ra? irpo t^? 'AyoaySta?, 
hv(Tfjb€Ta')(eLpLaTOv exovaav to aToyua /cal /jlt) 
paBlw^; €fjL(f)pdTT€aOaL BvvafjLevrjv Sea to evevBoTov 
Kal fjiaXaKoyeiov, dXXo dvol^ai Kaivov aTOfxa, 
diTo (TTaBicov TpidKOVTa vTTQireTpov Xa^ovTa 
'XwpLov, KCLKel fieTayayelv to peWpov TavTa Be 
TTOielVy TTpovoovvTa dfia Kal tov fir) Tr]v ^Apa^lav 
Bvaeia^oXov TeXe&)9 ifiro tcov Xl/jlvmv y Kal tmv 
eXojv diTOTeXeaOrjvai, vrjai^ovaav 7]Br] Bid to 
7rXrjdo<i TOV vBaTO<i' BiavoelaOai yap Brj KaTa- 
KTcLadai Tr)v yoapav TavTrjv Kal aToXov^ Kal 
opfiTjTTjpia rjBrj KaTeaKevdadai, ra irXola ra fxev 
ev ^olvLkt) t€ Kal Kvirpw vav7rr)yr]o-d/iievov Bid- 
XvTd T€ Kal yofj,(f>(OTd, a KOfjLiaOivTa et? SdyfraKOv 
aTaOfJLol^;^ enTa eiTa tm TVOTafiSt KaTaKop^taOPjvai 
/jLe^pt ^apvXo3vo<;y tcl S' ev tt) Ba^vXcovla 
av/JLTTTj^dfjievov tSu) ev Toh dXaeai Kal tol^; 
7rapaBeiaot<; KvirapiTTcov' aTrdvi^ yap vXr}<; ev- 
Tavda' ev Be K.0(raai0L<; Kal dXXoi<; Tial fieTpia 
Tt? ecTTLV evTTOpia. aKrj-^aadai fiev ovv aWiav 

^ lxTf)Te, Corais, for /UTjSe. 

2 Tiivovaav, the editors, for arvvreivovcrau. 

3 (TTae fxo'is F, a-raSiois other MSS. and editors before 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. lo-ii 

unless the canals were regulated so that the water 
in them neither was excessive nor failed. 

11. Aristobulus says that Alexander himself, 
when he was sailing up the river and piloting the 
boat, inspected the canals and with his multitude of 
followers cleared them ; and that he likewise stopped 
up some of the mouths and opened others ; and 
when he noticed that one canal, the one which 
stretched most directly towards the marshes and 
lakes that lay in front of Arabia, had a mouth most 
difficult to deal with and could not easily be stopped 
up because of the yielding and soft nature of the 
soil, he opened up another mouth, a new one, at a 
distance of thirty stadia from it, having selected a 
place with a rocky bottom, and that he diverted 
the stream to that place ; and that in doing this he 
was taking forethought at the same time that Arabia 
should not be made utterly difficult to enter by the 
lakes or even by the marshes, since, on account of 
the abundance of water, that country was already 
taking the form of an island. For of course Alex- 
ander, he says, intended to acquire possession of that 
country, and had already prepared fleets and bases 
of operations, having built some of his boats in 
Phoenicia and Cypros, boats that were constructed 
with bolts and could be taken to pieces, which were 
conveyed by a seven days' journey to Thapsacus and 
then down the river to Babylon, and having built 
others in Babylonia, from the cypress trees in the 
groves and the parks ; for there is a scarcity of 
timber in Babylonia, although there is a moderately 
good supply of timber in the countries of the Cossaei 
and certain other tribes. Now Alexander alleged 




Tov TToXe/jLov <^r)aiv, iTrecBr) /jlovoi tmv aTrdvrcop 
ov TTpeafievaaivTO ol "Kpa^e^i co? avTov, to S* 
a\r]6e<; opeyo/JLevop Trdvrcov elvai KvpLov koL 
iirel Bvo Oeov^i eirvvOdveTO Tcfjuda-Oai /jl6vov<; vtt* 


KvpKOTaTa TTpof TO ^Tjv 7rape)(0VTa<;, TpiTov vtto- 
Xa^etv eavTOV Tifi^a-ecrOaL, KpaTijcravTa koI iin- 
TpeyjravTa ttjv iraTpiOV avTOVo/nLav 6)(€t,v, ^v el^ov 
TrpoTepov. TavTa re Brj irpayfjuaTeveaOai, irepl 
Ta<i Bi(opvya<i tov ^AXe^avBpov, koX tou? tu^ov^ 
aKCVcopelaOai tov<; tcov /SaatXecov /cal BwaaTcov 
TOi/9 yap 7r\6L(TT0V^ iv tul^ \i,fivai<; elvat. 

12. ^FipaTO(rO€vrj<; Be, tcov Xifivcjv fivrjaOeU tcov 
7r/)09 T§ 'A/3a/3ta, ^r^o^t to vBcop diropovfievov 
Bie^oBcov dvol^ai 7r6pov<; vtto 7^9 Kal Be* ixeivcov 
VTTO(f>epeadat, fiexpt' K^oiXoa-vpcov dvadXi/SecrOat 
Be €t9 T0U9 Trepl 'FivoKoXovpa ^ Kal to Kdaiov 
6po<; TOTTOu? ^ Kal iroielv tcl^ eKel Xl/jLva<i Kal to, 
fidpaOpa. ovK olBa B\ el 7ridavco<; etprfKev at 
yap TOV EiV(f>pdTOV 7rap€K)(^v<7ei<i al iroiovaaL Ta? 
7r/)09 Ty *Apa^L(i Xl/jLva<i Kal to, eXr) irXrjaiov 
ela-l T^9 KaTOL Hepaa<i OaXaTTrj^;, 6 Be Bielpycov 
l(T0/jLO<; ovTe 7roXv<; eaTCv ovTe 7r€Tpa)Br}<i, ooctts 
C 742 '^CLVTT} pLoXXov elKo<; rjv /SidaaaOai to vBcop et? ttjv 
OdXaTTav, eW vtto yrj<i ^ etV eViTroXr;?, rj 7rXelov<; 
TCOV e^aKCCTXt'Xicov aTaBicov Biavveiv, dvvBpov Kal 
^rjpdv ovTco, Kal TavTa opcov iv fieaco KeLfievcov, 

* '¥ivoK6Kovp3.y Tzschucke and Corais, for 'PivoKopoipa. (see 
readings in 16. 2. 31 and 16. 4. 24). 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 11-12 

as cause of the war, Aristobulus says, that the 
Arabians were the only people on earth who did not 
send ambassadors to him, but in truth was reach- 
ing out to be lord of all; and when he learned that 
they worshipped two gods only, Zeus and Dionysus, 
the gods who supply the most requisite needs of 
life, he took it for granted that they would worship 
him as a third if he mastered them and allowed 
them to keep the ancestral independence which 
they had had before. Accordingly, he adds, Alex- 
ander busied himself thus with the canals, and also 
inspected thoroughly the tombs of the kings and 
potentates, most of which are situated among the 

12. Eratosthenes, when he mentions the lakes 
near Arabia, says that when the water is deprived 
of exits it opens up underground passages and 
through these flows underground as far as the 
country of Coele-Syria, and that it is pressed up into 
the region of Rhinocolura and Mt. Gasius and forms 
the lakes and the pits there ; but I do not know 
whether or not his statement is plausible; for the 
side-outflows of the Euphrates which form the lakes 
near Arabia and the marshes are near the Persian 
Sea, but the isthmus which separates them is neither 
large nor rocky, so that it was more likely that the 
water forced its way into the sea in this region, 
whether underground or on the surface, than that 
it traversed a distance of more than six thousand 
stadia, through a country so waterless and dry, and 
that too when mountains intervene, I mean Mt. 

* rSnovs, Corais, for irora/xovs. 

' yrjv mnv, Tzschucke, and Corais. 





Kaalov.^ ol fiev By Toiavra Xiyovai. 

13. J1o\vkX€Lto<; Be (prjcn, fir] irXTj/njuLvpeLV rov 
Ftv(f)pdr7]v' Bia yap ireBiwv ^epeaOai fieydXcov, 
ra 8' opr] rd /lev ^fc^iXtof <? dcpeardvai (TraBL0V<;, 
rd Be Koaaala fi6Xi,<; ')(^iXiov<;, ov irdw vyjrjjXd, 
ovBe vt,(f)6fiepa (7^oBpa)<;, ovB^ dOpoav eincfiepovTa 
Tjj %toi^A T^i^ rrj^iv elvai yap Kal rd vyjrr] roiv 
opcov ev ^ T0t9 virep ^KK^ardvcov /juipeai TOtf; 
irpocT^opeioL^' ev Be rot? irpo^ votov TXt'^ofieva 
Kal irXarvvofieva ttoXv TaTreivovaOat. d/ia Be Kal 
TO TToXv TOV vBaTO<i eKBix^o-OaL top Tlypiv Kal 
ovTOXi TrXrjfi/xvpecv.^ to fiev ovv vararov pi-jBev 
^avepot)^ droTTOv ei<i yap rd avrd Karepxerat, 
ireBia. rd Be^ Xe^OevTa vyjrTj tmv opiav dvco/na- 
Xiav e^ei, irrj jjuev e^rjp/jLeva fiaXXov rd /Sopeia, 
iTTj Be TrXarvvofieva rd fiearj/ii^pLvd' rj Be %fft)i^ 
ov Tol(i vyjreai Kpiverai fiovov, dXXd Kal roif; 
KXifiaar to Te avTO 6po<; Td ^opeia /xeprj vL(f)eTaL 
fxaXXov 77 Td voTia. Kal ttjv x^ova av/jL/juepovaav 
ex^ei fxaXXov eKelva rj TavTa. 6 fiev ovv Tiypi<; 
€K Tcov voTicoTaTcov fxepoiv T/)9 ^Apjievia^, a 

^ Kaaiov, Tzschucke, for Maa-crvov CDF, Maaaiou Msw, 
Kaacriou Aid. 

^ iv, Corais, for ctei. 

^ Kal ovTws Tr\r]iJL/u.vpe7v (omitting rd after outws) transferred 
by Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, from position after 
KaTfpx^Tai iredia (below). 

* 5e, Meineke inserts, following conj. of Kramer. 

^ Eratosthenes' reference to " Rhinocolm-a " in connec- 
tion with " Mt. Casius," shows that he meant the Mt. Casius 
near Aegypt and not the Syrian Mt. Casius. Eratosthenes, 
like other writers (Poly bins 6. 80, Diodorus Siculus 1. 30, 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 12-13 

Libanus and Mt. Antilibanus and Mt. Casius.^ 
Such, then, are the accounts of Aristobulus and 

13. Polycleitus, however, says that the Euphrates 
does not overflov/; for, he says, it flows through 
large plains ; and as for the mountains, some stand 
at a distance of tM^o thousand stadia from it, but 
the Cossaean mountains at a distance of scarcely 
one thousand, which latter are not very high, are 
not covered very deeply with snow, arfti do not 
cause the snow to melt quickly in great quantities ; 
for, he says, the heights of the mountains lie 
in the region above Ecbatana towards the north, 
but, in the region towards the south, they split, 
broaden out, and become much lower, and at the 
same time most of their waters are received by the 
Tigris and thus overflow the plains. Now this last 
assertion is obviously absurd, for the Tigris flows 
down into the same plains as the Euphrates, and the 
above-mentioned heights of the mountains have 
different altitudes, the northern heights being more 
elevated in some places, whereas the southern 
broaden out in some places ; but the quantity of 
snow is not determined merely by the heights, but 
also by their latitudes; and the same mountain 
has more snow in its northern parts than in its 
southern, and the snow continues longer in the 
former than the latter. Now the Tigris receives 
from the southernmost parts of Armenia, which are 

and Josephus 13. 13), extended the name " Coele-Syria," 
which was properly applied only to the country between 
Mts. Libanus and Antilibanus, to include that part of Syria 
which borders on Aegypt and Arabia. Hence, quite apart 
from the truth or falsity of Eratosthenes' statement, he was 
clearly misinterpreted by Strabo. 



TrXrjaLov iarl r/j? ^a^vXcovla^;, S€XOfJt£VO<; to iic 
T(t)v ')(^i,6vo)V vBoyp ov iroXv 6v, are eK ri]<i votlov 
7T\6vpd<;, TjTTOv CLV 7r\r]fi/JLVpor 6 Se FiV(f)pdr7)<; 
TO 6^ afx^orepwv he^erai rwv fiepojv, koX ovk 
ef 61^09 6pov<;, dWa ttoWmv, 609 iBrjXovfiei' ^ ev 
rfi TTepirj'yrjcreL T779 ^AppuevLa^, irpoariOeU to firJKO<; 

TOV TTOTa/jLOV, 6(T0V fieV TO €V TTj fjL€yd\rj ^Ap/jL6vla 

hie^eicFL Kol ttj fiiKpa, oaov he to i/c 7^9 p>ifcpa<i 
^Ap/jL€VLa<^ KoX T?)9 ViaTr7raBo/cLa<; 8td tov Tavpov 
Si€K0a\a)P eft)9 SayjrdKov <f)€p€TaL, ttjv KdTco 
Xvplav KoX Ti-jV Mea-oTTOTafjiLav d<^opil^wv, ocrov 
Be TO XoLTTOV fi^Xp'' l^affvXcovo<; /cal 77)9 ifC^oXrj*; 
6/jLOV Tpia/jLVpicov Koi e^afcta)(iXlcov aTaBiwv. ra 
fiev ovvirepl tcl^ Bicapvya^ TOiavTa. 

14. 'H Be %cu/3a ^epec fcpiOa<; fiev, oaa^ ovk 
dXXr] (koI yap TptaKOdiovTd'Xpvv^ Xeyovai), to. 
Be aXXa ex tov <f>oiviKo^ 7rape)(eTai* koI yap 
apTOv /cal olvov Kal 6^o<; Kal pLeXi Kal dXcfyiTa' 
Ttt T€ TrXeKTCL TTavTola eK TOVToV TOL<; Be TTvprjaiv 
dvT dvOpdKdiv 01 ')(^aXKel's )(poovTac, ^pe')(6pLevoL 
Be T0fc9 aiTi^Ofievoi^i elal Tpocprj /Soval Kal irpo- 
/8aTOi9. ^acrl 8' elvai YlepatKtjv (pBi)v, ev y Ta9 
ft}<^6Xeta9 TpiaKoaua^ Kal e^rjKOVTa BiapiO p^ovvTaV 

C 743 eXaiqy Be ^(^pwvTaL tw aijcTafiLva) to irXeoV ol 8' 
aXXoL TOTToi airavi^ovTai tovtov tov (pVTOV. 

15. TlveTai S* ev ttj ^a^vXcovia Kal da(f)aXT0<; 
iToXXrj, ire pi rj<; ^EpaToaOevr)<; p,ev o{;tco9 eiprjKev, 
OTi r) fxev vypd, rjv KaXovai vd<f)6av, yivsTai ev Tjj 
XovalBi, 7) Be ^rjpd, Bvva/xevr] ir^TTeadai,, ev irj 

^ id-nXovfiev, Corais unnecessarily emends to i5-{]\ovv. 
^ rpiaKoa-iouToiXovv, Meineke, for rpiaKoaidxia Aid., rpia- 
Ka<Ti6xoa conj. of Lobeck. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 13-15 

near Babylonia, the water of the melted snows, 
which is not much, since it comes from the southern 
side, and this river would therefore be flooded less 
than the Euphrates; but the Euphrates receives 
the water from both parts, and not merely from 
one mountain, but from many, as I made clear in 
my description of Armenia,^ where I added the 
length of that river, giving first the length of its 
course in Greater Armenia and Lesser Armenia, 
and secondly its length from Lesser Ai-menia and 
Cappadocia through the Taurus as far as Thapsacus, 
where it forms the boundary between Lower Syria 
and Mesopotamia, and, thirdly, the rest of its length 
as far as Babylon and the outlet, a length, all told, 
of thirty-six thousand stadia. So much, then, for 
the canals. 

14. The country produces larger crops of barley 
than any other country 2 (bearing three hundredfold, 
they say), and its other needs are supplied by the 
palm tree ; for this tree yields bread, wine, vinegar, 
honey, and meal; and all kinds of woven articles 
are supplied by that tree ; and the bronze-smiths 
use the stones of the fruit instead of charcoal ; and 
when soaked in water these stones are used as food 
for oxen and sheep which are being fattened. There 
is said to be a Persian song wherein are enumerated 
three hundred and sixty uses of the palm tree ; and, 
as for oil, the people use mostly that of sesame, but 
this plant is rare in all other places. 

15. Babylonia produces also great quantities of 
asphalt, concerning which Eratosthenes states that 
the liquid kind, which is called naphtha, is found in 
Susis, but the dry kind, which can be solidified, in 

1 See 11. 12. 3 and 11. 14. 2. 

2 Cf. 11. 4. 3, 15. 3. 11, and Herodotus 1. 193. 



Ba^v\a)Via' raur?;? 3' iarlv rj 'Trtjyrj rod ^v^pd- 
Tov TrXrjaiov' TrXrjfjLfivpovTOf; Be rovrov Kara 
ra? T(i)V ^(^Lovwv r^^€i<; Kal avrrj TrXojpovrai Koi 
virepx^o-iv et9 rov irorafMOV Xajjb^dvei' evravda 
Be avvlaravjat ^coXot /xeydXai tt/jo? ra? olko- 
Bo/jLa<; eiriTrjBeiaL Ta<; Bia ttj^ oirTrj^; rrXivOov, 
dXXoL Be fcal rrjv vypav iv ry ^aj3vXwvia yiveaOai 
<f)a(rt. irepX /jlcv ovp tt)? ^r]pd<; etprjrai, iroaov 
TO 'ypi]aL/jLOV TO eK tmv olkoBo/xicov jxaXiGTa' 
(j)aa-L Be koX irXola irXeKeaOai,, efiirXaaOevTa 8' 
da^dXTO) TrvKVOvaOai. ti]V Be vypdv, rjv vdc^dav 
KaXovac, irapdBo^ov e^eiv (Tv/jb/SaLvei Tyv (f>vat,v' 
irpoaaxOel^;^ yap 6 vdcpda^ Trvpl ttXtjo-lov dvap- 
ird^ei TO TTvp, Kav iiri'x^pLaa'; uvtm (Ta)p.a irpoaa- 
ydyrj<;, (fyXeyeTar a^eaai 3* vBaTi ov^ olov re 
{€KKai€TaL yap /idXXov), ttXtjv el irdvv ttoXXw, 
dXXd TrrjXw Kal o^ei, Kal a-TVTTTrjpia Kal i^w 
iTviyelf;^ a^evvvTac. Tretyoa? Be X^^P'-^ (paalv 
^ KXe^avBpov ev XovTpo) Trpoax^cii TraiBl tov vd^Oa 
Kal Trpoaayayelv Xv^vov' ^Xeyojxevov Be tov 
iralBa iyyv^; eXOelv tov diroXeaBat, ttXtjv ttoXXw 
acpoBpa KaTavTXovvTe^ rw vBaTi i^Laxvarav Kal 
BUcrcoaav ol Tre/Jtetxrwre?. YioaeiBoi)VLo<; Be (f)7]ac 
TOV ev TTJ Ba^vXwvla vd(f>da ra? 7rr}yd<;, ra? /lev 
elvai XevKov, ra? Be fxeXavo^' tovtcov Be ^ ra? 
jiiev elvat, deiov vypov, Xeyco Be ra? tov XevKov 
(ravTa^ S' elvai Td<; e7na7rd)(Ta<i Ta<; cjiXoyas), 
Ta<? Be TOV /JbeXavo<;, da<j>d\TOV vypd<;, w dvT 
iXaiov Toix; Xv^vov^ Kdovcn.^ 

^ irpoffaxG^is D, 7rpo(ra(pdeis other MSS. 
^ irviyels Epit., for irviyevTa ; so Meineke. 
' S-f} J)h. * Kaiovffi CFmoxz. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 15 

Babylonia; and that there is a fountain of this 
latter asphalt near the Euphrates River; and that 
when this river is at its flood at the time of the 
melting of the snows, the fountain of asphalt is also 
filled and overflows into the river; and that there 
large clods of asphalt are formed which are suitable 
for buildings constructed of baked bricks. Other 
writers say that the liquid kind also is found in 
Babylonia. Now writers state in particular the 
great usefulness of the dry kind in the construction 
of buildings, but they say also that boats are woven 
with reeds and, when plastered with asphalt, are 
impervious to water. The liquid kind, which they 
call naphtha, is of a singular nature ; for if the 
naphtha is brought near fire it catches the fire ; 
and if you smear a body with it and bring it near 
to the fire, the body bursts into flames ; and it is 
impossible to quench these flames with water (for 
they burn more violently), unless a great amount is 
used, though they can be smothered and quenched 
with mud, vinegar, alum, and bird-lime. It is said 
that Alexander, for an experiment, poured some 
naphtha on a boy in a bath and brought a lamp 
near him ; and that the boy, enveloped in flames, 
would have been nearly burned to death if the 
bystanders had not, by pouring on him a very great 
quantity of water, prevailed over the fire and saved 
his life. Poseidonius says of the springs of naphtha 
in Bab)4onia, that some send forth white naphtha 
and others black; and that some of these, I mean 
those that send forth white naphtha, consist of 
liquid sulphur (and it is these that attract the 
flames), whereas the others send forth black naphtha, 
liquidasphalt, which is burnt in lamps instead of oil. 



16. UdXai, fxev ovv r) ^a^v\(ov r)v /jLr}Tp6'Tro\t<; 
T% *Aa(rupla<;, vvv he XeXevKcca, rj eirl Ta> 
Tlypei Xeyofievrj. ifKrjaiov 3* ecrrl Kcofirj, Krrj' 
aicfycov Xeyofiivr), fieyaXrj- ravrrjv 8' eiroLOVvro 
Xei/Li'dBiov ol TMV TLapdvalcov fiaaiKel^, <j>eih6- 
fievot T(ov XeXevKcoyv, iva firj Karaarad fxevoivTo 
VTTO Tov ^kvOlkov (jyvXov fcal (TTpaToyriKov. Svud- 
pet ovv Uap^LKy^ 7roXt9 dvrl K(t)p.rj<; eari, koX 
TO p.eye9o<i roaovTOV <ye ttX^^o? Bexop'epr} koI 
T7]v Karaa/cevrjv vtt €K€lv(ov uvtcov KareaKCva- 
(Tp,€vr] KoX ra Mvia Kal ra^ Te')(ya<i Trpoo-cjjopov^; 
iKeivoi<i TTeiropia-p^evrj. elcoOacri yap evravda tov 
%€t/iwi^09 Stdyeiv ol ^aatXel'i Sid to evdepoV 
Oepov<i he ev 'E/tySara^'ot? koI ttj 'TpKavla Sid 
Tr)v eiTLKpdTeiav ttj^ iraXaid^ S6^r]<;. wairep Se 
^affvXayvCav Ttjv ')(^ci)pav KaXovp,ev, ovtco /cal tov<; 
dvSpa^ Tov^ eKeWev Ba^vXoyvtov^ KaXovp^ev, ovk 

C 744 diro T?79 TroXew?, a\V diro Tr]<; ')(^d)pa<^' dirb Se 
T% %€XevKeia<i rfTTov, kclv i/ceiOev wai, /caddirep 
AioyeifT] TOV ^tcol/cov <^iX6ao<^ov. 

17. "EcTTt Se fcal 'Ayore/xtra, 7ro\i? d^i6Xoyo<;, 
Si6)(ov<Ta TTevTaKoaiov^i Trj<; ^eXevKeia<; o-xaStoi;?, 
7ryoo9 eft) TO irXeov, KaOdirep koX rj ^iraKrjvi]. Kal 
yap avTTj, ttoXXt] t€ Kal dya6r\, p.kcrr)'^ Ba/3f- 
XOiVo^ TeTOKTai Kal tt}? ^ovaiho<;y wcrre toI^ ifc 
Ba/SuXwi^o? eU Xovcra ^aSi^ovai Sid t7]<; SiTa- 

^ UapOiKf), Kramer, for nap6iK7]. 
2 For /ttcVrj E reads /xexP'- 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 16-17 

16. Now in ancient times Babylon was the metro- 
polis ; but Seleuceia is the metropoUs now, I mean 
the Seleuceia on the Tigris, as it is called. Near 
by is situated a village called Ctesiphon, a large 
village. This village the kings of the Parthians 
were wont to make their winter residence, thus 
sparing the Seleuceians, in order that the Seleuceians 
might not be oppressed by having the Scythian folk 
or soldiery quartered amongst them. Because of the 
Parthian power, therefore, Ctesiphon is a city rather 
than a village ; its size is such that it lodges a great 
number of people, and it has been equipped with 
buildings by the Parthians themselves; and it has 
been provided by the Parthians with wares for sale 
and with the arts that are pleasing to the Parthians ; 
for the Parthian kings are accustomed to spend the 
winter there because of the salubrity of the air, 
but the summer at Ecbatana and in Hyrcania 
because of the prevalence of their ancient renown. 
And as we call the country Babylonia, so also we 
call the men from there Babylonians, that is, not 
after the city, but after the country ; but we do not 
call men after Seleuceia, if they are from there, as, 
for example, Diogenes the Stoic philosopher.^ 

17. And there is also Artemita, a noteworthy city, 
which is five hundred stadia distant from Seleuceia, 
being situated almost directly towards the east, as 
is also Sitacene. For Sitacene too, both extensive 
and fertile, lies between Babylon and Susis, so that 
the whole of the journey for people travelling from 
Babylon to Susa is through Sitacene towards the 

^ i.e. Diogenes was known as " Diogenes the Babylonian '* 
(as in Cicero, de Nat. Deorum 1. 5), not as " Diogenes the 




KrjvPi^ y '809 diraaa Trpo? €(0' irpo^ eco S earl 
Koi Tot? e/c ^ovawv eh ttjv ixecroyaiav rrjf; 
IlepctSo? Sia T?)? Ov^ia<; /cal rot? e'/c rrj<; 
UepaiSo^; et? ra fieaa Trj<^ K.ap/jLavLa<;. ttjv fxev 
ouv K.ap/j,avLav ey/cv/cXovTat tt/jo? ^ dpKTOv 77 
Ilepah, TToWr) ovaa' Tavir] he o-vvdirTei 1) 
UapatraKrjVT] koI rj Koaaaia P'e)(pc Kaajrioyv 
TTvXcjv, opeivd fcal XyarptKa eOvrj' rfj Se ^ovaiBi 
r) 'EXvfia'h,^ /cal avri] rpa^ela rj ttoWt) koX 
\r)(TTpiKi]' rfj Be ^EXv/juatBc ^ rd irepX top Zdypov 
/cal Tj MrjBca. 

18. Koaaaloi fiev ovv elai ro^orai to irXeov, 
/caOdirep Kal ol avv6X€l<i opeivoi, 7Tpovop.evovre<; 
dec' 'X^ojpav yap e)(0V(Tiv oXiyrjv re Kal XvirpaPj 
w<TT i/c Tojv dXXorpioiv dvdyxt] ^fji/' dvdyfcr) 8e 
Kal la')(veLV' diravTe^; yap elai p,d)(^t/jioc' ro2<; yovv 
'EXuyLtatof? avv€/Jbd)(^ovv fivpiot Kal Tpia')(^LXtoi, 
TToXep^ovcri tt/jo? re l&a/SvXcovlovf; Kal ^ovaiov^. 
01 Be YlapaLTaKTjvol p^aXXov /nev tmv K-oaaaLcov 
eiTLfieXovvTaL 7^9* op.cci<; Be Kal avrol Xrja-ryplcov 
ovK direxoPTai. ^FiXvp,atoL Be Kal pel^o) tovtcov 
KeKTijvTai x^P^^ ^^'' TTOtKiXaiTepav. oarj fxev 
ovv dyaOr) yea)pyov<; e%ei toi'9 evoLKOvvTa^, 
7] K opeivt) (TTpaTi(t)Ta<; rpe^et, ro^ora^ tou9 
7rX€i(TTov<;' iroXXr) Be ovaa iroXv Kal to 
arpaTLcoriKOV Trapex^rai, coare Kal 6 l3aaiXev<; 
avTcbv Bvvap.LV K€KTi]pevo<i p.eydXr]v ovk d^iol 
TO) Toi)v HapOvalcov ^aaiXel TrapaTrXrjaLox; roh 

^ Before &pKTov Meineke, from conj. of Groskurd, inserts 
kcTT^lpav Kai. 

2 EAi'^uois, the editors, for EAvfidvjis F, 'EXufj-dns other 


GEOGRAPHY, 16. i. 17-18 

east; and the journey for people travelling from 
Susa into the interior of Persis through Uxia, and 
for people travelling from Persis into the middle of 
Carmania, is also towards the east. Now Carmania 
is encircled on the north by Persis, which is a large 
country ; and bordering on this country are Paraeta- 
cene and Cossaea as far as the Caspian Gates, which 
is inhabited by mountainous and predatory tribes. 
And bordering on Susis is Elymais, most of which 
is rugged and inhabited by brigands ; and bordering 
Elymais are Media and the region of the Zagrus. 

18. Now the Cossaeans, like the neighbouring 
mountaineers, are for the most part bowmen, and 
are always out on foraging expeditions; for they 
have a country that is small and barren, so that 
they must needs live at the expense of the other 
tribes. And they are of necessity a powerful people, 
for they are all fighters ; at any rate, thirteen 
thousand Cossaeans joined the Elymaeans in battle, 
when the latter were warring against both the 
Babylonians and the Susians. But the Paraetaceni 
are more interested in agriculture than the Cos- 
saeans ; but still even they themselves do not 
abstain from brigandage. The Elymaeans possess 
a larger and more diversified country than the 
Paraetaceni. Now all of it that is fertile is inhabited 
by farmers, whereas the mountainous part of it is 
a nursery of soldiers, mostly bowmen; and since 
the latter part is extensive, it can furnish so large 
a military force that their king, since he possesses 
great power, refuses to be subject to the king of 

' 'FAy/iotSi, the editors, for 'EXv/iartSi. 



aWoi<; v7n]f€oo<; elrai' 6/xotft)9 Be ^ Kal Trpo? tov<; 
MaKcSova^ varepov rov^ t^9 Xvplaf; ap-)(onTa^ 

Bl6K€IT0, ^ApTLOXOV fl€V OVV TOP MijaV TO TOV firj- 

\ov (TvXdv lepov i'JTL')(^eLprj(TavTa avelXov eiriOe- 
fievoL KaO^ avTOv<; ol irXrja-lov ^dp/BapoL. ix Be tmv 
i/c€LP(p (TVfM^dvTcov TTaiBevOeU 6 UapOvalofi Xpo- 
voi<; varepov clkovcov rd lepd irXovaia Trap avTol<;, 
6p(t)v 8' d7reiOovvTa<;, ifi^dWet fierd Bwd/xeox; 
fieydXr}^, KoX TO re Trj<; ^ KOrjva^ lepov elXe koX 
TO Trj<; ^ApTe/jLiBo<i, Ta "A^apa,^ Kal rjpe raXdvTcov 
fiupLcov yd^av ypedr] Be Kal 7rpo<; tw *tlBv(f)0)VTi 
TTora/iia) ^eXevKCLa, /jLeydXt] 7r6Xi<;' XoXokt) B' CKa- 
XeiTo TrpoTepov, r/oei? B^ elalv et? ttjv x^P^^ ^^' 
(/)i;et? ela^oXau' ck fiev ttj^ MrjBla^; Kal tmv irepl 
TOV Zdypov TOTTCov Bid T7J9 Maaaa^aTiKfj^fy ck Be 
T^9 ^ouaiBot Bid T/)9 Va^iavY}^ (eVa/JXi^ai B' 
C 745 elalv avTat Tr}<; '^Xvp-aia^ rj re Ta^iavr) Kal rj 
Maa-aa^aTiKi]), Tplrri B^ earlv t] €K ttj^; UepaC- 
3o9. eaTL Be Kal Kop^oavr) ^ iirapx^f^ t'5? *EXu- 
paLBo<;. ofiopoL 8' elal tovtol^ ^ayairrjvoi re Kal 
%tXaKr)voi, BvvaaTelai fjLLKpai. ToaavTa fxev Kal 
TOiavTa eOvrj rrpo^ ew rd virepKeifieva 7179 BaySu- 
Xwvia'^. TTpo^ dpKTOV Be Tr]v MrjBiav ecfyafiev Kal 
TTjv ^Apfieviav dirb Be Bva6co<; eaTiv rj 'ABia^ijvr) 
Kal t) MeaoiroTafiia. 

1 Kramer conj, that the words koI irphs rohi Uepa-as have 
fallen out after 6/j.oiws Se. 

2 For TO "ACopo F reads rh "A^apa ; Tzschucke and Corais, 
from conj. of Casaubon, read ra Zdpa. But see to "A^apo in 
11. 14. 3. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. i8 

the Parthians like the other tribes ; and their king 
was likewise disposed towards ^ the Macedonians, 
who ruled Syria in earlier times. Now when Antio- 
chus the Great attempted to rob the temple of 
Belus, the neighbouring barbarians, all by them- 
selves, attacked him and slew him. In later times 
the king of Parthia, though warned by what had 
happened to Antiochus, hearing that the temples in 
that country contained great wealth, and seeing 
that the inhabitants were disobedient subjects, made 
an invasion with a great force, and took both the 
temple of Athena and that of Artemis, the latter 
called Azara, and carried off treasures valued at 
ten thousand talents. And Seleuceia near the 
Hedyphon River, a large city, was also taken. In 
earlier times Seleuceia was called Soloce. There 
are three entrances into the country that have been 
supplied by nature : one from Media and the region 
of the Zagrus through Massabatice; another from 
Susis through Gabiane (these, both Gabiane and 
Massabatice, are provinces of Elymaea), and the 
third from Persis. And Corbiane is also a province 
of Elymais. And the countries of the Sagapeni and 
the Silaceni, small domains, border on that of these 
people. Such is the size and such is the nature of 
the tribes situated above Babylonia towards the 
east. But, as I have said, Media and Armenia are 
situated on the north; and Adiabene and Mesopo- 
tamia are situated on the west. 

^ Kramer suggests that the Greek for " the Persians and " 
has fallen out of the MSS. here (see critical note). 

^ Kop$iavfj, Kramer, for Kopfiiava F, Kvp^iavd moz, Kopfiiavd 
other MSS. ; so Meineke and MuUer-Diibner. 



19. Tr}<; fiev ovv AhLa^r]vrj<; 7) TrXettrr/; TreSta? 
i(TTi, Kul avTT} T?}? Ba^vXcDvia^i fiepo^ ovaa, 
exovtra 8' o/xco? ap^ovja tSiov, eartv oirrj /cal 
Tjj *Ap/jL6VLa 7rpoa)/copovaa' ol yap M?)8oi Kal 
ol 'Apfjuevioi, TpLR^l Se BafivXcovLOL ra p^eyuaTa 
tCov iOvcov Tcov Toy^rj BieriXovv ol/to)? ef ^/9%% 
(Tvv€avo)T€<;, coa'-^ aX\7]Xoi<; eTTLriOeadai Kara 
fcaipoii^^v<; OLKi'iovAe/caaroi, fcal irdXiv BiaXve- 
aOai' Kai\ovTO Kal W^pt t^9 twz^ UapOuaiayv 
i7rLKpaT€La(;vi,6p,:iv€. yn-cov /iiev ovv Mr;Sa)i^ Kal 

)V oa^vXcovicoi iirciffO^ouai UapOvdloi, tcov S' 
*Apfi€VLcov ovS* tifnra^' aXX' €(j>ohoi p,ev yeyovaai 
•oiCMNa^y dva /jpdTO<; 3' ov^ edXcoaav^ dXX^ 
l£ Ti,ypdvTj<; Kal eppcop iva)<; dvreTreKpdrrja-eVy &)? 
ea TOW ' Apfk€inaKOL<; elprjrai. rj p.ev ovv 'Ahia- 
P\vr) TOiavrr)' KaXovvrac 8' ol ^ Ahua^rjvol Kal 
Sa^c/coTroSe?*^ rrepl Se r^? Meo-OTTora/ita? epovpLev 
icpe^rjf; Kal tmv tt/do? pbearipL^piav eOvcbv, e7rc6vTe<; 
67rl p,LKpov irpoTepov ra XeyopLCva rrepl tmv iOwv 
TMV irapa rol^; *A(Tavpioi<;. 

20. TaXXa p,ev ovv eoiKe rol'i YlepaLKol^;, lBcov 
Se TO Kadeardvai rpeU dvBpa<i ad)(f)pova<; €Kd(TTrj<i 
apxovTa<i (jyvXrj^;, ot ra? iircydpLOv; Kopa^; irpoa- 
dyovTe<i eh to 7rXrj6o<i aTroKrjpvTTOvai tol<; vvpL(f)ioL<; 
del ra? ivTipLOTepa^; Trpcora^, ovtco puev al av- 
^vyiai TeXovvTar oadKi^ 8' av p,i)(^0(oacv dXX'q- 
Xofc?, eiriOvpLLdcTQVTe^'^ e^aviaTavTai eKdrepo^ 
^ft)/3fc9' opOpov he XovovTai irplv dyyeiov Ttvo^ 

^ The words KakovvTai . . . l,aKK6no5es (Sa/cc^iroScs F) are 
suspected by Kramer and ejected by Meineke. 
2 iiridunidffovres, Groskurd, for iiridufiida-avTes. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 19-20 

19. Now as for Adiabene, the most of it consists 
of plains ; and though it too is a part of Babylonia, 
still it has a ruler of its own ; and in some places it 
borders also on Armenia. For the Medes and the 
Armenians, and third the Babylonians, the three 
greatest of the tribes in that part of the world, were 
so constituted from the beginning, and continued to 
be, that at times opportune for each they would attack 
one another and in turn become reconciled. And 
this continued down to the supremacy of the Parth- 
ians. Now the Parthians rule over the Medes and 
the Babylonians, but they have never once ruled 
over the Armenians; indeed, the Armenians have 
been attacked many times, but they could not be 
overcome by force, since Tigranes opposed all attacks 
mightily, as I have stated in my description of 
Armenia.^ Such, then, is Adiabene ; and the Adia- 
beni are also called SaccojJodes ; ^ but I shall next 
describe Mesopotamia and the tribes on the south, 
after briefly going over the accounts given of the 
customs of Assyria. 

20. Now in general their customs are like those 
of the Persians, but it is a custom peculiar to them 
to appoint three wise men as rulers of each tribe, / 
who present in public the marriageable girls, and | 
sell them by auction to the bridegrooms, always | 
selling first those who are the more highly prized. | 
Thus marriages are contracted ; and every time they j 
have intercourse with one another, they arise and 
go out, each apart from the other, to offer incense ; 
and in the morning they bathe themselves before 

1 See 11. 14. 15. 

2 i.e. " Sack-feet." But the name is suspected (see critical 



dyjraadac' irapairXTjaiw^i ycip, wcnrep aTTo vsKpov 
TO Xovrpov iv edei eariv, ovt(o koL diro avpqu- 
aia<i. 7rdaaL<; Se rat? Ba0u\a)VLai<; e^o? Kara 
TC \6yiov ^ev(p ixiyvvaOaL, Trpo^ rt ^AcfypoBla-iov 
d(f)LKop.evaL<; fierd ttoWtj^; Oepairela^ koi 6')(\ov' 
daifiiyyi S' ecTTeTTTai eKaarrj' 6 Be irpoaicov 
fcaradeU eVt ra yovara, oaov fcaXco^ e;^€fc dp- 
yvptov, (rvyyiV€Tdi, dirwOev rov Tefjuevov; dira- 
yayoav' ro 8* dpyvpiov Upov t^9 ^ Kcfipohir-qf; 
vo/jLL^erai. dp)(€la S' eVrt rpla, to twv d^ei- 
puevcav rfhr) T^j? aTpaT€La<; koL to tmv ivSo^oTUTcov 
C 746 Kal TO Tcov yepovTcov, %6)/ot9 tov vtto tov ^aat,- 
Xea)<? KaOidTajJievov. tovtov S' eVrl to Ta? irap- 
6evov<i e/cStBovat Kal to Ta<i irepl t^? iM0L')(^eia<; 
SiKci^eiv BiKa^i, dWov^ Be to ra? t?;? kKott?}^, 
TpLTOV ^ TO irepl T(op ^laleop. tou? S* dppcoaTOVf; 
eh Td<i Tpt6Bov<; €KTL06VTe<; irvvddvovTai tcov 
irapLovTcov, ei rt? rt e%ot Xeyevv tov irdOov^ dKo<;' 
ovBeh Te eaTLv ovtco KaKO<; tmv TraptovToyv, o? 
ovK ivTV')(Oi>v, el Ti (jipovel acoTijpiov, viroTideTat. 
ia6r}<; 3' avToh eaTL ')(^ltojv Xtvov^ 'iToBi]p7]<i Kal 
€7revBvTr]<; ipeoixi, l/j,dTiov XevKov, Ko/iir] fxaKpd,^ 
viroBrjp^a ififidBi o/jlolov. (popova-t Be Kal (Kppa- 
ylBa Kal (Tktjtttpov ov Xitov, dXX* eTTiarjp^ov, e^ov 
eTrdvoa fjirjXov rj poBov r) Kpivov rj ti tolovtoV 
dXeL<povTat, 3' €K tov arjad/jLoV Oprjvova-i Be tov<; 
d7ro6av6vTa<i, &)? AlyvTrTioL Kal iroXXol tcov 
dXXcov' ddiTTovcTL 3* iv fiiXiTi, KTjpa TrepiirXd- 

1 &\\(p CDFhmoz. 

^ rpiTov, Tzschucke, for rplrov. 

' fiuKpa., Corais, for /xiKpd. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 20 

they touch any vessel; for just as ablution is custo- 
mary after touching a corpse, so also it is customary 
after intercourse. And in accordance with a certain 
oracle all the Babylonian women have a custom of ; 
having intercourse with a foreigner, the women going 
to a temple of Aphrodite with a great retinue and 
crowd; and each woman is wreathed with a cord 
round her head. The man who approaches a woman 
takes her far away from the sacred precinct, places 
a fair amount of money upon her lap, and then has 
intercourse with her; and the money is considered 
sacred to Aphrodite. They have three tribunals : 
that of those who are already freed from military 
service, and that of the most famous, and that of , 
the old men, apart from that appointed by the king. / 
It is the duty of this last to give girls in marriage 
and to pass judgment in cases of adultery; and 
the duty of another to pass judgment in cases of 
thefti and of a third to pass judgment in cases of 
assault. They place the sick where three roads 
meet and question those who pass by, on the 
chance that some one has a cure for the malady; 
and no one of those who pass by is so base as not 
to suggest some cure when he falls in with them if 
he has any in mind. Their clothing consists of a 
linen tunic reaching to the feet, an upper garment 
made of wool, and a white cloak; and they wear 
their hair long, and use a shoe that is like a buskin. 
They wear also a seal, and carry a staff that is not 
plain but has a design on it, having on top an apple 
or rose or lily or something of the kind; and they 
anoint themselves with sesame; and they bewail ^ 
the dead, like the Egyptians and many other nations ; 
and they bury their dead in honey, first besmearing 



aavTe^. T/3€t9 K elaX ^parptat tmv airopmv 
aLToV eXeLOL S' elalv ovroi /cal l^Ovocfidyoi, SiaL- 
TO) fjL6V0L 7rapa7r\r}(TL(i)<; toI<; Kara rrjv TeBpayalav. 

21. MeaoTTorapLia 8* airo rov arvfM^e^rjKoro^ 
wvofiacTTar eiprjrai 8\ otl Kelrai fiera^v rov 
^v(f>pdTov Kol Tov T[ypLo<; Koi hioTi 6 fjuev TiypL<i 
TO ecoOivov avTrj<; fiovov kXv^€L ifKevpoVy to S* 
ka-iriptov koX votlov 6 Fjv<ppdrr]<;' tt/oo? dpKTOV 
Be 6 Tavpo<; 6 tou9 *Ap/jLevlov<; hiopi^wv diro rrjf; 
MeoroTTOTayLtta?. TO fiev ovv fieyiaTov b d(f>i(TTavTai 
BidaTTjfjLa dir aKKrjKfjdV to tt/jo? T0i9 opeaiv iaTi' 
TOVTO 3' dv €Lrj TO avTO, oirep elprjKev '^^^LXOaOevJi^, 
TO dwb €>ayjrdKov, KaO* o rjv to ^evyfjua tou Eu- 
(j>pdTOv TO rraXaiov, iirl ttjv tov Tiypio^ hid^acnv, 
Ka&* riv hik^i^ ' AXe^avSpo^ avTov, Biaxt'Xloov TCTpa- 
ko(tI(ov' to S' iXd)(^L(TT0v fXLKpcp TrXiov TMV Sca- 
KOdLcov KaTCL XeXevKcidv ttov koi ^a^vXcova. 

/hiappel S' Tiypif; ttjv ©cottltcv KaXovfievrjv 
Xip.vr]v KaTa TrXdTo^ /jLe(7r)v' TT6paL(odel<^ 8' eirl 
ddTepov 'X^elXof; kutu yr}<; BveTai, ftera ttoXXov 
yfr6(f)0V Kol ava^varjjjidTODV' eirX iroXv K eVe^^et? 
d<pav'^<;, dvLax^i' TrdXiv ov iroXv aTroodev t^9 
Vophvaia^;' outco Be o-^oS/jw? BceK^dXXei, ttjp 
Xi/jLvrjv, ft)9 (f>7]aiv ^FtpaToaOevT)'^, 03(7T6 dXfivpdv 
avTTjv ovaav kuI dvL)(Ovv yXvKelav KaTa tovt 
elvai TO /JL6po<; Kal pocoBr) kol I'X^Ovayv TrXrjprj.^ 

22. 'Etti /jLi]K0<i Be <tv)(vov TrpoireTrTcoKev rj avva- 
ycoyrj t7j<; MecroTrora/Ata?, Kal ttXoLw it(o<; eoLKe'^ 
TTotel Be TO TrXeca-TOV t^9 TrepK^epeia^ 6 ^vcppdTrjt;' 

^ €oiKe, Corais, for i(fKei. 

1 i.e. " a country between rivers." ^ 11.14. 2. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 20-22 

them with wax. But three of their tribes have no 
grain ; and these Hve in marshes and are fish-eaters^ 
living a life similar to that of the inhabitants of 

21. Mesopotamia^ has its name from what is the 
fact in the case. As I have said,^ it lies between 
the Euphrates and the Tigris; and the Tigris 
washes its eastern side only, whereas the Euphrates 
washes its western and southern sides ; and on the 
north is the Taurus, which separates Armenia from 
Mesopotamia. Now the greatest distance by which 
the two rivers are separated is that towards the 
mountains ; and this distance might be the same as 
that stated by Eratosthenes — I mean that from 
Thapsacus, where was the old bridge of the Euphrates, 
to the crossing of the Tigris, where Alexander 
crossed it — two thousand four hundred stadia; but 
the shortest distance between the two rivers is 
somewhere in the neighbourhood of Seleuceia and 
Babylon, slightly more than two hundred stadia. 
The Tigris flows through the middle of Lake Thopitis, 
as it is called, in the direction of its breadth ; and, 
after traversing it to the opposite shore, it sinks 
underground with upward blasts and a loud noise; 
and having flowed for a considerable distance in- 
visible, it rises again not far away from Gordyaea; 
and it traverses the lake so impetuously, as Eratos- 
thenes says, that, although the lake elsewhere is 
briny and without fish, yet in this part it is fresh, 
runs like a river, and is full of fish. 

22. Mesopotamia contracts in shape, projecting to 
a considerable length ; and the shape of it somewhat 
resembles that of a boat ; and the greatest part of 
its periphery is formed by the Euphrates. The 



Kai icTTi TO fxev airo t?}? ^a-yfraKov /A€%/ot Ba^u- 
Xwz^o?, 0)9 eLp7]K€v ^^paroaOevii^j T6TpaKia')(iXioi> 


Ko/n/jLayrjvrjv Zevy/maro^, rjirep iarlp apxv '^V^ 
C 747 Meo-OTTorayLt/a?, ovk eXarrov t(ov Bcaxi^Xicov ara- 
BiMV eft)9 eTTfc ^dyjraKov. 

23. "Eo-Tt S* 17 fiei^ irapopeLOf; evBat/jLcov iKavco^;' 

€XOV(TL 3' aVT7]<; TCL /JL€V 7r/?09 TO) YtV(f)pdTr) Kol To3 

ZeuyfjLarL, tq) T€ vOi/ tw /cara ttjv K.o/JLfjLayr]vr}v 
KoX Tft) TToXai Tw Kara rrjv SdyjraKOV, oX^ ML'780^69 
KarovofjuaaOevTe^ vtto tcov ^aKcSovcov iv 0I9 
ianv T) Niacffi<;, fjv koX avrrjv 'Avtiox^i^clv ttjv 
iv rf] MvyBovLo. irpoarjyopevcTav, vtto tm Maa-lq) 
6p€c K€L/Ji€vr]v, Kol TiypavoKcpTa Kul irepl Kdppa<; 
Kol Nt/€7](j)6piov %ft)/3ta Kal XopSlpa^a koI XuvvaKa, 
€v fj Kpdaao'i BLe^Odprj, SoXo) Xr7(/)^6t9 vtto Xov- 
pt]va, TOV T(ov TiapOvalwv o-TpaTrjyov. 

24. Ilpo<; Be tw Tiypet tu tmv VopBvaiwv'^ 
X^pid, 01)9 ol irdXaL KapBovxov<; eXeyov, Kal al 
7ro\ei9 avTMV^ ^dpeiad t€ fcal SaTuX/ca Kal 
HivaKa, KpdTLCTTOv epv/jLa, Tpel^ cuKpa^ e%oucra, 
eKd(TTT)v IBlfp T€t%et TeT6t%io-/xei/?;i^, wo-re olov 
TpiTToXiv elvai. dX'X! o/jlco^ Kal 6 ^ApfJbevLo<; et^ei^ 
virrjKoov Kal ol 'Pco/jbaloi, ^ia TrapiXa^ov, Kaiirep 
eBo^av ol TopBvaLOi BiacfyepovTco^; dpxtTeKToviKOL 
T^i^€9 eJvav Kal TroXcopKrjTtKcov opydvcov efiTreipot' 
Bioirep avTol<; eh TavTa 6 Tiypdvrjf; ixpV'^o. iye- 
veTo Be Kal rj Xolttt) MecroTroTa/juta vtto 'Pa)yLtatot9. 
HofXTT'^iOf; S* avTrj<i tcl iroXXct tw Ttypdvrj irpoae- 

1 T€, after o7, Groskurd omits ; so the later editors. 

2 TopZvaiwv, Tzschucke, from conj. of Wesseling (on Diodorus 
14. 27), for UapQvaiwv ; so the later editors. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 22-24 

distance from Thapsacus to Babylon, as Eratosthenes 
states, is four thousand eight hundred stadia; and 
that from the Zeugma ^ at Commagene, where 
Mesopotamia begins, to Thapsacus, is not less than 
two thousand stadia. 

23. The country alongside the mountains is quite 
fertile ; the parts of it near the Euphrates and the 
Zeugma, both the present Zeugma at Commagene 
and the old Zeugma at Thapsacus, are occupied by 
the Mygdones, who were so named by the Mace- 
donians. In their country lies Nisibis, which is also 
called Mygdonian Antiocheia; it Hes at the foot of 
Mt. Masius, and so do Tigranocerta and the regions 
of Carrhae and Nicephorium, and Chordiraza and 
Sinnaca, in which last Crassus was slain, being 
treacherously captured by Surena, the Parthian 

24. Near the Tigris lie the places belonging to 
the Gordyaeans, whom the ancients called Cardu- 
chians ; and their cities are named Sareisa and 
Satalca and Pinaca, a very powerful fortress, with 
three citadels, each enclosed by a separate fortifica- 
tion of its own, so that they constitute, as it were, a 
triple city. But still it not only was held in subjec- 
tion by the king of the Armenians, but the Romans 
took it by force, although the Gordyaeans had an 
exceptional repute as master-builders and as experts 
in the construction of ^ege erfgines ; and'it"was for 
this reason that Tigranes used them in such work. 
But also the rest of Mesopotamia became subject 
to the Romans. Pqmpej assigned to Tigranes 

^ Bridge. 2 51 g ^ 

' avTwv, Groskurd, for oiv ; so the later editors. 



veifiev, oaa yv a^LoXoyw eart yap 6u0oto<; t] 
X^P^ f^^f' evepv^'i, Mcrre kuI ra aeiOaXr) rpecjyeiv 
Koi apwfxa to aficofiov' koX Xeovro^oTO^ earl' 
<j)ep€L Be fcal rov vd(f)dav koX ttjv yayytriv Xidov, 
f)v (j)€vy€t ra epTrerd. 

25. Aeyerai he V6phv<; 6 TpLTrroXe/j^ov rrjv 
TopBurjvrjv oUrja-ai, varepov he Koi *FipeTpLel<; 
ol avap'7TaaOei>re<; viro JJepacov. irepl jxev ovv 
TpiiTToXefJLOv Brfkcaaofxev ev rot? XvptaKo2<; avTiKa. 

26. Ta Be 7rpb<; /JL€(Tr]fi^p[,av KeKXc/ieua tt}? 
M-eaoTTOTa/jLia^i fcal aTreoTepo) to)V bpwv, avvBpa 
Koi XvTTpa ovra, exovacv ol ^Krjptrai, "A/aaySe?, 
XrjarpiKol rive^ koI Troc/JieviKOi, /jbediaTd/jbevoi 
paBLa)<; eh aXXov<i TOTrof?, orav eTriXeiTTCoaiv at 
vofial Koi at XerfXaaiaL. Toh ovv irapopeioi^ 

VTTO T€ TOVT(OV KaKOVaOai (TV/Jb^atveL Kul V7T0 

Tcbv ^ ApixevLwv vwepKeivrat Be kol KaraBwaarev- 
ovai Bia Tv,v lax^v reXo? S* vir eKeuvoi^ elal to 
irXeov rj Toh TiapOvaioi^- ev irXevpah ydp elat 

KOLfCelvOl, TTjV T€ M.7}BLaV e^ovTC^ Kal Tr)V 


27. Merafu ^e tov ^vcfypuTov koI tov Tiypios 
pec Kal dXXo<i 7roTafi6<;, BacrtXeto? KaXov[xevo<;, 

C 748 Kal irepl tyjv ' Kvdefiovalav dXXo<;, 'Affoppa^' 


Xeyofjiivcov, Kal tyj^; kclvcov epT]/jiia<; r) /So? toI<; ^ 
eK tt}? ^vpLa<; eh XeXevKeiav Kal 3a^vXa)va 
€fi7ropevofJLevoi<i eaTLV. rj jxev ovv Bid^aac^ ^ tov 

^ iviuiv, Groskurd, for rwv. 

2 SiajSao-ty F, hua^aais other MSS. 

1 This stone is called gagetes (i.e. jet) by Pliny (10. 3 and 
36. 19). 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 24-27 

most of the places in this country, I mean all that 
are worth mentioning; for the country is rich in 
pasturage, and so rich in plants that it also produces 
the evergreens and a spice-plant called amomum; 
and it is a feeding-ground for lions ; and it also 
produces naphtha and the stone called gangitis,^ 
which is avoided by reptiles. 

25. Gordys, the son of Triptolemus, is said to 
have taken up his abode in Gordyene, and later also 
the Eretrians, who were carried off by the Persians. 
Of Triptolemus, however, I shall soon give a clear 
account in my description of the Syrians. ^ 

26. The parts of Mesopotamia which incline 
towards the south and are farther from the moun- 
tains, which are waterless and barren, are occupied 
by the Arabian Scenitae, a tribe of brig^ands and 
shepherds, who readily move from one pTaclg'^^-fco 
another when pasture and booty fail them. Accord- 
ingly, the people who live alongside the mountains 
are harassed not only by the Scenitae, but also by 
the Armenians, who are situated above them and, 
through their might, oppress them ; and at last 
they are subject for the most part to the Armenians 
or else to the Parthians, for the Parthians too are 
situated on the sides of the country and possess 
both Media and Babylonia. 

27. Between the Euphrates and the Tigris there 
flows another river, called Basileius; and in the 
neighbourhood of Anthemusia still another, called 
Aborras. The road for people travelling from Syria 
to Seleuceia and Babylon runs through the country 
of the Scenitae,^ now called Malians by some writers, 
and through their desert. Such travellers cross the 

2 16. 2. 5. 3 Tent-dwellers. 



Ev(l)pdTov Kara ttjv ^ AvOefJ-ovaiav io-rlv avTOt<;, 
TOTTOV T?79 MecroTrora/ita?- VTripKeirai Be rov 
TTora/jLov, (7')(oivov<i rerrapa^; hii^ovaa, rj Ba/JL- 
^VKT), ffv Kal "EBeaaav Kal 'lepav ttoXlv KaXovaiv, 
iv fi TifiaxTL Tr]v ^vpiav deov rrjv ^Arapydriv. 
Bia0dvTcov yap 77 6S6<; eVrt Bia t^9 eprj/nov P'ixpi' 
^KTivcav, d^LoXoyov vroXeo)? iirl rov^ t^? Ba^Su- 
\(ovia<i 6pov<; iiri rtvo^ hictipvyo'; i8pv/Ji6vrj<;. ecm 
S* diTo T^9 hia^daeco^ M-^XP^ Sktjvcov rj/jLepcov 
irevre Kal clkoctlv 0S09. Ka/JbrfklraL S* elai, Kara- 
ya)yd<; e%oi'T69 Tore /juev vhpeiwv eviropov^, tmv 
XaKKaiwv to irXeov, rore 8' eiraKTol^ %/Oft>yLi€j/o^ 
T0fc9 vhaa-c, TTape^ovdL 8' avTOL<; ol XfCTjvtTai 
Tr]v T€ elprjvrjv Kal ttjv fieTpcoTrjTa rrj^ TOiV 
T€\(ov 7rpd^€Ci)<;, '^9 X^P^^ ^evyovre<; rrjv Trapa- 
TTOTa/iiav Bca t»}9 eprjfiov irapa^dWovrai, Kara- 
\i7r6vT€<; iv Be^cd tou TTOTafiov '^/lepcop a'X^eSov tl 
TpLOiv gBov. ol yap 7rapoiKOvvT€<; eKarepcoOev rov 
TTOTa/iiov (fyvXap^^oL, 'x^copav ovk eviropov e%oi'Te9, 
rJTTOv Be aiTOpov vefiofievoi, Bwaareiav €KaaTO<; 
IBia '7r€pi^6^Xrj/jLevo<; ^ lBlov Kal reXooviov e%€t, Kal 
toOt' ov fxeTptov. 'X^aXeirov yap iu Tot9 Toaovroi^ 
Kal TovTOL^ ^ avOdBecTL kolvov d<f)0pLa6rjvai fxirpov 
TO Tft) e/uLTTopM Xv(nT6\e<i. Biexovav Be t^9 
Xe\evKeLa<; at ^Krjval axpivov^; oKjwfcalBeKa. 

28. "Opiov 8' earl t^? YiapOvaiwv dp^/l^ 
Kvcftpdrrj^; Kal 17 irepaia' rd 3' €Vto9 e^ovai 
'P(o/j,aloi Kal TMV ^Apd/Scov ol ^vXap^oi f^^XP'' 
Ba^vXcovla^, ol fiev fiaXXov eKeivoL^, ol Be roc<; 

^ TrepiPeffXrifievos DFh, TrapojSejSATj^tfvoy other MSS. 
* TovTois, Corais, for to7s. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 27-28 

Euphrates near Anthemusia, a place in Mesopo- 
tamia; and above the river, at a distance of four 
schoeni, Hes Bambyce, which is also called Edessa 
and Hierapolis,^ where the Syrian goddess Atargatis 
is worshipped; for after they cross the river, the 
road runs through the desert to Scenae, a note- 
worthy city situated on a canal towards the borders 
of Babylonia. The journey from the crossing of 
the river to Scenae requires twenty-five days. And 
on that road are camel-drivers who keep halting- 
places, which sometimes are well supplied with 
reservoirs, generally cisterns, though sometimes the 
camel-drivers use waters brought in from other 
places. The Scenitae are peaceful, and moderate 
towards travellers in the exaction of tribute, and 
on this account merchants avoid the land along the 
river and risk a journey through the desert, leaving 
the river on the right for approximately a three 
days' journey. For the chieftains who live along 
the river on both sides occupy country which, though 
not rich in resources, is less resourceless than 
that of others, and are each invested with their 
own particular domains and exact a tribute of no 
moderate amount. For it is hard among so many 
peoples, and that too among peoples that are self- 
willed, for a common standard of tribute to be set 
that is advantageous to the merchant. Scenae is 
eighteen schoeni distant from Seleuceia. 

28. The Euphrates and the land beyond it consti- 
tute the boundary of the Parthian empire. But the 
parts this side the river are held by the Romans and 
the chieftains of the Arabians as far as Babylonia, 
some of these chieftains preferring to give ear to the 

1 Holy City. 



*Fa)fjLaioi,<; 7ryoocre%oi^T6?, olaTrep Koi ifkr](Ti6')(^a3poi 
elaiv rjTTOP fiev ^KTjvlrai ol vofjid8€<; ol ro) 
7roTa/jLa> TrXrjaiov, fxaWov 8' ol aTrcoOev fcal tt/jo? 
rfj evSaifiovi ^Apa^ia. ol he Tiapdvaloi koX 
irporepov fxev i^povTC^ov r^? 7rpo<; 'Voi)ixaiov<; 
(f>tXla^3 Tov Se dp^avra iroXi/iiov Kpdaaov rjixv- 
vavTO' KaX avTOL ap^avre^; rrj^ /id)(^r)<; rcov 
lacov erv^ov, rjvUa eTrefju^frav iirl rtjv 'Aaiav 
UaKopov.^ ^AvT(ovLO<; Be, av/ju/SovXa) tw 'ApfievLO) 
')(^po)fJbevo<;, irpovhoOrj koi kukm^ eTroXe/Jirjaev' 6 
B' eKelvov BiaBe^d/iievofi ^paar?;?, roaovTov eairov- 
Baae irepl rrjv (j>L\iav rrjv tt/oo? Kala-apa tov 

g»» ) Xe^arov, cofrre Kal ra Tpoiraia errefiyfrev, a Kara 
N^*Pa>ytAi6a)i' dpiarijaav Tlap6vaiOL' /cat Ka\eaa<^ et? 
(TvWoyov ^LTLov TOV eTTiaTaTovvTa t6t6 rr}? 
^vpla^, TeTTapa^ TralBa^ yvrjo-Lov^ evex^Cpiaev 
o/jirjpa avTWy ^€pa<T7raBdvr]v^ /cal ^FcoBdaTrrjv^ koX 
^paaTijv^ Kal Bovcovrjv, Kal yvvacKa<i tovtcov Bvo 
Kal f/et? TeTTapa^, BeBi-oo^; ra? GTdaeL<i Kal tov<; 
iiriTiOe/jLevov^ avTO)' rjBei yap /jurjBeva la')(^v(TOVTa 

C 749 Kad^ eavTov, av jjurj Ttva viroXd^r) ^ tov ^ApaaKLOV 
yevov<; Bia to elvai acpoSpa ^i\apo-dKa<; tov^ 
Uapduaiov;' eKTroBcov ovv iiroi^^ae tov^ 7ralBa<i, 

^ Something like the words rhv rod 'np(i>5ov va75a appears 
to have fallen out after UaKopov. 

2 Sepao-TroSavTjj/, Tzschucke, for ^aTpairdSr)v T>, 'S.apaffiraZifV 
other MSS. 

^ 'PwSocTTrrjy, Tzschucke, for Kepo(nra^r\v D, Ke/Joirao-STjy other 

* ^pa6.Ti)v X, ^ other MSS. 

^ vTToKdfiT), all MSS. except 7noz, which read TrpoaXd^r], 
Jones restores to the text. Corais reads rrpoffAdfir) ; Meineke 
following Kramer, iiri\dfir} ; and Casaubon conj. v-Kofidkr}, 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 28 

Parthians and others to the Romans, to whom they 
are neighbours ; less so ^ the nomad Scenitae who 
are near the river, but more so those that are far 
away and near Arabia FeUx. The Parthians were 
also in former times eager for friendship with the 
Romans, but they defended themselves against 
Crassus, who began war with them;^ and then, 
having begun the battle themselves, met with 
equal reverses when they sent Pacorus against 
Asia.^ But Antony, using the Armenian * as coun- 
sellor, was betrayed and fared badly in his war. 
Phraates,^ his successor, was so eager for friendship 
with Caesar Augustus that he even sent him the 
trophies which the Parthians had set up as memorials 
of their defeat of the Romans. And, having called 
Titius to a conference, who was at that time praefect 
of Syria, he put in his hands as hostages four of his 
legitimate sons, Seraspadanes and Rhodaspes and 
Phraates and Bonones, and two wives and four sons 
of these,^ for fear of seditions and attempts upon 
his life ; for he knew that no person could prevail 
against him unless that person supported some 
member of the house of Arsaces, because of the 
fact that the Parthians were extremely fond of the 
house. Accordingly, he got rid of his children, 

1 i.e. less inclined to give ear to the Romans. 2 54 ^ q^ 

' Pacorus (son of King Orodes) and Labienus overran 
Syria and part of Asia Minor, but were defeated (39 b.c.) by 
Ventidius, a legate of Antony. Pacorus again invaded Syria 
(38 B.C.), but was again defeated and fell in battle (see 
16. 2. 8). 

* Artavasdes, king of the Armenians (see 11. 13. 4). 

^ Phraates IV, who succeeded his father Orodes as king 
and commenced his reign by murdering his father, his thirty 
brothers, and his own son. 

« Cf. 6. 4. 2. 



ai^eXeaOai ^if]T(av rrjv iX-rriSa ravrrjv tou9 Ka/covp- 
yovPTa^;. tojv fiev ovv iratScov oaoi irepleicnv iv 
'F(t)/M7j hrifxoaia ffa(TL\LK(it)<; rrj/xeXovvrai' kol ol 
XoiTTol Be ^aaiXel^i irpea-^evofievoi /cal eh avX- 
X6yov<i d(f)iKvov/jLevot BiareTeXeKaaiv. 


1. 'H 66 ^vpia 7r/909 dp/crov fxev acfycopta-rat ttj 
KiXiKia KoX TO) 'A/juavS)' cltto OaXdrrrji; B' eVl 
TO ^evjfjLa rod Ejixftpdrov ardSioL elcnv (aTro rov 
^laaiKov KoXiTov pbe^pi' tov ^evyp,aTo<; rov /card 
KoiJL/jLa'yr)vr]v) ^ ol to Xe)(dev irXevpov d<f>opi^ovTe<; 
ovK eXaTTOU? to)v '^^^lXlcov kuI ^ reTpaicoaiwv' tt/jo? 
eft) Be Tw FjV^pdTj] Kat rot? eVro? tov l^v^pdrov 
Xfajvlratf; "Apay^r irpo^ Be votov rfj evBaifiovi 
^Apa^ia kol ry AlyvTrra)' Trpo? Bvcnv Be to) 
AlyvTTTia) T€ Kol 'ZvpiaKM ireXdyei P'^XP'' 'I<''0"ow. 

2. Me/)?; B'' avTrj<; Tidep,ev diro Trj<; KcXtKia<; 
dp^dp^evoL KOL TOV *Ap,avov Trjv re Viop>p,ayrivr)V 
KOL Tr)v ^eXevKiBa KaXovp,evr)v rr}? XvpLa<;, eTretra 
Tr)V KolXtiv ^vplav, TeXevTaiav B^ iv jxev ttj irapa- 
Xia Ttjv ^0iViKr]Vy iv Be ttj pbeaoyaia ttjv ^lovBaiav. 
evioi Be Tr)v ^vpLav oXijv et? re KoiXoavpovi kol 
Xvpov<;^ Koi ^oivLKa^ BieXovTe^ TOVTOt<i dvap.e- 
plXpai ^acji TeTTapa eOvr], ^lovBaiov;, ^IBovp,aLov<;, 
Fafatou?, *Afa>Ttoi/?, yecopyiKov^; p.ev, oo? tou? 
Xvpov^ kclI KoiXo(7vpov<:, ip,7ropiKov^ Be, co? tou? 


3. KadoXov p,ev ovtco, KaO^ efcaaTa Be rj Ko//,- 

* The words in parenthesis are suspected by Kramer and 
ejected by Meineke. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. i. 28. 2. 1-3 

seeking thus to deprive evil-doers of that hope. 
Now all his surviving children are cared for in royal 
style, at public expense, in Rome, and the remaining 
kings 1 have also continued to send ambassadors 
and to go into conferences. ^ 


1. Syria is bounded on the north by Cilicia and 
Mt. Amanus ; and the distance from the sea to the 
bridge of the Euphrates (from the Gulf of Issus to 
the bridge at Commagene), which forms the boundary 
of that side, is not less than fourteen hundred stadia. 
It is bounded on the east by the Euphrates and by 
the Arabian Scenitae this side the Euphrates ; and 
on the south by Arabia Felix and Aegypt; and on 
the west by the Aegyptian and Syrian Seas as far 
as Issus. 

2. We set down as parts of Syria, beginning at ) 
Cilicia and Mt. Amanus, both Commagene and the ^ 
Seleucis of Syria, as the latter is caHed; and then 
Coele-Syria, and last, on the seaboard, Phoenicia, / 
and, In the interior, Judaea. Some writers divide / 
Syria as a whole into Coelo-Syrians and Syrians and 
Phoenicians, and say that four other tribes are 
mixed up with these, namely, Judaeans, Idumaeans, 
Gazaeans, and Azotians, and that they are partly 
farmers, as the Syrians and Coelo-Syrians, and 
partly merchants, as the Phoenicians. 

3. So much for Syria in general. But in detail : 

1 i.e. his successors. ^ (^^^ ^j^h Roman praefects. 

2 X*^'**' «a^ Tzschucke inserts, citing Pliny 5. 12. 13; so 
the later editors . 

* Kol 2vpovs, omitted by all MSS. except D. 



fjLayrjvrj fiiKpd rt? iariv e^et 8' ipvfivrjv iroXiv 
Xa/jLoaara, iv rj to ffaaiXeiov vTrrjp'^e' vvv B* 
€7rap)(La yiyovc %ft>/)a Se TrepUeiTai acpoSpa 
€vSaLfia)v, okiyr] he. ivravda he vvv ecm to 
^evy/jua tov YiV^paTov KaTo, tovto Be Xe\ev/ceia 
iBpvTai, (ppovpiov rr}? Meo-oTTorayLtta?, TrpoacopLa- 
fievov VTTO HofiTTTjLov Ty Ko/jLjiiayr)vfj'^ iv w ttjv 
XeX^jvrjv eTTLKkridelaav KXeoirdTpav Tt,ypdvr)<; 
dvelXe, KaOelp^a^i 'X^povov Ttvd, rjvLKa Ty<; Xvpla^i 

4. 'H Be XeXevKh dpiaTrj /lev eaTl tcov Xe^Oei- 
acov fiepiBcov, KaXelTai Be TeTpdiroXii^ Kai eari 
KaTCL ra? e^e')(p\}<Ta^ iv avTrj TroXet?, iirel TrXe/of ? 
ye elcTt' pLeyiaTaL Be TeTTape^, ^ A.VTioyeia rj iirl 
Ad(j)V7j Kal XeXevKCLa rj iv TLiepia koL ^Airdfieia 
Be Kal AaoBlKeia, aiirep Kal iXeyovTO dXXrjX(ov 
dBeX(j)al Bid ttjv ofiovotaVy XeXevKov tov NiKd- 
TO/309 KTL(T/jLaTa' T) fiev ovv ixeyiaTT] TOV iraTpo^i 
avTOV iircovvfjio^, rj B' ipvfivoTdTr] avTOV' at 8' 
C 750 dXXai, r) /juev 'ATrdfieia T779 yvvaiKo^ avrov 
'A7rd/jLa<i, rj Be AaoBUeta t?)? fMrjTpo^. olKei(o<; 
Be Tjj TeTpaiToXei Kal eh aaTpaTreia^ Btyp7)T0 ^ 
TeTTapa^ rj XeXevKif;, w? (pyo-t Xloo-etScoi/to?, eh 
ocra^ Kal rj KolXtj Xvpia, eh P'tav B' rj Mea-oTro- 
TafjLia.^ €<TTt B' rj fiev 'Ai/Ti6%6ia Kal avTr) ^ 

^ TTj Ko/.ifiayTjv^ moz, for t^ Ko}xfiaywf other MSS. ; so 
Tzschucke, Corais, and Meineke. 

2 Siripr}To, first hand in D, for Sirjpe'iro ; so the editors. 

^ The editors suspect this clause. Groskurd conj. that 
Strabo wrote either els jxiav S' t] Ko/x/mayriv^ KaOdirep Koi t] 
MeaoTTOTa/xla or ets /uLlav 5' r) Ko/xfiayvt^h '<^«* Sfioicos 17 Uapa- 
voTttfiia. Perhaps, too, some verb like ireraKro has fallen 
out after MecroiroTaixiav, 

* auT^, Jones, for oJ/'ttj. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 3-4 

Commagene is rather a small country ; and it has a 
city fortified by nature, Samosata, where the royal 
residence used to be; but it has now become a 
province ; ^ and the city is surrounded by an exceed- 
ingly fertile, though small, territory. Here is now 
the bridge of the Euphrates ; and near the bridge 
is situated Seleuceia, a fortress of Mesopotamia, 
which was included within the boundaries of Com- 
magene by Pompey ; and it was here that Tigranes 
slew Selene, surnamed Cleopatra, after imprisoning 
her for a time, when she had been banished from 

4. Seleucis is not only the best of the above- 
mentioned portions of Syria, but also is called, and 
is, a Tetrapolis, owing to the outstanding cities in 
it, for~Tt~has several. But the largest are four: 
Antiocheia near Daphne, Seleuceia in Pieria, and 
also Apameia and Laodiceia; and these cities, all 
founded by Seleucus Nicator, used to be called 
sisters, because of their concord with one another. 
Now the largest of these cities ^ was named after his j 
father and the one most strongly fortified by nature ( 
after himself, and one of the other two, Apameia, 
after his wife Apama, and the other, Laodiceia, 
after his mother."* Appropriately to the Tetrapolis, | 
Seleucis was also divided into four satrapies, as 
Poseidonius says, the same number into which 
Coele-Syria was divided, though Mesopotamia 
formed only one satrapy.^ Antiocheia is likewise 

^ i.e. a Roman province. 

2 Antiocheia. 

3 The text seems to be corrupt. Groskurd conjectures 
that Strabo wrote either " Commagene, like Mesopotamia, 
formed one satrapy," or " Commagene, and likewise Parapo- 
tamia, formed one satrapy " (see critical note). 



T€Tpd7ro\i<;, €K T€TTdpo)v (TvveaTcoaa fiepcav re- 
Teix'^cTTai, Se koI kolvw reix^i' k^cu ISltp /ca6* 
€KaaTOv TO fCTLCTfia' TO fxev ovv irpMTov avTcov 6 
'NiKaTcop (TVvcpKLcre, fieTayaycbv €k t^? ^AvTiyovia^ 
Tou? olK7]Topa<;, fjv TrXrjaiov iTei'^io'ev *AvTLyovo<; 


ttXtjOov^ tcou OLKrjTopcov iaTv KTia/jLa, to Be 
TpLTov XeXevKOv tov KaXktvLKov, to Be TCTapTov 
^AvTLoxov TOV 'FiTTicfyavov';. 

5. Kat Brj Kal /jirjTpoTroXl^; iaTLV avTt] t^9 
%vpLa<;, Kal to ^acriXeLOv evTavOa 'IBpvTO Tot? 
ap-^ovcn TYj^ x^pa^- ov ttoXv re XeiireTai Kal 
BvvdjjLeL Kal fieyeOei '^eXevKela^ tyj^ iirl Ta> Tuypei 
Kal 'AXe^avBpela^; r?}? tt/oo? AiyvTTTfp. avvcpKiae 
K 6 ^iKiiToyp evTavOa Kal tov<; airoyovov^ ^ 
TpLTTToXejiov, Trepl ov /itKpM 2 irpoaOev ipLvrjadif]- 
jxev Bioirep 'Ai^rio^^et? &>? ijpcoa TLficoai Kal dyov- 
aiv iopTrjv iv tw opei tw irepl %eXevKeLav, 
(paal 8' avTOV utt* ^Apyelwv TTefi^OevTa iirl ttjv 
*Io{)9 ^tjTrjaiVy iv Tvpo) iTpMTOV d(f>avov<i yevr)- 
6€L(77}<i, irXavaaOai KaTa ttjv KiXiKiav evTavda 
Be TMv avv avTcp TLva<; ^Apyeicov KTiaaL ttjv 
Tapaov iiTTeXOovTa^; Trap' avTOV' tov<; 8' dXXovf; 
avvaKo\ov6rj(TavTa<i eU ttjv efrj? TrapaXiav, dnro- 
yvovTa'^ T^9 ^r}T7]a€co<;, iv ttj iroTap^ia tov 'OpovTOV 
KaTafiecvai avv avTM' tov /jLCV ovv vlov tov 

TpiTTToXe/uLOV TopBvV, e^OVTd TLVa<i TMV avv TO) 

iraTpl XaMv, et? r^i/ TopBvaiav diroiKyjaar tmv 
8' aXXcov T0U9 diroyovov^ avvoLKOv^ yeveaOai toU 

^ airoySvovs Ei, airoySvos w, aich yevovs other MSS. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 4-5 

a Tetrapolis, since it consists of four parts ; and 
each of the four settlements is fortified both by a 
common wall and by a wall of its own. Now Nicator 
founded the first of the settlements, transferring 
thither the settlers from Antigonia, which had been 
built near it a short time before by Antigonus ; the 
second was founded by the multitude of settlers ; 
the third by Seleucus Callinicus ; and the fourth 
by Antiochus Epiphanes. 

5. Furthermore, Antiocheia is the metropolis of 
Syria ; and here was established the royal residence 
for the rulers of the country. And it does not fall 
much short, either in power or in size, of Seleuceia 
on the Tigris or Alexandria in Aegypt. Nicator also 
settled here the descendants of Triptolemus, whom 
I mentioned a little before.^ And it is on this 
account that the Antiocheians worship him as a hero \ 
and celebrate a festival in His honour on Mt. Casius '^ 
in the neighbourhood of Seleuceia. It is said that 
he was sent by the Argives in search of lo, who 
disappeared first in Tyre, and that he wandered 
through Cilicia ; and that there some of his Argive 
companions left him and founded Tarsus, but the 
others accompanied him into the next stretch of sea- 
board, gave up the search in despair, and remained 
with him in the river-country of the Orontes ; and 
that Gordys, the son of Triptolemus, along with 
some of the peoples who had accompanied his father, 
emigrated to Gordyaea, whereas the descendants 
of the rest became fellow-inhabitants with the 

1 16. 1. 25. 

^ fiiKp6v F ; so Meineke. 



6. 'TTrepfceirai Be rerrapdicovTa aTahiOi<^ r) 
Ad(f>vrj, KaroLKia fieTpla /jiiya Se /cal avvr)p6^e<; 
a\(To<^, Biappeo/JLCVov irrjyaioi^; vBaaiv, ev fieaw Be 
davXov T6/jb€V0<; koI veo)^ 'AttoXXwi'o? kol ^Apre- 
yLttSo?. evravda Be Travrjyvpi^etv eOo<; tol<; ^Avtio- 
'Xevai Kal roi? darvyeLToai' kvkKo^ Be rod aXaov^ 
6yBoi]KOVTa ardBioi. 

7. 'Pet Be T179 TToXeco? irXrjcriov ^Op6vTr]<; ttotu- 
fio^' ovToq S' eK T^9 KoL\r)<; XvpLa<; ra^; dp^O'^ 
eyoav, el6^ viro yrjv eve')(6ei<i, dvaBiBcocL rrdXtv to 
pevfia, fcal Bia t?;? ^Airafieoyv eh ttjv ^ Avriox^iav 
TTpoeXdcov, irXTjaidaa^i rf] iroXei tt^oo? ttjv ddXar- 
rav KaracpepeTat rrjv Kara '2,eXevK6iav' to B^ 
ovo/jLa Tov ye(f)vp(t)aapTo<; avTOu *0p6vT0v /lere- 
Xa/3e, KaXoufjuevo^; irpoTepov Tvcfxov, fivOevoucn 
S' evTavOd ttov tcl irepl ttjv Kepavvcoaiv tov 
Tv(f>a)vo^ /cal tov<; 'Ayotyu-ou?, irepl Siv etTrofiev Kal 

C 751 TTpoTepoV (j>aal Be tv7tt6/i€vov Tot<; KepavvoL<; 
(elvai Be Bpd/covTa) (pevyeiv /caTdBvaiv ^rjTovvTa- 
Tot9 fiev ovp 6Xkol<^ evTe/juecv ttjv yrjv /cal 7roL7]<Tac 
TO peWpov tov TTOTa/jbov, /caTaBuvTa 5' eh yrjv 
dvapprj^ai Tr)V irrjyrjv' eK Be tovtov yeveaOat 
Tovvofia TG) TTOTafiSi. 7rpo<; Bvaiv fxev ovv 
OdXaTTa vTTOKeiTat, tt} 'Ai/Tio%eta KaTa SeXev- 
Keiav, 7rpo<; y Kal ra? eKpoXa<i 6 *0p6vTr]<; 
TTOielTai, Btexovcrrj tcov fiev eK^oXSiv o-TaBiov; 
TeTTapaKOVTa, t% B^ 'Ai^Tto%eta9 eKaTov elKocnv. 
dvdirXov^ 8' eK daXdTT7j<; eaTlv eh ttjv ^Avtco- 
X^iav av6r)fjLep6v. 7rpo9 eco S' l^v(j>pdTr]<; iaTl 
Kal 17 3afi0vKrj Kal rj Bepota koI rj 'HpaKXeia 

1 12. 8. 19, 13. 4. 6. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 6-7 

6. Lying above Antiocheia, at a distance of forty 
stadia, is Daphne, a settlement of moderate size ; 
and also a large, thickly-shaded grove intersected 
by fountain-streams, in the midst of which there is 
an asylum-precinct and a temple of Apollo and 
Artemis. Here it Is the custom for the Antiocheians 
and the neighbouring peoples to hold a gene^l 
festival. The grove is eighty stadia in circuit. 

7. The Orontes River flows near the city. This 
river has its sources in Coele-Syria ; and then, after 
flowing underground, issues forth again; and then, 
proceeding through the territory of the Apameians 
into that of Antiocheia, closely approaches the latter 
city and flows down to the sea near Seleuceia. 
Though formerly called Typhon, its name was 
changed to that of OronteSj_ the man who built a 
bridge across it. Here, somewhere, is the setting 
of the mythical story of Typhon's stroke by lightning 
and of the mythical story of the Arimi, of whom 
I have already spoken.^ They say that Typhon 
(who, they add, was a dragon), when struck by the 
bolts of lightning, fled in search of a descent under- 
ground ; that he not only cut the earth with furrows 
and formed the bed of the river, but also descended 
underground and caused the fountain to break forth 
to the surface ; and that the river got its name from 
this fact. Now on the west, below Antiocheia and 
Seleuceia, lies the sea; and it is near Seleuceia 
that the Orontes forms its outlets, this city being 
forty stadia distant from the outlets, and one hundred 
and twenty from Antiocheia. Inland voyages from 
the sea to Antiocheia are made on the same day 
one starts. To the east of Antiocheia are the 
Euphrates, as also Bambyce and Beroea and Hera- 



rfj ^AvTLO')(€la, iToXi-)(yLa rvpavvovfievd irore 
vTTo Aiovvalov Tov 'HpaK\6covo<;. Stex^i' ^' V 
^HpcLKXeia o-TaBiov<; €lko<tl tov t/)? 'A^Tym? lepov 
T>7<» K.vpprjaTi8o<;} 

8. EZra 17 KupprjariKr) ^ p^^XP^ '''V'^ 'Ai/Tio;)^t8o9* 
aiTO Be TOiv apKTcov iarl to re ^ Kp^avov TrXrjaLOV 
KnX 7) Kop,pLay7)vij' avvdiTTeL 3e rouroi? 77 YLvpprj- 
(TTLKy P'^XP^ Bevpo irapaTeivovaa. ivTavOa 8' 
eVrl TToXi? TLv8apo<;, aKpoiroXi^ rrj? YivpprjaTLKrj^ 
KOI \r)(TTr)piov €V(f)V6<i, KoX 'apuKXeiov TC fcaXov- 
pevov ^ irXr^aiov' irepX ov<i tottol'? vtto OvevTiBuov 
Tldfcopof; Bie^Odprf, 6 Trpecr/SvTaTO*; tmv tov 
UapOvaiov iralBwv, i'Ki(TTpaTevaa<^ ttj XvpCa. 
Trj Be FivBdpo)^ avvdirTOvatv ^ al Hdypai, T/j? 
'AvTLOX^Bo<;, %a)yOtoz^ epvpbvov KaTa ttjv vTrepOeaiv 
TOV ^Apiavov TTjv eK tcov ^Ap^avlBcov ttvXcop eh ttjv 
1,vpiav Keip,evov. viroir lit Tei pL€P ovv Tat? Jldypai<; 
TO TMV ' AvTLox^^v ttcBlov, Bl' ov pel 6 ^ApKevOa 
iTOTapbO'^ KOI 6 ^OpovTrj^ Kal 6 Aa/Scora?. iv Be tov- 
T(p eVrl Tw TreBicp /cal 6 M.eXedypov X^P^^ ^^'' ^ 
Olvoirdpa^i iroTapuo^- ecj) c5 tov VtdXav WXe^avBpov 
pidxiJ vL/crjaaf} 6 ^tXopLijTcop TlToXepLalo<; ereXevTr]- 
aev eK TpavpuaTO^;. virepKeuTaL S' avTcop X-0^09 
TpaiTe^cov diro T179 opLOtoTrjTO'i KaXovp,€vo<i, ecj) a> 
OvevTiBio^ Trpb^ ^paviKaTriv,^ tov Tlapdvaicov 

^ Kvpp-qaTiSos, Xylander, for Kapio-rlSos tvr,Kvpi(rTi5os other 

2 Kypprjo-TiK^, Xylander, for KuppiariK^ ; and so in subse- 
quent uses of the word. 

^ Dh read tepou after KaXov^evov ; so Corais and Meineke. 

^ TLvZap(f, the editors, for tt]v Zapov D, T-qv^dp-^ C, TivSdp(f> 
other MSS. 

^ E inserts ^ before (TwdirTovaiv. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 7-8 

cleia, small towns once ruled by the tyrant Dionysius, 
the son of Heracleon. Heracleia is twenty stadia 
distant from the temple of Athena Cyrrhestis. 

8. Then one comes to Cyrrhestice, which extends 
as far as the territory of Antiocheia. On the north, 
near it, lie both Mt. Amanus and Commagene. 
Cyrrhestice borders on ttiese, extending as far as 
that. Here is Gindarus, a city, which is the acro- 
polis of Cyrrhestice and a natural stronghold for 
I'obbers ; and near it is a place called Heracleium.^ 
It was in the neighbourhood of these places that 
Pacorus, the eldest of the sons of the Parthian 
king, was killed by Ventidius, when he made an 
expedition against Syria.^ On the borders of Gin- 
darus lies Pagrae, which is in the territory of Antio- 
cheia and is a natural stronghold situated near the 
top of the pass over Mt. Amanus, which leads from 
the Gates of Amanus into Syria. Now below Pagrae 
lies the plain of the Antiocheians, through which 
flow the Arceuthus and Orontes and Labotas Rivers ; 
and in thi^ plain is the palisade of Meleagrus, as 
also the Oenoparas River, on the banks of which 
Ptolemy Philometor conquered Alexander Balas 
but died from a wound. ^ Above these places lies 
a hill which, from its similarity,* is called Trapezon, 
whereon Ventidius had the fight with Phranicates,^ 

1 " Heracleium " implies a temple of Heracles. 

2 See 16. 1. 28. 

3 In 146 B.C. He fell from his horse. 
* i.e. from its table-like shape. 

^ The correct spelling is probably "Pharnapates," as in 
Dio Cassius (48. 41) and Plutarch (Antony 33). 

^ ^paviKdrrjv, emended to ^apj/oTrciTrjs by Tzschucke and 



aTpaTii<y6v, ecrx^ top aycoi^a. Trpo? OdXaTTr} Be 
TOVTtov iarlv rj XeXevKCia koX rj Uiepla, opo^ 
(7vve')(ef; rw ^A/juavo), Kal rj 'Pojo-o?, /JLera^v 'laaov 
Kol Ze\evK€La<; lSpvp,€vr]. i/caXelro S' r} 'Z^XevKeia 
7rp6T€pov''TSaTo<; Ylorap^ol' epup^a Si eariv a^to- 
\oyov Kal KpeiTTcov^ ^ia^ rj ttoXl^;, hioirep koI 
iXevdepav avrrjv eKpive IIopL7n]io<i, airoKXeicra^ 
Ttypdvrjv. Trpo? votov 8' earl roh fiev 'Ai^Tto%eO- 
(TLv ^Aird/iieta, ev fiedoyala Kei/nevrj, to?? Be 
'ZeXevKCvai to Kdaiov opo^ Kal to ^AvriKaaiov 
en Be irpoTepov fjuera rrjv ^eXevKeiav al eK^okal 
Tov ^OpovToV elra to Nvficpalov, aTrijXaiov tl 
lepoV elTa to K^daLOv' e(f)e^rj<; Be YloaeiBLOV 
TToXiX^rj Kal ^UpdKXeia. 

9. EZra AaoBiKeia, eirl Ty OaXdTTj) KdXXiaTa 
eKTiafJuevrj Kal evXifievo^ ttoXl^, %a>/3az^ ^ t€ exovo-a 
C 752 TToXvoLvov 7rpo<; ttj dXXrj evKapiria' rot? pev ovv 
* AXe^avBpevdLv avTrj Trapex^t- to irXeldTov tov 
otvov, TO virepKeip^evov t^9 TroX-eco? opo^ irav KaTdp,- 
ireXov e^ovaa P'^xp'' cx^Bov tl tmv Kopv^odv al Be 
Kopucpal T?7? p,ev AaoBiKeia^ ttoXv dirayOev eiat, 
r}pepia dir avTTjf; Kal KaT bXiyov dvaKXivopevar 
T?}? 'ATra/^e^a? 8' vTrepKinrTOVo-iv evr' opduov i)^\ro^ 
dvaTeTapevai. iXvirrjae 8' ov pieTpiw^ AoXa/SeX- 
Xa? KaTa<j)vyot)v eh avTrjv Kal epi'rroXiopKr]6el^ vtto 
KaaaLOv pexpi OavdTov, (TvvBLa<j)d€ipa<; eavTw 
Kal T^9 7r6Xeft)9 iroXXa p,eprj. 

^ KpeiTTUiv CDhimoxz, Kpeirrov other MSS. 
^ X^paVf Corals, for x^po"- 

1 Rivers-of- Water, 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 8-9 

the Parthian general. Near the sea in this region 
He Seleuceia, and Pieria, a mountain continuous 
with Mt. Amanus, and Rhosus, which is situated 
between Issus and Seleuceia. Seleuceia was in 
earlier times called Hydatos-Potamoi.^ The city- 
is a notable fortress and is too strong to be taken 
by force ; and for this reason Pompey, after shutting 
Tigranes off from it,^ adjudged it a free city. To 
the south of the Antiocheians is Apameia, which is 
situated in the interior; and to the south of the 
Seleuceians are Mts. Casius and Anticasius; and 
still further after Seleuceia one comes to the outlets 
of the Orontes ; and then to the Nymphaeum, a 
kind of sacred cave ; and then to Casium ; and next 
to Poseidium, a small town, and to Heracleia. 

9. Then one comes to Laodiceia, situated on the 
sea^ It is a city most beautifully built, has a good 
harbour, and has territory which, besides its other 
good crops, abounds in wine. Now this city furnishes 
the most of the wine to the Alexandreians, since 
the whole of the mountain that lies above the city 
and is possessed by it is covered with vines almost 
as far as the summits. And while the summits are 
at a considerable distance from Laodiceia, sloping 
up gently and gradually from it, they tower above 
Apameia, extending up to a perpendicular height. 
Laodiceia was afflicted in no moderate degree by 
Dolabella, when he fled to it for refuge, was besieged 
in it by Cassius till death, and destroyed, along with 
himself, many parts of the city.^ 

2 Tigranes had tried for fourteen years (84-70 B.C.) to 
capture the city. 

^ To avoid being captured by Cassius, Dolabella ordered 
one of his soldiers to kill him (43 B.C.). 



10. 'H B* ^ KirdfjueLa fcal itoXlv ^ e%ei to ifKeov 
evepfcrj' Xo<^o9 yap icrriv ev irehiat koiKw T€T€i^O(r- 
fievo^ /caXw9, ov iroiel x^ppovT^ai^ovTa 6 'Op6vT7]<; 
/cal Xip^VT] TrepLKeip^ivr) p^eydXr] kol eh eXrj rrXarea 
Xeip.(f)vd<^ T6 /Sou^oTov^i koI tTTTroySorou? BLa)(€o- 
p,eur) ^ v7rep^dXXovTa<; to p^eyeOo^' f] re Br] ttoX^? 
ouTa)9 dcr(^aX(xi<; KCLTai, koI Bt) koI Xeppovrja-of; 
ixXijOrj Bict TO avp^fie^r^Ko^j koI X^P^^ eviropel 
7rap,7r6XXr)(; €vBaip,ovo<;, Bi* ^9 *Op6vTr)<; pel" 
KoX TrepiTToXia^ av)(^va ev Tavrrj. evravOa Be kol 
^ifcdrayp XeXevKO^; toi'9 irevraicoaiov^ eXe(^avTa^ 
erpe(l>€ koI to irXeov tt]<; crTpaTid<;, kuI ol vcTTepov 
^aa-iXelf;. eKaXelTO Be koI YieXXa iroTe vtto tmv 
TTpcoTcov MaKeBovayv Bia to toi'9 7rXei0v<; tmv 
^aKeBovcov evTavda olKTjdaL tmv aTpaTevop^evcov, 
TTjv Be UeXXav Mcnrep p.7)TpoiroXiv yeyovevai tmv 
MaKeBovcop, ttjv ^iXlttttov /cal 'AXe^dvBpov ira- 
TpCBa. evTavda Be Kal to XoytaTrjpiov to aTpaTiw 
TiKov Kal to l'TriroTp6(f>iov' OrjXeiai puev lttttoi jBaai- 
XiKul TrXeiov<; tcov TpLapLVpiwv, o^^eta Be tovtwv 
TpiaKoaca' evTuvOa Be /cal TTcoXoBdpvai /cal ottXo- 
P'd^oL /cal oaoi iraiBevTal tmv iroXep^LKMV epia- 
OoBoTOvvTO. BrjXol Be ttjv Bvvap,tv TavTVjv rj Te tov 
Tpvcpcopo'i eiTi/cXyjOevTOf; ^loBotov irapav^rjaL^^ Kal 
eirlOeari^; tj} jBaaiXeia tcov Xvpcov, evTevOev oppLrj- 

^ Corais emends it6Kiv to dxpSiroXiv. 

^ The MSS. read \i/xvr} . . . Koi €\r} . . . Siax^o/nevovs. 
Corais alters as above. Letronne conj. tls \ifxvt)v ; Kramer 
Kara M/j.vr}v. B. Niese {Emoid. Str. 14) would parenthesise 
x6<pos . . . 'Op6vT-i)s and emend KifxvT) irepiKcificvr} to xitivr\v 
irapaK^tficvrjv : and so A. Vogel [JPhilologus 41, p. 32). 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 10 

10. Apameia also has a city ^ that is in general 
well fortified; for it is a beautifully fortified hill 
in a hollow plain, and this hill is formed into a 
peninsula by the Orontes and by a large lake which 
lies near by and spreads into broad marshes and 
exceedingly large cattle-pasturing and horse-pastur- 
ing meadows.2 So the city is thus securely situated ; 
and so, too, it was called Cherronesus,^ because of 
the fact in the case ; and it is well supplied with a 
very large and fertile territory, through which the 
Orontes flows ; and in this territory there are 
numerous dependent towns. Here, too, Seleucus 
Nicator kept the five hundred elephants and the 
greater part of the army, as did also the later kings. 
It was also called Pella at one time, by the first 
Macedonians, because the majority of the Mace- 
donians who made the expedition took up their 
abode there, and because Pella, the native city of 
Philip and Alexander, had become, as it were, the 
metropolis of the Macedonians. Here, too, were 
the war-office and the royal stud. The royal stud 
consisted of more than thirty thousand mares and 
three hundred stallions. Here, too, were colt- 
breakers and instructors in heavy-armed warfare, 
and all instructors who were paid to teach the arts 
of war. The power of this city is clearly shown by 
the ascendency of Tryphon,* surnamed Diodotus, 
and by his attack upon the kingdom of the Syrians, 
when he made this city the base of his operations. 

1 For " city " Groskurd conjectures " acropolis." 

2 The text is corrupt (see critical note). 

3 Peninsula. 

* Usurper of the throne of Syria, reigning 142-139 b.c. 

3 •n-eptTpjAja, Corais, for irepiiroAu. 


6evT0<;. iyeyevrjro fiev yap iv Kaaiavoh} 
(j)povpL(x) Tivl tt)? ^ATra/jbicov 7^9, Tpa(^e\^ 8' iv rf} 
^Airafxeia koI avaraOel^; tw ^aaikel koI Tot<; irepl 
avTOv, €7r€iSr] vecorepl^eiv wpprjaev, i/c .T779 ttoXgw? 
TavT7]<i ecr^e ra? a<j)op/jLa<; icaX tmv TrepioiKiSoyv, 
Aapiar]'^ re /cal tcov Kaaiavcov^ Koi Meydpcov koI 
AiToWa)via<i Kal aXkcov tocovtcov, at avvereXovv 
etV TTjv ^Airdfieiap diraaai' iK€Lv6<s re Br) fiaaiXev'; 
TTJaBe T^9 %c«/)a9 dvehei^dT) Kal dvria)(^6 iroXvp 
')(^p6vov' ^d(T(TO<; re K.€fCL\i,o<; /jLera Bvelv rayp^drcov 
diToaTrjGa^ Tr]v ^ATrdfieiav BieKaprepyjae roaovrov 
'X^povov 7ro\iop/€ovijL€PO<; V7T0 Bvelv arpaToireBcdv 
fxeydXwv 'Fco/jLa'tKMV, wctt* ov Trporepov €t9 Tr]V 
C 753 i^ovalav rjKe, irpiv eKcbv eve'XjEipiaev eavrov, e^' 
ot9 e^e^ovXrjTo' Kal yap ttjv arpaTidv d'TreTpe<f>ev 
V X^P^ '^^* (TVfji/jLd)(^o)p eviropei ^ tmv TrXrjaLOv 
(j)vXdp')(^cov, €)(^6vTa)v evepKr} ')(^(opia' odv ecni Kal rj 
AvaLa<;, virep rrjf; Xi/JLV7)<; K€Lp,ev7] rrj^ 7rpo<; ^Aira- 
jieia, Kal 'ApiOovcra rj ^ajiiyjnKepd^ov Kal 'lafi^Xu- 
Xov, Tov eKeivov iraiBo^;, (ftvXdpxcov rod ^E/jlkttjvmv 
eOvov^' ov TToppQ) 3' ovB^ ' HXLov7roXt<; Kal XaX/<:t9 
T) VTTO UroiXefiaiq) rw Mevvalov, tw tov Maaavav * 
KarexovTt, Kal rrjv ^iTovpaicov opeivijv. tcjv Be 
o-vpLfiaxovvTcov TO) ^daaw rjv Kal * AXxaiBauLVO^,^ 
6 r(hv 'Fa/jb/Saicov jSaaiXev^ tmv ivro^ tov 
Ev<j)pdTov vop,dB(jOv' rjv Be <piXo<i ^Vwfxaiwv, 
ciBiKeladai Be vop,i(ja^ vtto tcov rjyefJLovcov, eKireaoov 

1 Kaffiavols, Groskurd, for Koffiavots. 
^ Kaaiavwv orz, Kaaffiavwv other MSS. 
' T]Tr6p€i Cmoxz. 

* Maffvav Di, Maalav r, Mapavav moxz (Polybius 5. 45. 61) 
and editors before Kramer. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 10 

For he was born at Casiana, a fortress of the Apa- 
meian country, and, having been reared at Apameia 
and closely associated with the king and the king's 
court, when he set out to effect a revolution, he got 
his resources from this city and also from its depen- 
dencies, I mean Larisa and Casiana and Megara 
and Apollonia and other places like them, all of 
which were tributary to Apameia. So Tryphon was 
proclaimed king of this country and held out for a 
long time. Cecilius ^ Bassus, with two cohorts, 
caused Apameia to revolt and, though besieged by 
two large Roman armies, strongly resisted them for 
so long a time that he did not come under their 
power until he voluntarily put himself in their hands 
upon his own terms ; for the country supplied his 
army with provisions, and he had plenty of allies, 
I mean the neighbouring chieftains, who possessed 
strongholds ; and among these places was Lysias, 
which is situated above the lake that lies near 
Apameia, as also Arethusa, belonging to Sampsi- 
ceramus and his son lambUchus, chieftains of the 
tribe of the Emeseni ; and at no great distance, 
also, were Heliupolis and Chalcis, which latter was 
subject to Ptolemaeus the son of Mennaeus, who 
possessed Massyas and the mountainous country of 
the Ituraeans. Among the allies of Bassus was also 
Alchaedamnus, king of the Rhambaeans, who were 
nomads this side the Euphrates River; and he was 
a friend of the Romans, but upon the belief that he 
was being treated unjustly by the Roman governors 

1 Apparently an error for " Caecilius." 

* * AXxaiSan-yos Dmoz 'A\xav5Jvios Dio Cassias (47. 27). 



eh Tr]v IsJieaoTTOTa^iav e/jLiado(j)6p€L rore tS> 
Bd(T(ra}. ivrevdev 8' earl Uoo-eiBcovio^; 6 Srewt/co?, 
avrjp Tcjv KaO^ rifia^ ^L\oa6(j)0)v TToKvjJbadeaTaTOf;, 

11. "Ofiopo^i 8' earl rfj ' ATrafiicov 7rp6<; eco fiev 
7] TOiv (j)v\dp')(a)v *Apd0Q)v KaXovfiivrj Uapairo- 
ra/jiia /cal rj XaX/ciSiKrj diro rod iS/laaavou^ 
KaOrjKOva-a koI iraaa rj Trpo? votov T0t9 'ATra/xeO- 
(TLV, dvSpcop Xk^jvltcov to irXeov' TrapairX'tja-iot. 
8' elcrl Tot? iv Trj "MeaoTrorap^ia vop^daiv' del 5' 
ol TrXrjo-iairepoi roh Xvpoi,<; rjp^epcoTepoL koX tjttov 
"Apa/Se^; koX ^Kr^vlrai, r)yep,ovLa<; €)(^ovTe<; crvv- 
TeTayp,eva<; p^dXXov, KaOdirep rj ^ap.yfnKepdp^ov ^ 
*ApeOovaa teal rj Tap^dpov koL rj ^ Sep^XXa koI 
aXXiov TOiovTcov. 

12. ToLavTr] p,ev rj puea-oyaia Trj<; XeXevKLSo<;, 
6 Be 7rapd7rXov<; 6 Xoiirb^; diro t?;? AaoBiKeLa<; 
i(TTl TOLOVTO^* Trj ycLp AaoBiKeCoL TrXrjcnd^eL 
TToXCx^ia, TO T€ HoaeiBtov /cat to 'YipdKXeiov koX 
TCL Td^aXa' eiT ijBrj rj twv ^ApaBiwv TrapaXia, 
IlaXTO? icaX HaXavata fcal K.dpvo<;, to eTriveiov rr)? 
^ApdBov Xip^eviov e^oV eW "EvvBpa fcal MdpaOo^, 
7ro\f9 ^oiviKwv dp')(aia icaTediraapbevr]. ttjv Be 
X^P^v 'ApdBiOL /caTeKXrjpovxv^^^ '^^^ '^^ Xip,vpa 
TO €^e^rj<; ^a)/)toz^* tovtol^ 8' r) ^OpOayaia avvexv^ 
eaTt, Kol 'YiXevdepa o ttXtjctlov TrorayLto?, ovirep 

^ Maaaiov F, Maaiov i, Koaavov x, Mapavov moz. 

2 'S.afKTiKepa.fx.ov CD. 

' KoX 7], Casaubon, Corais, and Groskurd would delete, 
making " Themella " the abode of Gambarus. C. Miiller 
conj. that ©e/xeWa is an error for ©eAeSa, a place about 25 
miles east of Arethusa. 

^ See critical note. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 10-12 

he retired to Mesopotamia and then went into the 
service of Bassus as a mercenary. Poseidonius, the V 
Stoic, the most learned of all philosophers of my 
time, was a native of Apameia. 

11. Bordering on the country of the Apameians, 
on the east, is the Paropotamia, as it is called, of 
the Arabian chieftains, as also Chalcidice, which 
extends down from Massyas, and all the country 
to the south of the Apameians, which belongs for 
the most part to Scenitae. These Scenitae are 
similar to the nomads in Mesopotamia. And it is 
always the case that the peoples are more civilised 
in proportion to their proximity to the Syrians, and 
that the Arabians and Scenitae are less so, the 
former having governments that are better organised, 
as, for example, that of Arethusa under Sampsi- 
ceramus, and that of Gambarus, and that of Themel- 
las,^ and those of other chieftains like them. 

12. Such is the interior of the territory of Seleu- 
ceia. But the remainder of the coast from Laodiceia 
is as follows : near Laodiceia are three towns, 
Poseidium and Heracleium and Gabala; and then 
forthwith one comes to the seaboard of the Aradians,^ 
where are Paltus and Balanaea and Carnus, this 
last being the naval station of Aradus and having a 
harbour; and then to Enydra and Marathus, the 
latter an ancient city of the Phoenicians, now in 
ruins. Aradians divided up this country among 
themselves, as also Simyra, the place that comes 
next thereafter; and continuous with these places 
is Orthosia, as also Eleutherus, the river near by, 
which some writers make the boundary of the 

2 i.e. the seaboard on the mainland belonging to the 
Aradians, who inhabited the island called Aradus. 



opiov iroLOvvTai tiv€<; SeXef^tSo? irpb^i rrjv ^oivi- 
/cr]v Koi rrjv KoiXtjv ^vpiav. 

13. Tlp6/C€iraL 8' 97 "Apa^o? pa')(^i(oSov^ rivb^; kuI 
aXifievov irapaXia^;, pera^v rov re eTriveiov avTrj<; 
pLoXiaTa Kol TTj^ Mapddov, Bii'X^ovaa r?}? 77)9 aTa- 
5tou9 CLKoacv. €(JTi Be ireTpa 7r€pLK\vaT0<;, oaov 
kiTTa Tov kvkXov araSiCDV, TrXtjprjt; KaroLKia^' 
ToaavTT) S* evavhpia Ke^pv^cii p^XP'' '^^^ ^^^> coo-ts 
TToXvopo^ov^ oiKovai Ta<; olKia<;. efcriaav 3' 
avTTjv (j)vydB€<;, W9 (paaiv, €K ^tB6vo<;. rrjv 8' 
vhpeiav ttjv puev gk twv op^^plcov kol XuKtcaLcov 

C 754 vBciTcov exovai, Tr]v K €K t^9 irepaiaf;. iv Be Tot9 

TToXi/ilOl,^ Ik tov TTOpOV pLLKpOV TTpo TTj^i 7ro\6ft)9 

vBpevovTac, Trrjyrjv e)(0VT0<; dcpOovov vBaTO<;' 6:9 
fjv 7r€pi,KaTa(TTp€(f)€Tai, KXipavo^, KaOeOeU aTro 
TOV vBpevopiivov (TKd^ov<i, poXi,^ov<;, evpvaTopo'^, 
eU TTvOpAva avvrjypevof; aTevov, exovTa Tprjpa 
pLeTpLov Tw Be TTvOpevt 7r€pLe(T(pLyKTat aayXrjv 
uKVTLvo^y et're daicwpa Bel Xeyeiv, 6 Bexopuevo^ 
TO dvaOXi/36pL€i'Ov e/c Tti9 TrrjyTj^; Blcl tov kXi^uvov 
vB(op. TO pLev ovv TTpoiTOV dvadXi/Sev to t?)9 
6aXdTTrj<; eaTt' TTepip^eivavTe^; Be Tr]v tov KaOapov 
KoX iroTipbov vBaT0<; pvaiv, viroXapi/Sdvovaiv eh 
dyyeia irapeaKevaa peva, oaov dv Bey, koi iropO- 
pLevovaiv eh Trjv ttoXlv. 

14. To iraXaiov pbev ovv ol ^ApdBioi KaO^ avTov<; 
e^aaiXevovTO 7rapa7rXr)a-ico<; wcrirep kol tcov 
dXXcov e/cdaTT] jroXecov tmv ^olvlklBcoV eireiTa 
TCL pev ol Uepaai, to, B' 01 MaKeB6ve<;, tcl Be vvv 
*V(jdpaloL pieTedrjKav eh ttjv irapovaav Td^iv. ol 
8' ovv ^ApdBioL pueTa tmv dXXcov ^oivi/ccov virij- 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 12-14 

territory of Seleuceia on the side towards Phoenicia 
and Coele-Syria. 

13. Aradus Ues off a surfy and harbourless sea- 
board; it lies approximately between its naval 
station and Marathus, and is twenty stadia distant 
from the mainland. It consists of a rock washed 
all round by the sea, is about seven stadia in circuit, 
and is full of dwellings ; and it has had such a large 
population, even down to the present time, that 
the people live in houses with many stories. It was 
founded, as they say, by exiles from Sidon. They 
get their water-supply partly from the rains and 
cisterns and partly from their territory on the main- 
land. In war-times they get water from the channel 
at a short distance in front of the city. This channel 
has an abundant spring; and into this spring the 
people let down from the water-fetching boat an 
inverted, wide-mouthed funnel made of lead, the 
upper part of which contracts into a stem with a 
moderate-sized hole through it; and round this 
stem they fasten a leathern tube (unless I should 
call it bellows), which receives the water that is 
forced up from the spring through the funnel. Now 
the first water that is forced up is sea-water, but the 
boatmen wait for the flow of pure and potable water 
and catch all that is needed in vessels prepared for 
the purpose and carry it to the city. 

14. Now in ancient times the Aradians were 
governed independently by kings, as was also the 
case with each of the other Phoenician cities ; but 
afterwards the Persians, and then the Macedonians, 
and to-day the Romans, have reduced them to their 
present order of government. The Aradians, how- 
ever, together with the other Phoenicians, subjected 


VOL. VII. 8 


Kovov tS}v XvpLaK(ov ffao-iXecov, are (^i\a>v 
eireiTa arao-Laaavrcov aBeXcpcjv Bveiv, rod re 
K^aWiPLKov "^eXevKov KaX ^Avrioxov tov 'lepuKo^ 
7rpO(Tayop€vO€PTO<;, irpoadifievoi tw KaWiVLKO) 
TTOLOvvraL (jvfjL^dcreLf;, uar e^elvai BeX'^orOai tou? 
KaTatpevyovTa^i €k t^9 fiaaiXela^ Trap' avTOv<;, koX 
fiT) ixSiSovai uKOvra^' firj fiivTOi /jir]B' eKifkelv idv 
OLvev TOV eiTLTpe^^at /SacriXea. avvijSr] Be eK tov- 
rov fjLejdXa avrol^ TrXeove/crrj/jLara' ol yap Kara- 
^< <f>€vyovT€<i eV avTov<; ovx ol Tv^ovTe^ ycrav, dXX* 
OL TO, fieyiaTa ireTnarevfievoL xal irepl rcov fieyicr- 
Tcov SeStore?* eTri^evov/jLevoL B' avTOL<; €V€pyeTa<; 
r)yovvTO Kal acorrjpa^i tov? vTToB€^a/xevov<;, avre- 
fjLVTjfxovevov re rrjv ')(^dpLv, Kal /jidXiara eTraveX- 
66vT€<; eh Tr)v OLKeiav' oxtt €k tovtov '^(opav re 
eKTrjaavTO rrj<; irepaia^ iroXXrjv, ^9 Tr)v irXeiarr^v 
exovai Kal vvv, Kal ToiXXa evdrjvovv. irpoaedeaav 
Be rfj evTV'Xi'f} ravTrj Kal irpopotav Kal <^iXo- 
irovlav TTpo^ ttjv OaXaTTOvpyiav' 6pa)vr€<; re tov<; 
yeiTovevovTa<; K.iXLKa<; ra TreipaTtjpta avvLara- 
fievov^ ovB^ dira^ eKoivcovovv avrot^ rrj^; rotavTrjf; 

15. Mera Be 'OpOcoalav earl Kal tov ^EXevOepov 
T/otVoXt?, diTo TOV crv/JL^e^rjKOTO^; ttjv eiriKXrjO'LV 
elXTjcpvla' TpLcov ydp ecjTL TToXecov KTLo-fxa, Tvpov, 
XlB6vo<;, ^ApdBoV TTJ Be TpiTroXei o-vv€)(^e^ eaTi to 
TOV Seov irpoawiTov, et? TeXevra 6 AL^avo<; to 
6po<;' jjLeTa^v Be Tpcijpr]';, xoypiov ti. 

16. Avo Be TavT earlv oprj tcl iroLOvvTa ttjp 

1 '-Tri-city." Cw ^-fD^-^jSU 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 14-16 

themselves to the Syrian kings as friends of theirs ; 
and then, when a quarrel broke out between two 
brothers, Callinicus Seleucus and Antiochus Hierax, 
as he was called, the Aradians joined with Callinicus 
and made an agreement with him whereby they 
were to be permitted to receive refugees from the 
kingdom and not to give them up against their will ; 
they were not, however, to permit refugees to sail 
from the island without permission from the king. 
From this agreement they got great advantages ; 
for those who fled jcuLxefuge to their country were 
not ordinary people, but men who had held the 
highest trusts and were in fear of the direst conse- 
quences ; and, being received as guests, they 
regarded their hosts as their benefactors and saviours, 
and requited the favour, in particular when they 
went back to their homeland; and it is from this 
fact, therefore, that the Aradians got possession of 
a considerable territory on the mainland, most of 
which they hold even at present, and otherwise 
have prospered. To this good fortune they added 
both prudence and industry in their maritime 
affairs ; and when they saw that the neighbouring 
Cilicians were organising piratical adventures they 
would not even once take part with them in a 
business of that kind. 

15. After Orthosia and the Eleutherus River one 
comes to Trjpolis^ which has taken its name from 
what is thelacFln the case, for it is a foundation 
consisting of three cities. Tyre and Sidon and Aradus. 
Contiguous to Tripolis is Theuprosopon,^ where Mt. 
Libanus terminates ; and between the two lies 
Trieres, a kind of stronghold. 

16. Here are two mountains, Libanus and Antih- 

" ^259 



J^oiXrjv KaXovfiivTjv ^vpiav} co? av TrapdWrfKa, 6 
T€ ALffavo<; /cal 6 *AvTtXifiavo<;, fiiKpov virepdev 
C 755 T?)? 6akdTTr]<i apypyieva d/jL(l)Ct)' 6 fiev Ai^avo<i t^9 
Kara 'V pLiroKiv, Kara ro rov @eov /jLoXiara irpo- 
aa)7T0i>, 6 B' ^KvTiXi^avo<; rrjf; Kara StSova* 
reXevToyai 8' iyyv<i tto)? twz^ ^ Kpa^icov opcop 
TCdu vTvep TTJ^i AafiaaKrjvrjf; kUI TOiv Tpaycopcov^ 
€KeL Xeyo/jLevcov et? dX\a oprj ye(oXo<pa kol 
KaWiKapTTa. aTTokelirovaL he fiera^v irehiov 
KoVkoV TrXaro? fjuev to iirl rfj OaXdrTrj Sluko- 
(jicdv arahiayv, firJKO^; Se to diro t?}? OaXaTrr]^ 6t9 
TTjV /jLeaoyaLuv 6p,ov ^ tl SiirXdaiov. BtappelTai, 
Se 7roTa/jLOL<i dpBovai ^(^copav evBalfjuova Kal irdfi- 
cfeopov, jJbeyiaTW Be T(p ^lopBdprj. ex,€i' Be Kal 
Xi/jLvrjVy 7] <f>epei rrjv dpco/juaTLTiv cryocvov^ kol 
KaXafJLOv, 0)0 S' avTco^; Kal eXr)' KaXelrai S' rj 
Xl/jlvt} Tevvr](7apLTC<;. <f>6pei Be Kal /SdXaa/jLOV. 
TMV Be TTora/jLcov 6 fiev ^pvaoppoa^i, dp^dfievo^ 
diro Tr)? Aa/jLaaKT]va)v TroXeox; Kal ')(^(t)pa<;, et? Ta<; 
o;^€Teta9 dvaXiaKeTai ay^Bov tl' ttoXXi^v yap 
iirapBei Kal ^adelav ac^oBpa'^ top Be Avkov Kal 
TOP 'lopBdvTjP dvairXeovart (f>opTLOi<;, 'ApdBioi Be 

17. Twi/ Be TveBifov to fiev irpcoTOv, to aTTO 
Trj<i OaXdTTrj^;, Mai^/oa? KaXelrai Kal MaKpa 
ireBLov iv rovrw Be TloaeiBd)vio<; laropel rov 
BpaKovra TTeTrrcoKora opadrjvai veKpov, /jLf]KO<i ^ 

1 "Sivpiav FE, Fw/iav and roviav other MSS. and in margin 
of F. 

' i:pax<^vct)v, Tzsehucke, for Tpaxo-y(^v. 

3 Instead of b^xov, E reads axf 5<ij/. 

* (rxot»'o»' ("rush "), Tzsehucke and Corals emend to ax^vov 
(the mastich-tree). 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 16-17 

banus, which form Coele-Syria, as it is called, and 
are approximately parallel to each other. They 
both begin slightly above~^e sea — Libanus above 
the sea near Tripolis and nearest to Theuprosopon, 
and Antilibanus above the sea near Sidon; and 
somewhere in the neighbourhood of the Arabian 
mountains above Damascene and the Trachones,^ 
as they are called, the two mountains terminate in 
other mountains that are hilly and fruitful. They 
leave a hollow plain between them, the breadth of 
which, near the sea, is two hundred stadia, and the 
length, from the sea into the interior, is about twice 
that number. It is intersected by rivers, the Jordan 
being the largest, which water a country that is 
fertile and all-productive. It also contains a lake, 
which produces the aromatic rush ^ and reed ; and 
likewise marshes. The lake is called Gennesaritis. 
The plain also produces balsam. Among the rivers 
is the Chrysorrhoas, which begins at the city and 
country of the Damasceni and is almost wholly 
used up in the conduits, for it irrigates a large 
territory that has a very deep soil; but the Lycus 
and the Jordan are navigated inland with vessels 
of burden, mostly by the Aradians. 

17. As for the plains, the first, beginning at the 
sea, is called Macras, or Macra-Plain. Here, as 
reported by Poseidonius, was seen the fallen dragon, 

^ "Trachones" means "Rugged, strong tracts" (see 
16. 2. 20). 

^ See critical note. 

^ Instead of <r<f>6Spa, E reads x^<^»'a« 
• After /xrjKos Dhi read ueV ; so Corals. 



<T')(^eB6v Ti KoX ifKeOpialov, 7rd)(o^ S\ axrd^ 
tTTTrea? eKarepwOev irapaaTavra'^ dWtjXov^ /it] 
KaSopav, 'x^do-fjia Be, coar €(f)nT'TT0V he^aaOai, 
Tr]<; Se (poXiBo^ XeiriBa eKaarrjv virepalpovaav 

18. Merd Be top MaKpav iariv 6 yiaaava^, 
e%Q)z/ Tivd KUi opeivd, ev ol<; rj XaX/irt?, coairep 
ciKpoiToXi^ rov Ma(T(Tvov' dpxh 8' avrov AaoBi- 
Keta 7) TTpo? Ai^dvo). rd fxev ovv opeivd e^ovai 
irdvTa ^Irovpalol re koI "Apa^e<;, KaKovpyot 
iravre^;, ol 8' ev tol^ ireBLOL^ yecopyor KaKov/juevoL 
B' VTT eiceivwv aXXore aX-X?/? /SoqOeta^ Beovrac. 
6p/jLrjTr}piOL<; B' epvfivolf; ')(p(bvTat, /caOdirep ol 
Tov Aifiavov e^ovre^ dvco fiev ev tw opei Xtvvdv 
Koi Boppafxa Kal dXXa roiavra €)(ovcn rei^V* 
/cdro) Be J^oTpuv Kal Tiyaprov koi rd eirl tt)? 
6aXdTT7]<^ GirrfXaia Koi to eirl rw Seov irpo- 
acoTTO) <l>povpLov eTTiredev, d KarecTTraae Uo/jl- 
7r/;t09, d(f)* a)V rjjv re Bv^Xov Karerpexov^ Kal 
TTjv e(f)e^rj<; ravTrj BrjpVTov, at fieTa^v Kelvrat, 
XiB6vo<; Kal TOV Seov irpoo-aoTrov. -q fiev ovv 
Bi^/SX,o9, TO TOV Kivvpov paaiXeLov, lepd eaTi 
TOV ^ABoovlBo^' fjv Tvpavvovfievrjv rjXevdepwae 
TlofiTTijio^ TreXeKiora^ eKelvov KecTac B' icf)^ v^jrov<; 
Tcvo<; /jLiKpov d-TTwOev T^9 OaXdTTr)(;. 

19. EZra fieTa TavTrjv "ABcovi<; TroTa/no^ Kal 

6po<i KXlfia^ Kal IlaXaij3vffXo<;' elO^ 6 Avko^ 

C 756 TTOTafJLo^ Kal BijpvTo^;' avTrj Be KaTecTTrdaOr) /xev 

VTTO 1l pv(f>wvo<i , dveXrj^Ori Be vvv vtto ^VoDfjuaiwv, 

^ KaT€Tp€xov F, Karerpex^ other MSS. 

1 About 100 feet. ^ ^ow Beyrout. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 17-19 

the corpse of which was about a plethrum ^ in 
length, and so bulky that horsemen standing by it 
on either side could not see one another; and its 
jaws were large enough to admit a man on horse- 
back, and each flake of its horny scales exceeded an 
oblong shield in length. 

18. After Macras one comes to the Massyas 
Plain, which contains also some mountainous parts, 
among which is Chalcis, the acropohs, as it were, 
of the Massyas. The beginning of this plain is 
the Laodiceia near Libanus. Now all the moun- 
tainous parts are held by Ituraeans and Arabians, 
all of whom are robbers, but the people in the plains 
are farmers ; and when the latter are harassed by 
the robbers at different times they require different 
kinds of help. These robbers use strongholds as 
bases of operation; those, for example, who hold 
Libanus possess, high up on the mountain, Sinna 
and Borrama and other fortresses like them, and, 
down below, Botrys and Gigartus and the caves by 
the sea and the castle that was erected on Theu- 
prosopon. Pompey destroyed these places; and 
from them the robbers overran both Byblus and the 
city that comes next after Byblus, I mean the city 
Berytus,2 which lie between Sidon and Theuprosopon. 
Now Byblus, the royal residence of Cinyras, is sacred 
to Adonis ; but Pompey freed it from tyranny by 
beheading its tyrant with an axe ; and it is situated 
on a height only a slight distance from the sea. 

19. Then, after Byblus, one comes to the Adonis 
River and to Mt. Climax and to Palaebyblus ; and 
then to the Lycus River and Berytus. But though 
Berytus was razed to the ground by Tryphon, it 
has now been restored by the Romans; and it 



Be^afievr] Bvo rdy/maTa, a Xhpvaev *AypL7nra<; 
ivravOa, TrpoadeU koI tov Maa-avov iroWrjp 
fiexpt' f^cil '^^v TOV 'Opovrov irrjywv, at 7r\r)alov 
rod T€ Ai^dvov Koi tov llapaheiaov koI tov 
AlyvTTTLOv ret^of? irepl rrju ^ Airafjuewv yfjv elcL* 
ravTa fiev ovv tcl iirl daXaTTrj. 

20. 'Tttcp he tov Maaavov icTiv 6 Ka\ov/JL€Vo<; 
AuXo)!' jSaaiXiKo^ kol 77 ^afiaaKrjvr) %ft)pa, 
Bia^epovTCi)^ iTraivov/xivrj' ccttl Be kol rj Aa- 
/iiaa/co<; 7r6\i<; d^toXoyo^, ax^Bov ti koX i7n(j)a- 
veaTOLTT] T(bv TavTT) Kara to, JlepcrLKd' virepKeivTai 
8' avTrj<; Bvo Xeyo/xevot Tpd^covef eTreiTU 7rpo<; 
TO, ^ApdjSwv fiepr) kol tcop 'iTovpaicov dva/ju^ 
optj BvafiaTa, ev oh kuI airrfkaia ^aOvaTOfxa, 
Cdv ev KOL TeT paKiGXiklov^ dvdp(OTT0V<i Be^aaOac 
Bvvdfxevov ev KaTaBpofxah, al rot? AafjLaaKr)voif: 
yivovTat iroWaxoOev. to fxevTOL irXeov tov<; 
diTO T^9 evBaL/jL0V0<; ^Apa^ua^ ejJLiropov^; XerjXa- 
tovctlv ol ^dp/Sapoi' tjttov Be avfjb^aivet KUTa- 
XvdevTWv vvvl Tcov rrepl ZrjvoBwpov XrjaTMV Btd 
TTjv etc T0)V 'Fci)/jLaLct)v evvofjLiav Kai Bid ttjv e/c 
TCOV aTpaTLcoTMv da-(l)dX€iav tcov ev Tjj Xvpia 

21. "Ajvaaa fiev ovv rj virep t^9 XeXev/clBof; 
0)9 eVt TTJV AiyvTTTOV KOL TTJV ^Apa/Siav dvL- 
(T^ovaa %a)/5a KolXtj Xvpla KaXelTai, IBiw^; B^ 
•q TO) Ai,0dv(p Kol T(p ^AvTtXipdvw di^aypis-fjievri. 
T^9 Be Xoi7rrj<i 77 /jl€V dirb ^Opda}<jia<; I^^XP'' 
UijXovaiov irapaXia ^OivUrj KaXeiTai, aTevrj Ti9 

1 See 16. 2. 16 and footnote. 

* i.e. the remainder of Coele-S^ia in the broad sense of 
the term. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 19-21 

received two legions, which were settled there by 
Agrippa, who also added to it much of the territory 
of Massyas, as far as the sources of the Orontes 
River. These sources are near Mt. Libanus and 
Paradeisus and the Aegyptian fortress situated in 
the neighbourhood of the land of the Apameians. 
So much, then, for the places on the sea. 

20. Above Massyas lies the Royal Valley, as it 
is called, and also the Damascene country, which is 
accorded exceptional praise. The city Daroascus 
is also a noteworthy city, having been, I might 
almost say, even the most famous of the cities in that 
part of the world in the time of the Persian empire ; 
and above it are situated two Trachones,^ as they 
are called. And then, towards the parts inhabited 
promiscuously by Arabians and Ituraeans, are 
mountains hard to pass, in which there are deep- 
mouthed caves, one of which can admit as many as 
four thousand people in times of incursions, such as 
are made against the Damasceni from many places. 
For the most part, indeed, the barbarians have been 
robbing the merchants from Arabia Felix, but this 
is less the case now that the band of robbers under 
Zenodorus has been broken up through the good 
government established by the Romans and through 
the security estabHshed by the Roman soldiers that 
are kept in Syria. 

21. Now the whole of the country above the 
territory of Seleuceia, extending approximately to 
Aegypt and Arabia, is called Coele-Syria; but the 
country marked off by the Libanus arid the Antih- 
banus is called by that name in a special sense. Of 
the remainder ^ the seaboard from Orthosia to 
Pelusium is called Phoenicia, which is a narrow 



Kol dXiT€vrj<;, r) S* virep raurr;? fietro^aia fiexpi' 
TOiV Apd^wv T) fjiera^v Td^r)<; koI 'AvTiXt^dvov 
^lovBaca Xeyerai. 

22. 'EttgI ovv rrjv IBl(o<; \eyo/Ji6vr)v ILoiXrjv 
^vpiav iireXrjXvdaiJiev, iirl rrjv ^ocvlktjv fierifiev' 
ravTr]^ he rd fiev dwo ^OpOcoala^ M'^XP'' ^VP^'^ov 
Xoyov TeTV')(7)K6' jxerd he l^r^pvrov iart XcSodv 
ocTOV iv TerpaKoaloL^;^ (rraBioi^;' fiera^v he 6 
Tap^vpa^; 7rorafjLb<; koI to tov ^A(rK\r}7nov d\ao<i 
Kal AeovTcov 7r6Xi<;. /nerd Be "^ihova fieyicrTrj 
Tcop ^oiviKwv Kal dp')(^aL0TdT7] Tupo<; earlv, r) ^ 
ivdfxCXXo^ avrfj /card re fieyeOo^i Kal /card rr)v 
iin^dveLav Kal rrjv dp')(^aL6Tr]ra €k ttoXXwv /jlvOcov 
TrapaSeSofMevrjv.^ ol pev ovv ironjral rrjv Xthova 
reOpvXrJKaai pbdXXov ('Oprjpo^; Be ovSe pipvrjraL 
T^9 Tvpov), al 5' 669 rrjv Ai,0vrjv Kal rrjv 'l^ijpiav 
aTTOiKiai P'ixpi' Kal e^w ^rrjXcov rrjv Tvpov irXeov 
€^vpvov(Ti.^ dp^orepai 8' ovv evBo^oi Kal Xap^ir- 
pal Kal irdXai Kal vvv' oirorepav 5' dv Tf9 etiTOL 
p.r]Tp67roXtv OoiVLKwv, ept<; iv dp^cfiOTepai^ eaTiv. 
T) p,€v ovv %cBq)v eirl ev^vel XipLevi rrj^ rjiTeipov rrjv 
iBpvaLv 6X€l" 

23. Tvpo<; S* earlv oXr] vrjao^ (Tj(eB6v ri avvM- 
KKTpevrj TTapairXr^aLw^, oiGirep rj " Apa8o<;,a'vvrJ7rTac 

C 757 Be ^(WyLtart 7r/oo9 rrjv rjiretpov, o KarecTKevaae 
TToXiopKcov ^ AXe^avBpo<;' Bvo B' e^et Xip,eva<;, top 

^ TfTpaKoalois {v') clearly seems to be an error for SiaKOffiois 

2 ^ is omitted by Corais and Meineke. 

' irapaS€^ofx€VT]v, Corais, for vapadedofievr] ; so the Ijater 

* IxaWov, after ^v/uvoGcn, is omitted by Exz, Corais, and 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 21-23 

country and lies flat along the sea, whereas the 
interior above Phoenicia^ as far as the Arabians, 
between Gaza and Antilibanus, is called Judaea. 

22. Since, then, I have traversed Coele-Syria in 
the special sense of that name, I shall pass on to 
Phoenicia. Of this country, I have already described 
the parts extending from Orthosia to Berytus ; and 
after Berytus one comes to Sidon, at a distance of 
about four hundred ^ stadia ; but between the two 
places are the Tamyras River and the grove of 
Asclepius and a city of Lepnes-^ After Sidon one 
comes to Tyre, the largest and oldest city of the 
Phoenicians, which rivals Sidon, not only in size, 
but also in its fame and antiquity, as handed down 
to us in numerous myths. Now although the poets 
have referred more repeatedly to Sidon than to 
Tyre (Homer does not even mention Tyre), yet the 
colonies sent into Libya and Iberia,^ as far even as 
outside the Pillars, hymn rather the praises of Tyre. 
At any rate, both cities have been famous and 
illustrious, both in early times and at the present 
time ; and no matter which of the two one might 
call the metropolis of the Phoenicians, there is a 
dispute in both cities. Now* Sidon is situated on 
the mainland near a harbour that is by nature a 
good one. 

23. But Tyre is wholly an island, being built up 
nearly in the same way as Aradus ; and it is con- 
nected with the mainland by a mole, which was 
constructed by Alexander when he was besieging 
it ; and it has two harbours, one that can be closed 

1 Apparently an error for " two hundred." 

2 i.e, of " Lions." Cf. the " Leontopolis " in Aegypt 
(17. 1. 19), where the inhabitants worshipped a lion (17. 1. 4). 

^ e.g. Carthage and Gadeira. 



fjb€V K\€iar6v, Tov 8' aveifxevov, ov AlyvirTiov 
KoXovcTiv. ivravOa Be (f>a(n TroXvariyov^; ra? 
OLKia^ coare koI tcov iv 'Fcofirj fiaXXov' Bio 
Kol a€ia/iiov<; y€VOfjLevov<; ^ aTToknTelv /jLiKpov 
TOV apBr]v dcpavLcrai Tr}V ttoXlv. rjTV')(ri(Te 
he KoX vif ^AXe^dvBpov TToXiopKia Xrjcpdelora' 
dWd TOiv TOiovT(ov avfjL(f)op(bp KarecTir) Kp^lrrayv 
Kat dviXa^ev avrrjv ry Te vavTiXia, KaO^ rjv 
OLTTavTcov TCOV del KpeiTTOv^ elal Kotvfj ^0LviKe<;, 
Kal TOt? TTOp^v peloid' TToXv yap e^rjTaaTai iraawv 
r) Tvpia KaXXiaTTi irop^vpa' Kal r) Orjpa TrXr^alov 
Kal TaXXa eviropa tcl irpo^ ^a(^r]v eTrcTrjBeLa' Kal 
SvffBidyayyov fiev iTOiel ttjv itoXlv rj TroXvTrXrjOia 
TCOV Pa(^eLcov, irXovaiav Be Bid Trjv TOiavTTjv 
dvBpeiav. ov-^ viro tcov ^aaiXecov 8' eKpcOrjaav 
avTovofjLOL fjbovov, dTCXd Kal vtto tcov 'Vcofxaicov 
/jLiKpd dvaXco(TavTe<;, ffe^accoadvTcov ttjv eKelvcov 
yvcofirjv. TifiaTai Be KaO^ VTrep/SoXrjv ^HpaKXrj<; 
vir avTcbv. Trj<; Be irepl ra? vavaToXla^^ Bvvd- 
/jL€co<; to ttXtjOo^; Kal to iJLeyedo<^ tcov diroiKlBcov 
iaTl iToXecov TeKfnjpiov ovtoi fiev ovv toiovtoi. 

24. XtBovcoc Be iroXvTe'xyoi tiv€<; irapaBeBovTai 
Kal KaXXiTeXvoL, KaOdirep Kal 6 7roLr)Tr}<; BrjXol' 
7r/)09 Be Kal (fycXocrocpot, Trepi Te daTpovopuiav Kal 
dpiO/xrjTiKTJVy diro t?}? XoyiaTtKr]<; cip^d/jievoL Kal 
Trj<; vvKTiirXoia^' ifiiropiKov yap Kal vavKXrjpiKov 
eKaTCpov KaOdirep Kal tcov AlyvTTTLcov evpejxa 

^ moxz read ffeia/xoov y(:uofxevccv. 

2 vavffToXias, the editors, for vavtrroXoylas. 

1 See 6. 3. 7. 

2 The Phoenician Melcharth. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 23-24 

and the other, called " Aegyptian ** harbour, open. 
The houses here, it is said, have many stories, even 
more than the houses at Rome,^ and on this account, 
when an earthquake took place, it lacked but little 
of utterly wiping out the city. The city was also 
unfortunate when it was taken by siege by Alex- 
ander ; but it overcame such misfortunes and restored 
itself both by means of the seamanship of its people, 
in which the Phoenicians in general have been 
superior to all peoples of all times, and by means of 
their dye-houses for purple; for the Tyrian purple 
has proved itself by far the most beautiful of all ; 
and the shell-fish are caught near the coast; and 
the other things requisite for dyeing are easily got ; 
and although the great number of dye-works makes 
the city unpleasant to live in, yet it makes the city 
rich through the superior skill of its inhabitants. 
The Tyrians were adjudged autonomous, not only 
by the kings, but also, at small expense to them, by 
the Romans, when the Romans confirmed the decree 
of the kings. Heracles ^ is paid extravagant honours 
by them. The number and the size of their colonial 
cities is an evidence of their power in maritime 
affairs. Such, then, are the Tyrians. 

24. The Sidonians, according to tradition, are 
skilled in many beautiful arts, as the poet also 
points out ; ^ and besides this they are philosophers 
in the sciences of astronomy and arithmetic, having 
begun their studies with practical calculations and 
with night-sailings ; for each of these branches of 
knowledge concerns the merchant and the ship- 
owner; as, for example, geometry was invented, it 

• "Since the Sidonians, skilled in cunning handiwork had 
wrought it (the silver mixing bowl) well " (Iliad 23. 743). 



y€co/jL€Tpiav (fyaalv diro rrj<; ')(^copo/ii€rp[a<;, fjv 6 
NetX-o? uTrepyd^eTai, av<y)(^ecop tol*? 6pov<; Kara 
TCL^ dva^d(T6i<;. tovto fiev ovv irap AlyvTrrlcov 
TjKeLV eh Tou? "RWr]va<i TreTTiarevKaaiv, darpo- 
vop,iav Be koI dpt,6 /JLr)Ti/cr]v irapd f^oLVLKWv vvvl 
he 7rdar]<i koL ri}? dWr}<; (f)t\oao(f)La<; eviropiav 
TToXv irXeiarriv Xa^elv eariv ck tovtwv tmv 
TToXecoV el Be Bei TloaeiBoyvla) TncTTevaaL, kol 
TO irepl T(ov drop-wv Boypa TraXaiov eanv dpBpo<; 
XlBovlov Ma))(^ov irpo tojp TpcoiKOJv ')(^p6v(ov 
yeyovoTOf;. rd p,ev ovv ira\aid edaOco' tcad^ 'r]p>d^ 
Be €K ScBovo'i fiev evBo^oL <^L\6ao(f>oL yeyovaci 
l^or]66<i re, o5 avv€(f)i\oao(f)i]crapev rjpel^^ rd 
'ApiaToreXeia, koX AtoBoro'^, dBe\(f>6<; avrov' e/c 
Tvpov Be ^ApTL7raTpo<;, koI p,ifcpov irpo rjpoyv 
^AttoWoovlo^ 6 rov irivaica eK6el<i t(ov dirb Zrjvco' 
vo<i (piXoaocpcop Kol tmv ^l^Xlcov. Bi,e)(^ei Be tt}? 
XlBovo^ 7] Tu/909 ov 7r\eiov<; tcov BiaKoalcov crra- 
C 758 Blgjp' ev Be tm p^era^v iroXi'xyiov, ^OpviOwv iroXc^ 
\eyopev7)' elra 7rpo<; Tvpo) 7roTap,b<; e^lijar pLerd 
Be Tr)v Tvpov rj UaXaLTVpo^ ev Tpcd/covTa <JTa- 

25. FjW t) riroXe/xat? eVrt peydXrj TroXf?, fjv 
"Aktjv oovopa^ov irpoTepov y €)(pa)VTO oppbrjTrjpcq) 
Trpo? TTjv AtyvTrrov ol Tlepaai. pbera^v Be r?}? 
"Ak7j<; koX Tvpov divcuBr]^ alyLd\6<i ecmv 6'(f)ep(ov 
Tr)v vaXcTtv dp^piov. evjavOa pev ovv (fyaai prj 
')(eLa6aLt KopLaOelcrav eh XtBova Be rrjv \(ov€Lav 
BexGa-dar Ttve<; Be koI rot? ^lBovlol<^ elvai rrjv 

1 Cf. 17. 1. 3. 

2 Whether Strabo and Boethus studied together under 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 24-25 

is said, from the measurement of lands which is 
made necessary by the Nile when it confounds the 
boundaries at the time of its overflows.^ This 
science, then, is believed to have come to the Greeks 
from the Aegyptians; astronomy and arithmetic 
from the Phoenicians ; and at present by far the 
greatest store of knowledge in every other branch of 
philosophy is to be had from these cities. And if 
one must believe Poseidonius, the ancient dogma 
about atoms originated with Mochus, a Sidonian, 
born before the Trojan times. However, let us 
dismiss things ancient. In my time there have been 
famous philosophers from Sidon; Boethus, with 
whom I studied the Aristotelian philosophy ,2 and 
his brother Diodotus ; and from Tyre, Antipater, 
and, a little before my time, Apollonius, who pub- 
lished a tabulated account of the philosophers of 
the school of Zeno and of their books. Tyre is 
distant from Sidon not more than two hundred 
stadia; and between them lies a town called City 
of Ornithes ; ^ and then one comes to a river which 
empties near Tyre, and after Tyre, to Palae-Tyre,* 
at a distance of thirty stadia. 

25. Then one comes to Ptolemais, a large city, 
in earlier times named Ace; this city was used by 
the Persians as a base of operations against Aegypt. 
Between Ace and Tyre is a sandy beach, which 
produces the sand used in making glass. Now the 
sand, it is said, is not fused here, but is carried to 
Sidon and there melted and cast. Some say that 
the Sidonians, among others, have the glass-sand 

Andronicus of Rhodes (see 14. 2. 13), or under Xenarchua of 
Seleuceia in Cilicia (see 14. 5. 4), or both, is uncertain. 
3 Omithopolis, "City of Birds." * Old Tyre. 



vaXiTLV yjrd/jL/JLOV iTTirrjBeLav et? ')(ycnv, ol he iraaav 
TTapTa')(ov x^laOai^ (paaiv. rjKovaa 8' iv ry 
^ AXe^avhpeia irapa tcov vaXovpycov, elvai riva 
Koi Kar AtyvTTTOV vaXlriv yrjv, ^9 X^P^^^ ^^X 
olov re Ta9 iroXv^poov^; koI 7ro\vTe\eL<; Kara- 
aK€va<; aTroreXeadrjvai, KaOdirep koL aWoi,^ 
dWwv fiLyfidrcov Selv' koI iv 'Poo/ir) Be ttoWo, 
irapevpidKeaOai ^aai, koI 7rpo<; t<X9 %/3o«9 fcai 
7r/0O9 Tr)v pa(TTa)PT]v t7)9 KaTa(TKevrj<^, KaOdirep eirl 
Tcov KpvaTaWo(j)avcov' oirov <y€ koX Tpv^Xiov 
'X^aXxov TTplaaOaL koX eKircofidTLov eariv, 

2€. ^laropelrai Se irapdSo^ov 7rdOo<; tmv irdvv 
<jiravi(ov, Kara top alyiaXov tovtov top fMcra^v 
TTJf} T6 Tvpov Kol T?}9 YiToXefiatho^i. Ka6' OP yap 
Kaipop ol TlTo\€/jLa€L<;, pid^VP avpdyjravT€<; 7rpb<; 
XapirrjSopa top aTparijyop, eXeL(f)dr}(Tap ^ iv tw 
TOTTft) rovTO), Tpo7rr]<; yepopuepr]^ XapL7rpa<i, iireKXy- 
aep ifc Tov ireXdyov; KvpLa to 1/9 (j)evyopTa^ opuoiov 
wXrjpLpLvpLSi,, KOL Toy? pL€P 6t9 TO ireXayo<i dcfyrjp- 
iraae koX Bi,e(j>deip€P, ol B' ip Tot9 kolXol^; roTTOif; 
epLCivav veKpor BiaBe^apeprj Be fj d/jL7r(OTi<; irdXiv 
dveKdXvy\re koX eBei^e rd acopbara tojv Keipevwv 
dvapX^ ip PCKpoU 1^6 vaL. roiavTa Be /cat irepl 
TO Yidaiop avpL^aiPei to irpb^ AlyvTTTq), airaapLM 
TLVi o^el KOL dirXu) ^ iTepi'irnTTOvcrr)^; tt)^ 7% koX 
eU exdTcpov pL€Ta0aXXopLepr]<i dira^' coaTe to p,ev 
pLCTecopcaOev avTrj^i puepof; dirayayelp * Tr]p OdXaT- 

1 Xe'iadai F, Kivttadai other MSS. 

2 i\^<p9ri(rav F, omitted by other MSS. (cp. Athenaeus 8. 
2, p. 333). 

^ For aTX(f Corais reads iraKixw (vibration). 
* avayayelv, Jones, following suggestion of Capps, for 
^7ro7a7«»' F, ivdyeiv other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 25-26 

that is adaptjed to fusing, though others say that 
any sand anywhere can be fused. I heard at Alex- 
andria from the glass-workers that there was in 
Aegypt a kind of vitreous earth without which 
many-coloured and costly designs could not be 
executed, just as elsewhere different countries 
require different mixtures; and at Rome, also, it 
is said that many discoveries are made both for 
producing the colours and for facihty ki manu- 
facture, as, for example, in the case of glass-ware, 
where one can buy a glass beaker or drinking-cup 
for a copper. 

26. A marvellous occurrence of a very rare kind 
is reported as having taken place on this shore 
between Tyre and Ptolemais : at the time when 
the Ptolemaeans, after joining battle with Sarpedon 
the general, were left in this place, after a brilliant 
rout had taken place, a wave from the Sea, like a 
flood-tide, submerged the fugitives ; ^ and some were 
carried off into the sea and destroyed, whereas 
others were left dead in the hollow places; and 
then, succeeding this wave, the ebb uncovered the 
shore again and disclosed the bodies of men lying 
promiscuously among dead fish. Like occurrences 
take place in the neighbourhood of the Mt. Casius 
situated near Aegypt, where the land undergoes a 
single quick convulsion, and makes a sudden 
change to a higher or lower level, the result being 
that, whereas the elevated part repels the sea and 

1 The account of Athenaeus (8. 2, p. 333), quoted from 
Poseidonius, is dearer : the opposing generals were Tryphon 
the Apameian (see 16. 2. 10) and Sarpedon the general of 
Demetrius ; it was Tryphon who won the fight and his soldiers 
who were submerged. 



Tav, TO Be (Tvvi^rjaav ^ he^aaOai, rpaTrofievy^; Be 
rrjv ap')(aiav ttolXlv eBpav airoXa^elv rov tottov. 
Tore fiev ovv Koi e^aWd^ed)^ nvo^ jevofievr)^, 
Tore 8' ov' Td)(^a kal TreptoBoLf; tlctIv ivBeBep-evcov 
Tcov TOiovToyp iraOodv dBrjXoLfi rjfilv, KaOdirep tovto 
Kal eirl tcov kutcl top NecXov dvafidaecop XiyeTai 
Bia(l>6p(i)v ycvopevcov, dBrjXov Be Tr)V Td^iv e)(^ov(7(ov, 
'27. Mera Be ttju "Aktjv XTpuTcova wupyo^;, 
7rp6<rop/jLOv e')((ov. fieTa^v Be 6 re Kdp/jLrjXo^; to 
6po<i Kal 'JToXi')(yici)V ovo/juaTa, irXeov 8' ovBev, 
%vKa/jLivci)v TToXt?, JiovKoXcov Kal KpoKoBeuXcov 
iroXif; Kal dXXa ToiavTa' elTa Bpu/jLo<; peya<; rt?. 
C 759 28. Elra ^loirr],^ KaO' f)v rj diro Trj<i AlyvTTTov 
nrapaXia a7]peL(t)B6)^ iirl ttjv dpKTov Kdp^iTTeTai, 
TTpoTepov eirl ttjv eco TCTapevr}. evTavda Be 
fivdevoval Tive^; Tr)v *AvBpop.eBav eKTeOrjvat tw 
^ K7iT€L' ev vyjrei yap ecTTiv 'iKavw^ to %ft)/)toj', <W(7t* 
d<f>opaa6ai cftaatp dii avTOV to, 'lepoaoXvfiay ttjv 
TCOV ^lovBaicov jjLrjTpoiroXiV' kol Br) Kal iiriveicd 
TOVTCt) Ke^privTaL KaTa/3dvT€<; P'e)(pL OaXdTTrj'i oi 
^lovBaloi' TO, S* eiriveia twv XrjaTMv XrjaTifjpLa 
BrfXavoTi ecTTi. tovtcov Be Kal 6 Kdpfj,rjXof; xjirrjp^e 
Kal 6 BpvfjLOf;' Kal Br) Kal €vdvBpr)aev ovTO<i 6 
TOTTO?, coaT^ €K T?)? 7rXr)aiov KCt)/jLr)<; ^lap^veia^ Kal 
Ta>v KaTOiKLcov TWV kvkXco TeTTapa<i p.vpidBa<i 

^ (ruvtC^o-ov, Xylander, for a-wi^ricnv. 
2 'l6irrj Emoz, 'l6jnr-n other MSS. 

^ For an extended discussion of this and similar problems, 
see 1. 3-4, 10. 13. 

2 This place was magnificently built up by Herod and 
named Caesarea in honour of Augustus. 

3 "Mulberry City." 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 26-28 

the sunken part receives it, yet, the land makes a 
reverse change and the site resumes its old position 
again, a complete interchange of levels sometimes 
having taken place and sometimes not.^ Perhaps 
such disturbances are subject to periodic principles 
unknown to us, as is also said to be the case 
of the overflows of the Nile, which prove to be 
variant but follow some unknown order. 

27. After Ace one comes to the Tower of Strato,^ 
which has a landing-place for vessels. Between the 
two places is Mt. Carmel, as also towns of which 
nothing more than the names remain — I mean 
Sycaminopolis,^ Bucolopolis,* Crocodeilopolis,^ and 
others like them. And then one comes to a large 

28. Then one comes to lope,' where the seaboard 
from Aegypt, though at first stretching towards the 
east, makes a significant bend towards the nortli. 
Here it was, according to certain writers of myths, 
that Andromeda was exposed to the sea-monster; 
for the place is situated at a rather high elevation 
— so high, it is said, that Jerusalem, the metropolis 
of the Judaeans, is visible from it ; and indeed the 
Judaeans have used this place as a seaport when 
they have gone down as far as the sea ; but the sea- 
ports of robbers are obviously only robbers' dens.^ 
To these people belonged, not only Carmel, but 
also the forest ; and indeed this place was so well 
supplied with men that it could muster forty thousand 
men from the neighbouring village lamneia and 

4 "Herdsman City." ^ "Crocodile City." 

* Josephus (14. 13. 3) speaks of a place near Mt. Carmel as 
ApvfxoL (" Forests "). 

' Now Jaffa. « See § 37 following. 




oirXi^eaOai. ela\ 8' evrevdev eU to Kdaiov to 
7r/)09 Ut^Xovato) fjLiKpw irXelovs fj 'ylXioi ardSiot, 
TptaKoaioc 8' aXXoL tt/jo? avrb to HrjXovaiov. 

29. ^EiV Se T& jxeTa^v koI r) FaBapL<; icTLV, 
^ ,, ffv Kol avrrjv i^LBidaavTO at 'lovSalor elr 'Afa)T09 
f Kul ^AaKaXoav. diro he ^lajjbveia^; eh 'A^cotov koX 

^AaKaXcoj^d eleriv baov BiaKoaiOi ardBLoi. Kpofi- 
[xiHidv T d<ya66<i ^ iaTiP t) X^P^ "^^^ ^AaKoXcovt- 
Tcov, iroXia-fia Be fiLKpov. evrevOev r)v ^Avtloxo^ 
<pLX6ao(f)0<i, fJLLKpov TTpo Tj/jLoov yeyovco';. eV Be 
Twv TaBdpMV ^iX6Brj/ju6<; Te 6 ^ETTiKOvpeio^;^ fcal 
MeXeaypo^ koI MevLinro'; 6 airovBoyeXoLO^i fcal 
SeoBcopo^ 6 Kad' rj/jidf; p^Tcop. 

30. EW 6 Tbiiv Ta^aiwv Xifjur^v irXTjaioi^' 
virepKeiTai Be xal rj TroXi? eV eiTTa crraStot?, 
eVSofo9 TTore yevofjuepyj, KaTeaTraajbLevt) B' vtto 
^ AXe^dvBpov KaX fjuevovcra eprj/jLOff. evTevdev 5' 
viTepl3acrt<i Xeyerac %tXtft)i^ BiaKoaioiv e^rjKOVTa 
aTaBixov eU AtXav ^ ttoXlp iirl Ta> piv^o) tov 
Apa/Biov koXttov Kei/iievrjp' Bitto^; B^ eaTiv' 6 /xev 
e'X^wv eh to ^ 7rpo<; tPj ^ Apa^ia koL ttj Td^rj 
p,€po^y ov AlXavLTTjv irpoaayopevovaiv diro t/}? ev 
avT(p TToXeo)?, o 8* eh to Trpo<; AlyvirTW KaTCL Tyv 
'Hpd)G)v TToXiv, eh ov €K YirjXovaiov T) virepOecTL^s 
eTTiTO/iKOTepa' Bi eprjpcvv Be koX dfjLpLa)Ba)P ^w/otcoz^ 
al vTrep^daet^ iirl KajJLrjXoiP' ttoXv Be Koi to tcop 
kpireTOiP ep avTah ttX7)6o<^. 

31. MfcTa Be Vd^ap 'Pa^la, ep rj fid^V a-vpe^r] 

^ Kpofipivdp, Meineke ; Kpofi/.i.v(i)f MSS. ; Kpofifivois t' ayaOi] 
m-oz, Tzschucke and Corais. 

2 After 'EiriKoupfios the MSS. add yeyovds. 

^ At\av, Meineke emends to A'(\ava. 

* & fxev Hx"*^ ^'s r6, Kramer, for 6 fiey els l^x"^ '^^• 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 29-31 

the settlements all round. Thence to Mt. Casius 
near Pelusium the distance is a little more than one 
thousand stadia ; and, three hundred stadia farther, 
one comes to Pelusium itself. 

29. But in the interval one comes to Gadaris, 
which the Judaeans appropriated to themselves ; 
and then to Azotus and Ascalon. The distance 
from lamneia to Azotus and Ascalon is about two 
hundred stadia. The country of the Ascalonitae 
is a good onion-market, though the town is small. 
Antiochus the philosopher, who was born a little 
before hiy time, was a native of this place. Philo- 
demus, the Epicurean, and Meleager and Menippus, 
the satirist, and Theodorus, the rhetorician of my 
own time, were natives of Gadaris. 

30. Then, near Ascalon, one comes to the harbour 
of the Gazaeans. The city of the Gazaeans is situ- 
ated inland at a distance of seven stadia ; it became 
famous at one time, but was rased to the ground 
by Alexander and remains uninhabited. Thence 
there is said to be an overland passage of one thousand 
two hundred and sixty stadia to Aela, a city situated 
near the head of the Arabian Gulf. This head 
consists of two recesses : one extending into the 
region near Arabia and Gaza, which is called Aelan- 
ites, after the city situated on it, and the other, 
extending to the region near Aegypt in the neigh- 
bourhood of the City of Heroes,^ to which the over- 
land passage from Pelusium is shorter; and the 
overland journeys are made on camels through 
desert and sandy places; and on these journeys 
there are also many reptiles to be seen. 

31. After Gaza one comes to Rhaphia, where a 

1 Heroonpolis. 



TlToXe/xava) re rw rerdpra) koL *A^'Tio%ft) tw 
MeyaXft). elra ^VivoKo\ovpa,^ diro rwv elcw- 
Ki,(T/ji6V(i)v eK€i TO TToXaibv dvd pwTTcov yKpcorrj- 
ptaa fievwv ^ ra^ plva<^ ovrco KaXovfiivT]' rwv yap 
A10i6tt(ov t*?, eireXOuyv cttI ttjv Acjutttov, clvtI 
rov dvaipelv ^ tou? KaKoupyov<; dirorejjivwv Ta<; 
plva<^ evravOa KaroiKi^ev, (w? ovk av en toX- 
/jLijaovra^ /caKovpyelv Bia rrjv alcr'xvvrjv rr)? o'-v/rew?. 

32. Kal avTT) fiev ovv rj diro Faf/;? Xvirpa 
irdaa koI dfjb/jL(*)Brj<i' ert Be /xdWov roiavri] rj 

C 760 e'c^ef ^9 vTrepKei/JLevrj,^ e^ovaa rrjv Xtp/ScoviBa 
\ifivr)v TTapdWijiXov ttco^;^ rjj OaXdrry /niKpdv 
BloBov diroXeiiTovaav /jLera^v iJ^e-^pi rov 'EiKp^y- 
fjuaro^i KaXovfievov, /xrJKO^ oaov SiaKoalcov ara- 
Bl(ov, 7rXdro<; Be to /meyiarov iTevrrjKOvra' ro B 
"E/<:p?77/ia (TvyKeywGrai. elra avvexh'^ dXXr} 
rotavrt] ^ i) eirl ro Kdcriov, KuKeWev eVl to 

33. "EcTTi Be ro K.d(7iov OiV(oBr)<; rc^ X6(f)0<i 
dKpcorrjpcd^cov avvBpo<;, ottov ro YIofnrrjLov rov 
Mdyvov aojjjia Kelrat kol Ato? eariv lepov l^aaioV 
irXtjaiov Be Kal eacpdyr] 6 M-dyvo<i, BoXo(l)ovr)Oel<; 
VTTO ro)V Alyvirriwv. eW r/ eirl UijXovaiov 6B6<;, 
ev jj rd Yep pa Kal 6 ^a^piov Xey6fjievo<i X^P^S 
Kal rd TTpb^ rw TlrfKovaifp ^dpaOpa, d rroiel 
TrapeKX^opievof; 6 NetXo?, (fivaei kolXcov Kal eXwBcov 

1 '?ivoK6\ovpa the spelling of the MSS. except E, which 
ha.s 'PivoKSpovpa (cp. readings in 16. 1. 12 and 16. 4. 24). 

^ The words iKet . . . rjicpwrrjpiaarufi^wv are omitted in EF. 

^ avaipelv moz, 6vfKQf7v Xylander, KanXQeiv Corais ; -ilv, 
with the other letters erased, other MSS. 

* Toiovr7]v T] icpe^rjs vrrepKei/xivr], the editors, for roiavTTjv 
i<pe^r\s vn€pK€ifi€vr)v. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 31-33 

battle was fought between Ptolemaeus the Fourth 
and Antiochus the Great. Then to Rhinocolura,^ 
so called from the people with mutilated noses that 
had been settled there in early times ; for some 
Aethiopian invaded Aegypt and, instead of killing 
the wrongdoers, cut off their noses and settled them 
at that place, assuming that on account of their 
disgraceful faces they would no longer dare do 
people wrong. 

32. Now the whole of this country from Gaza is 
barren and sandy, but still more so is the country 
that lies next above it, which contains Lake Sir- 
bonis,^ a lake which Ues approximately parallel to 
the sea and, in the interval, leaves a short passage 
as far as the Ecregma,^ as it is called; the lake is 
about two hundred stadia in length and its maximum 
breadth is about sixty stadia ; but the Ecregma has 
become filled up with earth. Then follows another 
continuous tract of this kind as far as Casius ; and 
then one comes to Pelusium. 

33. Casius is a sandy hill without water and forms 
a promontory ; the body of Pompey the Great is 
buried there ; and on it is a temple of Zeus Casius. 
Near this place Pompey the Great was slain, being 
treacherously murdered by the Aegyptians. Then 
comes the road to Pelusium, on which lie Gerrha 
and the Palisade of Chabrias, as it is called, and the 
pits near Pelusium. These pits are formed by side- 
flows from the Nile, the region being by nature 

1 " Docked-nose-ville." 2 ge© 1. 3. 4 and 17. 1. 35. 

^ i.e. " Outbreak " to the sea. 

^ rus, Corais, for irpSs. 

* Toia'ni], Letronne, for Totraurrjr. 



OVTCOV 7(OV TOTTCOV. TOiaVTT) fieV 7) ^OIVIKT). ^Tjal 8 

^ApT€/jLiScopo<; et9 to UrjXova-iov eK fxev ^OpOa)(Tia<; 
elvat, araSiovq r picrxi^^iov^ e^aKoo-iov^ irevrrJKovTa 
KaraKoXTTL^ovrr €K Be MeXaivcov ?) MeXavicov 
T?}? KtXi/cia<; rcov tt/oo? KeXivBepiv iwl jiev ra 
fjLeOopia T7]^ Kt,XtKia<i fcal Xvpua^ ^tXtof? xal 
ivvaKoaiovi' evTevdev B' eVl rov ^Opovrrjv irev- 
TaKoaiov^ etfcocnV elr eVt ^Opdwaiav x^Xiov; 
cKarov rpidfcovTa. 

34. T?}? 8' 'IouSata9 tcl fxev kdirepLa aKpa tcl 
TTpo^ Tft) Kacrtft) Karexovaiv 'IBov/jualoL re xal rj 
XC/JLVT]. la^afiaTaloL B' elalv ol ^IBov/xaloi,' Kara 
(TTaaiv 8* eKTTeaovTe^ eKsWev Trpoa-exfoprjcrav rotf; 
*lovBaLOi<; KoX tS)V vo/JLificov tojv avrcov eKeivoi^ 
€KOtV(ovr}crav tt/OO? daXdrrrj Be rj Xipffcovh ra 
TToXXa Karex^i^ fcal rj avvexh^ H'^XP^ 'lepoao- 
Xv/jLcov fcal yap ravra Trpo? OaXdrrr} icTTiv aTTo 
yap rov iiTLveiov tt)? 'loTr'^?^ eiprjrat on ia-rlv 
ev 6\jreL. ravra fiev irpoaapKria' ra iroXXa 8* a)9 
eicaard elcnv vrro (f>vXayv olKovjieva fii/crcov eK re 
Alyvirrlojv eOvoiV Kal ^Apa^iwv Ka\ ^oivikwv 
roLovroi yap ol rr}v TaXcXatav €')(pvre<^ Kal rov 
^lepLKOvvra Kal rrjv ^LXaBeX(j)iav Kal Xafidpetav, 
rjv *H.pd)Br)<; %effa<Trr}v eTrcovofiaaev. ourco S' 
ovrcop fiiydBcoVi t) k par ova a fjudXiara (f^^p^rj r&v 
irepl TO lepov to ev rol<; 'lepocroXv/jLOi,<; marevofie- 
v(ov Alyvirriov^ diro^aivei rov^; Trpoyovov; rwv 
vvv ^lovBaicov Xeyop,evcov. 

1 KOTexe*, Casaubon, for KaTe7xe. ' 'l6irwrjs CF. 

* See 14. 5. 3 and footnote. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 33-34 

hollow and marshy. Such is Phoenicia. Artemi- 
dorus says that the distance to Pelusium from 
Orthosia is three thousand six hundred and fifty 
stadia, including the sinuosities of the gulfs ; and 
from Melaenae, or Melaniae, in Cilicia, near Celen- 
deris, to the comimon boundaries of Cilicia and 
Syria, one thousand nine hundred; and thence to 
the Orontes River, five hundred and twenty; and 
then to Orthosia one thousand one hundred and 

34. As for Judaea, its western extremities towards 
Casius are occupied by the Idumaeans and by the 
lake. The Idumaeans are Nabataeans,^ but owing to 
a sedition they were banished from there, ^ joined 
the Judaeans, and shared in the same customs with 
them. The greater part of the region near the sea 
is occupied by Lake Sirbonis and by the country 
continuous with the lake as far as Jerusalem; for 
this city is also near the sea ; for, as I have already 
said,* it is visible from the seaport of lope. This 
region lies towards the north ; and it is inhabited 
in general, as is each place in particular, by mixed 
stocks of people from Aegyptian and Arabian and 
Phoenician tribes ; for such are those who occupy 
GaUlee and Hiericus ^ and Philadelphia and Samaria, 
which last Herod surnamed Sebaste.^ But though 
the inhabitants are mixed up thus, the most prevalent 
of the accredited reports in regard to the temple at 
Jerusalem represents the ancestors of the present 
Judaeans, as they are called, as Aegyptians. 

An Arabian people (see 16. 4. 21). 

Arabia Petraea (see 16. 4. 21). 

16. 2. 28. » Jericho. 

i.e. in Latin, "Augusta," m honour of Augustus Caesar. 



35. Mg)o-^9 yap Ti<; tmv Alyvirrifov lepicov, 
e^f^yv TL /j,€po<; Tr]<; Karco ^ KaXov/ubevrjf; ')(^copa(;, 
aTrrjpev eKelae ivOevBe, Sucr')(^epdva<; ra KaOearcorat 
Kol GVve^Tjpav avrCo iroXkol TijJL'jyvTe^ to Oelov. 
e(j)ri yap eKelvo<i kol iBlBaafceVy co? ovk 6p6(o<; 
(f)povoL6v 01 AlyifTTTiOL Or)pLot<; eiKa^ovje'^ Kal 
ffoaK7]p,a(7L TO Oelov, ouS' ol AtySfe?* ovk ev he 

C 761 ovB^ ol ''EXX7;i/e9, av6p(oiTOix6p(j>ov<^ TvirovvTev 
eirj yap ev tovto fiovov Oeo'^ to Trepcexov r)/LLd<i 
airavTa<; Kal yrjv Kal OdXaTTav, b KaXov/juev 
ovpavov Kal Koafiov Kal ttjv tmv ovtcov (pvaiv. 
TOVTOV St) Tt9 av eiKova irXaTTeiv Oapprjaece vovv 
€')((ov ofjboiav TLvl ^ TO)v Trap rjfiiv ; oKs! eav 
Beiv^ TTCidav ^oavo7roiLav,Te/jLevo<; B' '^ d(^opi(TavTa(; 
Kal arjKov d^iokoyov Ti/iidv eBov^ ^ %ft)pt«?* iyKOL- 
fjbdaOaL Be Kal avTov<; virep eavTOiv Kal virep tojv 
aX\(ov dWov<; tou? evoveipov^' Kal irpoaBoKav 
Belv dyaOov irapd tov deov Kal Bcjpov del tl Kal 
arj/jueiov tov^; a(0(f)p6pQ)<; t,o)VTa<; Kal fieTa BiKaio- 
avvrjf;, tol/? 8' dWovi fjirj irpoaBoKav. 

36. 'E/ceiz^o? /juev ovv TOiavTa Xeycov eireiaev 
€vyv(o/jbova<i dvBpa<; ovk 6\lyou<; Kal diriq-^ayev 
'l€poGo\vfjLOi<; KTidfia. KaTeax^ Be paBlco^, ovk 
eiri^dovov ov to ')(^[opiov, ovB' virep ov dv Tt? 
ecFTTovBaa iJLev(o<; fxax^cTaiTO' eaTi yap TrerpwSe?, 

^ Karco, Corais inserts. ^ tiv'i, Casaubon, for Tiva. 

^ lelv, Corais, for Se?. * S', Corais inserts. 

^ eSovs h, atSoPs FD, eUovs other MSS. 

1 Strabo evidently has in mind, among other forms of 
worship, the bull-worship of the Aegyptians. The bull was 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 35-36 

35. Moses, namely, was one of the Aegyptian 
priests, and held a part of Lower Aegypt, as it is 
called, but he went away from there to Judaea, 
since he was displeased with the state of affairs 
there, and was accompanied by many people who 
worshipped the Divine Being. For he said, and 
taught, that the Aegyptians were mistaken in repre- 
senting the Divine Being by the images of beasts and 
cattle ,1 as were also the Libyans ; and that the 
Greeks were also wrong in modelling gods in human 
form; for, according to him, God is this one thing 
alone that encompasses us all and encompasses land 
and sea — the thing which we call heaven, or universe, 
or the nature of all that exists. What man, then, if he 
has sense, could be bold enough to fabricate an 
image of God resembling any creature amongst 
us ? Nay, people should leave off all image-carving, 
and, setting apart a sacred precinct and a worthy 
sanctuary, should worship God without an image ; and 
people who have good dreams should sleep in the 
sanctuary, not only themselves on their own behalf, 
but also others for the rest of the people ; and those 
who live self-restrained and righteous lives should 
always expect some blessing or gift or sign from 
God, but no other should expect them. 

36. Now Moses, saying things of this kind, per- 
suaded not a few thoughtful men and led them 
away to this place where the settlement of Jerusalem 
now is ; and he easily took possession of the place, 
since it was not a place that would be looked on with 
envy, nor yet one for which anyone would make a 
serious fight; for it is rocky, and, although it itself 

worshipped by them as a symbol of the might and fatherhood 
of God. 



avTO fiev evvSpov, rrjv Sk kvkXw 'y^aypav 6)(^ov 
Xvirpav KoX avvhpov, rrjv B' €vto<; e^rjKovra 
(TTahiwv Kol viroirerpov. ap.a 8' avrl twv ottXwv 
TO, lepa TTpov^dWeTO kol to Oelov, ISpvaiv tovtov 
^rjreiv d^iwv, koI TTapahcixreiv v'nio-')(yovp.evo^ 
TOiovTOV a€paap.ov Kal roiainrjv lepoirodav, 7]ti<; 
0VT6 hairdvai^ ox^VO'et tou? %/9ft>yLteVou9 ovtc 
0€Oxf>opiaL<i ovre dWai<i Trpay/jLareiai^ dro'Troi^;. 
ovTO<; p,ev ovv €vBoKip.7](Ta^ tovtol<; avvearrjaaTO 
^PXV^ ou TTjv TV^ovaav, dirdvTCOV 'jrpoo-'X^odpTjadv- 
Twv pahi(D<; tmv KVKXrp Std W/i^ 6p,i\iav Kal rd 

37. 01 he hiahe^dfxevoL ')(p6vov<; p.ev Tiva<; iu 
TOt? avToU Bie/ii€vov oiKaioTT payovvre^; Kal 6eo- 
aejSeU to? dXrjOSi^ ovre^' eireiT 6if)CG-rap^€Vcov iirl 
TTjv lepcocrvvijv to fxev irpoiTov BeKTiBac/jLovcov, 
eireiTa TvpavviKOJV drOpdynayv, ck puev Trj<; Seai- 
haLfxovia^ al tmv /3p(OfJidT(ov aTrocr^ecret?, Mvirep 
Kal vvv €00^ iaTlv avroi<; aTrex^c^Oai, Kal al 
irepLTopal Kal al cKTopal ^ Kal el Ttva TOiauTa 
evopiaOr], Ik Be TOiv TvpavviBwv ra \r)(TTr}pi.a. 
ol fiev yap dcpiaTdfjuevoL ttjv ')(^d)pav cKaKOVV Kal 
avTTjv Kal TTJV yeiTVLMcrav, ol Be avp^irpdTTOVTe^; 
Tot9 dpxovcTi, KaOi]pTra^ov Ta dWoTpia Kal rr}? 
^vpia^ KaTeaTpecfyovTO Kal Trj<; ^oiviKrj*^ TroWrjv. 
rjv B' op,a><; evirpeireLd tl<; irepl ttjv aKpoTToXiv 
avTOiV, ov^ ct)9 Tvpavvelov ^ ^BeXvTTopievwv, dX)C 
o)? lepov aepbVvvovTwv Kal ae^op^evcov. 

^ iKTo/jLial Fh. 

2 Tvpavvov CT>Fhi ; corrected in margin of DF. 

^ So Tozer interprets. The Greek could mean that " the 
territory inside " the city, " sixty stadia " (in circumference) 
*' is also rocky beneath the surface." 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 36-37 

is well supplied with water, its surrounding territory- 
is barren and waterless, and the part of the territory 
within a radius of sixty stadia is also rocky beneath 
the surface.! At the same time Moses, instead of 
using arms, put forward as defence his sacrifices and 
his Divine Being, being resolved to seek a 
seat of worship for Him ^ and promising to deliver 
to the people a kind of worship and a kind of 
ritual which would not oppress those who adopted 
them either with expenses or with divine obsessions 
or with other absurd troubles. Now Moses enjoyed 
fair repute with these people, and organised no 
ordinary kind of government, since the peoples all 
round, one and all, came over to him, because of his 
dealings with them and of the prospects he held out 
to them. 

37. His successors for some time abided by the 
same course, acting righteously and being truly 
pious toward God ; but afterwards, in the first place, 
superstitious men were appointed to the priest- 
hood, and then tyrannical people ; and from super- 
stition arose abstinence from flesh, from which it is 
their custom to abstain even to-day, and circum- 
cisions and excisions'^ and otiier observances of the 
kind. And from the tyrannies arose the bands of 
robbers ;* for some revolted and harassed the country, 
both their own country and that of their neighbours, 
whereas others, co-operating with the rulers, seized 
the property of others and subdued much of Syria 
and Phoenicia. But still they had respect for their 
acropolis, since they did not loathe it as the seat of 
tyranny, but honoured and revered it as a holy 

" i.e. a city and temple dedicated to His worship. 
» i.e. of females (see 16. 4. 9). * See 16. 2. 2i 



38. Tl€(f>VKe yap ovtco, koI koivov iari, rovro 
Kol TOfc? ' KW7]aL Kol Tot9 ^ap^dpoL^;. ttoXitikoI 
yap 6vT€^ djTO irpocTTdyfiaTO'; koivov ^(oaiv dX- 
Xa)9 yap 01)% olov re rou? 7roWov<; ev tl kuI 
ravTO ^ TTOielv rjpfjLoafjbipo)^ dWi]Xoi<;, oirep rjv to 
iroXueveadaL, Ka\ dWco^ tto)? vefxeuv ^iov koivov, 
TO he irpoarayixa Blttov rj yap irapd Oeoiv rj 
G 762 irdpd dvOpcoTrcov' Kal 01 ye cip^alot to irapd TOiV 
OeSyv eirpea^evov fidWov Kal eae/jLvvvov, Kal Bid 
TOVTO Kal 6 ')(^pT]aT7]pia^6p€vo^ Tfv Tore ttoXxx; koX 
Tpe)(^cov eh fiev AcoScovrjv, ottox; 

€K Bpvo^ v-yjnKO/JLoio Ai09 fiov\r)p eiraKOvarj,^ 

av/jL^ovXa) tm Ail ^pco/jLcvo^, eh Be AeX^ou?, 

TOP CKTsOevTa iralBa /xaaTevcov jjuadelv, 
el firjKeT etrj' 

auT09 3' Trat? 

ecTTei^e tov<; TeKovTa^; eKfiaOetv de\(ov 
7r/)09 Bcjjiia ^oL^ov, 

.Kal 6 MtV&)9 irapd Tot9 Kprjalv 

evveoi)po<; jSaaiXeve Ato9 fieydXov 6apia-T)]<i* 

Bl evvea eTMV, W9 (f)i)(TL YlXaTOdV, dvaffalvcov iirl 
TO dvTpov Tov Afo9 Kal Trap* eKeivov ra irpocr- 
TayfiaTa Xafi^dvcov Kal TrapaKOfiL^cov eh tov<; 
dvOpooTTOv^. ra B' 6p,oia eTToiei Kal AvKovpyo<; 
6 ^7]XcoTr]<; avTOV' irvKva ydp, q)<; eoiKev, aTTO- 
BTjfjLcov eirvvOdveTO irapd T779 Ylv6La<^, a irpoarJKev 
irapayyeXXeiv toI^ AaKeBaLfjLOvloi.<;, 

1 /COT* aifT6, CDFhir, Kark rauT6 nioxz ; emended by Corals. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 38 

38. For this is natural; and it is common to the 
Greeks and the barbarians; for, being members of 
states, they Uve under common mandates ; for other- 
wise it would be impossible for the mass of people in 
any country to do one and the same thing in harmony 
with one another, which is precisely what life in a 
free state means, or in any other way to live a common 
life. And the mandates are twofold ; for they come 
either from gods or from men ; and the ancients, at 
least, held those from the gods in greater honour and 
veneration ; and on this account men who consulted 
oracles were much in evidence at that time — men 
who ran to Dodona ** to hear the will of Zeus from 
the high-tressed oak," ^ thus using Zeus as their 
counsellor, and also to Delphi, " seeking to learn 
whether the child which had been exposed to die 
was no longer alive; " ^ but the child himself " was 
on his way to the home of Phoebus, wishing to 
discover his parents." ^ And among the Cretans 
Minos " reigned as king, who held converse with 
great Zeus every ninth year," * every nine years, 
as Plato says, when he would go up to the cave of Zeus 
and receive decrees from him and carry them to 
the people. And Lycurgus,^ his emulator, did like- 
wise ; for oftentimes, as it appears, he would go 
abroad to inquire of the Pythian priestess what 
ordinances it was proper for him to report to the 
Lacedaemonians . 

1 Odyssey 14. 328. 2 Euripides, Phoen. 36. 

3 Ibid. 34. 4 See 10. 4. 8 and footnote. 

6 See 10. 4. 18. 

2 eiraKoixTT], Corais, for vTroKovar). 



39. Tavra yap ottco^ Trore aXrjOeia^; €)(^€i, irapd 
76 rot9 av0p(O7roL<; iireTTiarevTO /cal ivevo/jLiaro, 

Kol Bia TOVTO KOi ol /JLdvT€i<; irCfjLCOVTO, W(TT€ Kol 

^aaCkeLa<i d^iova6ai, co? rd irapd tcov Oeoiv rj/jLtv 
€K(f)€popT€<; TrapayyeX/jLara Koi iiravopdco/jbaTa 
Kol Jwi^res" ical dirodavovTe^' KaOdirep koX 6 

TO) /cat reOvrjOiTi voov Trope H6pa6(f>6v6ia 
OL(p Tveirvvadar rol Se aKiaX dtaaovcn} 

TOiovTO<i he Koi 6 ^A/jL^idpeco<; koX 6 Tpo(j)covLOf; 
KOL 6 'Op^ei/? Kal 6 Mov(TaLO<; kul 6 irapd roL<i 
TeTai<; Oeo^;, to /juev iraXaiov Zd/jLo\^i,<;, HvOa- 
yopeco^ Ti9, Kad' r)/jLd<i Se tw Bvpe/SiCTTa^ 
OeaTTL^cov, AeKaLveo^i' irapd he rol<i Boairoprjvotf; 
'AxcitKapo<i, irapd Be rot? ^IvSol<: ol yvfivoao- 
(piaiai, irapd 8e rot? Uep(Tai<i ol Mdyoi, Kal 
veKVOfxdvTeL^ Kal en ol Xeyopuevoi XeKavofidviei^i 
Kal vBpo/iidvreL^, irapd Be TOt? 'Aao-vploi^i ol 
^aXBatoi, irapd Be rot? 'VwfjLaiOL^ ol TvppijviKol 
wpocTKOiroL.^ roLOVTO<; Be rt? rjv Kal 6 Moxtt)? 
Kal 01 BiaBe^d/ievoi, eKelvov, rd<i fiev dpj(^d^ 
\aff6vT€<; ov <f>av\d<;, eKipairopuevoL S' eirl to 

40. "HS?7 8' ovv (pavepcdf; Tvpavvov/jLepr)<i t?)? 
'Iou8ata9, irpcoTO<; dvO' lepecu'^ dveBeu^ev eavrbv 
^ao-CKea 'AXe^avBpo^' tovtov B' rjaav viol 'Tp- 
Kavo^ re Kal *ApLar6^ov\o<i' BLa(f)epo/jLevcov Be 
irepl T/)? dpx^'^i eTTTjXde Uo/jLir7]LO<i Kal KareXvcrep 
auTOu? KaV^rd epvfiara avrcov Kaieairaae Kal avid 

1 Meineke ejects the words KaOdnep . . . aia-ffovai. 

* Bvpefilada CDFh, Bvpefiida i (see critical note, 7. 3. 5). 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 39-40 

39. For these things, whatever truth there may 
be in them, have at least been beUeved and sanc- 
tioned among men ; and for this reason the prophets 
too were held in so much honour that they were 
deemed worthy to be kings, on the ground that 
they promulgated to us ordinances and amendments 
from the gods, not only when they were alive, but 
also when they were dead, as, for example, Teiresias, 
" to whom even in death Persephone granted reason, 
that he alone should have understanding, whereas 
the others flit about as shadows." ^ Such, also, 
were Amphiaraus, Trophonius, Orpheus, Musaeus, 
and the god among the Getae, who in ancient times 
was Zamolxis,^ a Pythagoreian, and in my time 
was Decaeneus,^ the diviner of Byrebistas ; and, 
among the Bosporeni, Achaecarus ; and, among 
the Indians, the Gymnosophists ; and, among the 
Persians, the Magi and the necromancers, as also 
the dish-diviners and water-diviners, as they are 
called ; and, among the Assyrians, the Chaldaeans ; 
and, among the Romans, the Tyrrhenian nativity- 
casters.* Moses was such a person as these, as 
also his successors, who, with no bad beginning, 
turned out for the worse. 

40. At any rate, when now Judaea was under 
the rule of tyrants, Alexander was first to declare 
himself king instead of priest ; and both Hyrcanus 
and Aristobulus were sons of his ; and when they 
were at variance about the empire, Pompey went 
over and overthrew them and rased their fortifica- 

1 Odyssey 10. 494. 2 gee 7. 3. 5. 

3 7. 3. 5. * Cf. 17. 1. 43. 

* ft poffKSiroi, Corais emends to olovoaKSiroi ; Letronne conj. 



iv TTpcoToci TO, 'lepoaoXvjxa ^ia KaraXajScov'^ tjv 
yap TrerpcoSe^ koX evepKe^ epvfia, evro^ fxev 

C 763 euvhpov, ifCTb<; Be iravreXca'^ Bi,yjrrjp6v, Td(ppov 

\aTO/JLr}TT)v e^ov ^dOo<i /mev e^rj/covra ttoBcov, 

7rX,aT0? he irevT'qKovTa Kal SiaKoalcov €k Be tov 

Xidov TOV XaTOfjLTjdevTO^ eTreTrupycoTO to Tel')(p^ 

^ Toi) lepov. /caTeXd^eTO B\ w? (paai, T7]pr}(Ta<; ttju 

«^H tt}? P7j(TTeia<i r^fxepav, rjvLKa direl^^ovTO ol 'lou- 
BaloL 7ravT0<i epyov, TrXijpooaa^; ttjv Td(j)pov kuI 
i-m^aXodv Ta<; Bi,affddpa<;' KaTaairdaat 8* ovv 
iKeXevae to, tclxv TrdvTa Kal dvecXev eh Bvpafitv 
TO, XrjCTTrjpia Kal to, ya^o(j)vXdKta tmv TVpdvvwv. 
rjp Be Bvo /JLev to, rat? elaffoXah eTrtKeipbeva tov 
'lepiKovPTo<i Sprj^ T€ Kal '^avpo^y aXXa Be 'AXe- 
^dpBpiop Te Kal 'TpKdpLOp Kal M.a^aipov<; ^ Kal 
Autrta? ^ Kal to, irepl ttjp ^uXaBeX^iap Kal rj 
Tvepl VaXiXaLav '^kvOottoXl^. 

41. *lepLKov<; 8' eVrt ttcBlop kvkXw Trepue'X^opLepop 
opepfj TLPi Kal TTov Kal OeaTpoetBa}^; irpo^ avTo 
KeKXipuepr}' ePTavda B^ cgtIp 6 (poivLKcop, p,€p.i- 
ypueprjp e)((OP Kal aXXrjp vXrjp rip.epop Kal evKap- 
TTOP, TrXeopd^cop Be Ta> (j)0LPiKt, eirl /jir]KO<; crTaBlayp 
CKaTOP, BidppuTO<; dira^ Kal /z-ecrro? KaTOLKicop' 
€(TTL 3* avTOv Kal ^aaiXeLOP Kal 6 tov /3aXadp,ov 
irapaBeicFO^' eaTt Be to (pVTOP Oap^pcoBe^, kvtlcto) 

€0t/C09 Kal TeppLLpQWy dpCOpLaTl^OP' OV TOP (j>Xoiop 

€7r/(r;^to-avT69 viroXapbjBdpovatp dyyeioi^ top ottop, 

^ KaraXa^wv, Casaubon, for Kara^aXoof. 
2 After Maxaipovs w adds AvZas. 
^ After Avalas F adds Ka\ AuSos. 

* i.e. Palm-grove. ^ Built by Herod the Great. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 40-41 

tions, and in particular took Jerusalem itself by 
force ; for it was a rocky and well-walled fortress ; 
and though well supplied with water inside, its 
outside territory was wholly without water; and it 
had a trench cut in rock, sixty feet in depth and 
two hundred and sixty feet in breadth; and, from 
the stone that had been hewn out, the wall of the 
temple was fenced with towers. Pompey seized 
the city, it is said, after watching for the day of 
fasting, when the Judaeans were abstaining from 
all work ; he filled up the trench and threw ladders 
across it; moreover, he gave orders to rase all the 
walls and, so far as he could, destroyed the haunts 
of robbers and the treasure-holds of the tyrants. 
Two of these were situated on the passes leading 
to Hiericus, I mean Threx and Taurus, and others 
were Alexandrium and Hyrcanium and Machaerus 
and Lysias and those in the neighbourhood of Phila- 
delphia and Scythopolis in the neighbourhood of 

41. Hiericus is a plain surrounded by a kind of 
mountainous country, which, in a way, slopes towards 
it like a theatre. Here is the Phoenicon,^ which is 
mixed also with other kinds of cultivated and fruit- 
ful trees, though it consists mostly of palm trees; 
it is one hundred stadia in length, and is everywhere 
watered with streams and full of dwellings. Here 
are also the palace ^ and the balsam park. The 
balsam is of the shrub kind, resembling cytisus ^ 
and terminthus,* and has a spicy flavour. The 
people make incisions in the bark and catch the 
juice in vessels. This juice is a glutinous, milk- 

3 Medicago Arbor ea. 

* The terebinth tree, Pistacia terebinthus (cf. 15. 2. 10). 



yXiaXP^ yaXa/CTi TrapaTrXrja-iov' avaXt^^Oel^ K 
eU KO'^yapia XajjbjBdveL irrj^iv' Xvei Se Ke<^a- 
\a\yLa<; Oav/jLa(TT(o<; koI uTro^yo-et? ap^ofieva^; 
KoX d/jL^Xvco7rLa<;' Ti/iito<; ovv eari, Kal Stori 
ivravda /jlopov yevvdrat' koX 6 (pOLvcKoov Be 
TOiovTO<iy €%&)!/ Tov KapucoTov (^oivLKa ivTavOa 
fiovov, 7r\r)v rod BaffuXcoviov koI tov iTre/cetva 
7r/30? rrjv eco' fieydXr) ovv dir avrcov rj irpocroho^. 
KoX TO) ^vXo^aXdfKp Be o)? dpco/juaTL ')(pMVTai. 

42. 'H Be %ipl3wvl<; Xifivrj ttoXXtj /jlcv ian' koI 
yap ;^tX,ta)i/ araBCcov elprjKaai Tiv€<i tov kvkXov' 
rfj jiivTOi irapaXia irapeKTeTaTai fiiKpco tl irXeov 
Tcov BiaKoaicov aTaBlcov /nrj/cofi iiriXafjbffdvova-a, 
dyxi^aOrj^;, ffapvTaTOv 6)(^ov(7a vBcop, wcrre /jltj 
Betv KoXv/ji^ov, dXXd tov ifM^avTa fcal /xexpi'^ 
6/jL(j>aXov irpo^dvTa^ ev6v<i i^aipeaOat' /jiearr) B' 
€(ttIv da^dXTOV avTrj ^ Be dva<f)vadTai kuto, 
Kaipov<; dTaiCTOV^ etc fxeaov tov ^dOov<; fi6Ta 
TTOfjLcpoXvycov, o)? dv t,60VT0<; vBaT0<;' KvpTOVfiivrj 
B* r) i7ri,(f)dvetaX6(j)ov (jiavTaaiav irape^ei' avvava- 
<f>epeTaL Be Kal d(T^oXo<;^ iroXXt], KairvcoBrj^; /juiv, 
7rpd<; Be ttjv oyjrLv dBtjXo^, i/(/)' ^9 KaTtovTat Kal 
')(aXKO<i Kal dpyvpo<; Kal irdv to (ttlXttvov /^expt 
Kal %/Ouo-oO' dirb Be tov KaTiovaOai tcl aKevr} 
yva)pL^ov(Tiv ol irepioiKOvvTe^ dp^ofxevifv Trfv 
dvafioXrjv tov da<pdXTOv, Kal wapaaKevd^ovTaL 
7rpo<; TTjv p,eTaXXeiav avTov, Troirja-dp^voc (7X'sBia<i 

^ irpoc/x^avTa CT)¥hi, irpoi\Q6vra x. TtpofiavTa is omitted by 
the Epit. and Meineke. 

2 TovTo, after avrr), is ejected by Groskurd and Meineke. 

^ Instead of 6.(TfioXos, E reads 6.(rfia\osy F aaffwAos, and the 
Epit. fiwAos. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 41-42 

white substance ; and when it is put up in small 
quantities it solidifies ; and it is remarkable for its 
cure of headache and of incipient cataracts and of 
dimness of sight. Accordingly ^ it is costly; and 
also for the reason that it is produced nowhere else. 
Such is also the case with the Phoenicon, which 
alone has the caryotic palm,^ excepting the Baby- 
lonian and that beyond Babylonia towards the east. 
Accordingly, the revenue derived from it is great. 
And they use the xylo-balsam ^ as spice. 

42. Lake Sirbonis ^ is large ; in fact some state 
that it is one thousand stadia in circuit; however, 
it extends parallel to the coast to a length of slightly 
more than two hundred stadia, is deep to the very 
shore, and has water so very heavy that there is no 
use for divers, and any person who walks into it 
and proceeds no farther than up to his navel is 
immediately raised afloat. It is full of asphalt. 
The asphalt is blown to the surface at irregular 
intervals from the midst of the deep, and with it 
rise bubbles, as though the water were boiling; 
and the surface of the lake, being convex, presents 
the appearance of a hill. With the asphalt there 
arises also much soot, which, though smoky, is 
imperceptible to the eye; and it tarnishes copper 
and silver and anything that glistens, even gold; 
and when their vessels are becoming tarnished the 
people who live round the lake know that the asphalt 
is beginning to rise; and they prepare to collect 

^ Palma caryota, with walnut-like fruit. 
Jg2 Apparently the liquid obtained from the branches when 
cut off. 

3 Strabo seems obviously to be confusing the Asphaltites 
Lacus (the Dead Sea) with Lake Sirbonis, which latter " broke 
through to the Mediterranean Sea " (see 1. 3. 4 and 1. 4. 7). 



C 764 Ka\a/iiiva<i. ean K rj a(T(f)a\TO^ 'y7J<; /3wXo9, 
vypatvo/ji€V7j /xev virb depjiiov kol ava<^V(TCdfievr) 
KoX Bia^eo/ievr], ttoXiv Se fJLera^dWovaa et? 
irdyov la^^pov vtto tov -yjrv^pov i/Saro?, olov 
iari TO Trj<; Xijivrj^; vBcop, Mcrre rofii]^ kol K07rrj<; 
helaOai' elr iimToXd^ovcra Bia rrjv (j)vcriv tov 
vSaTO<;, KaQ^ rjv €(l)a/jL€v fiijBe koXv/jl/Sov BeltrOai, 
^^ fjLijBe ffaiTTL^eaOaL tov i/ju^dvTa, aX-X' e^aipeaOai' 
rr poairXevaavTe^s he rat? a'xeBiai^ kotttovgi koI 
^epovTai tt)? da(f>d\Tov oaov eKaaTO^ BvvaTai. 
43. To fiev ovv av/x/SaLvov tolovtov' 'y6'rjTa<; Be 
6vTa<; aKYjiTTeadai (firjaiv i'JT(pBa<; 6 Ilo(7eiBcovio<; 
T0U9 dvO pdoTTOv^i KoX ovpu KoX dWu BvaooBr] vypd, 
a ^ '7r€piKaTa')(eavTa<; Kal eKindcravTa^ iTrjTTeLV 
TTjv da(f>a\T0v, eha TejjLveiV el ' firj tL^ eaTiv 
eTTLTrjBeLOTr]^ tmv ovpwv TotauTT], KaOdirep Kal 
ev rat? KvaTeai twv XlOkovtcov, /cal ere Tcav 
TraiBiKcov ovp(ov r) ')(^pv(T6icoXXa avviaTaTai' ev 
fiearj Be ttj Xijxvrj to irdOo^ avfiffaiveiv evXoyov, 
OTL Kal rj TTTjyr) tov TTUpo? Kal t^9 da^dXTOV 
KaTa fieaov ecrrt Kal to ttXtjOo^' oLTaKTO^ Be rj 
dvacpvarjai^;, otl Kal r) tov 7rvpo<; Kivqai^; ovk 
€%ei To^iv rj/jLtv (pavepdv, cocnrep Kal dXXcov 
TTvev/judTcov TToXXcov. TOiavTa Be Kal to, ev 
' ATToXXoyvLa ttj ^HireipooTtBi. 

^ a, Corais brackets. 

1 On a recent visit to the Dead Sea (December, 1929), the 
translator found that Strabo's whole account is substantially 
correct. As for floating, a very corpulent person could walk 
out only up to the navel before floating, but a very lean 
person up to the shoulders. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 42-43 

it by means of rafts made of reed. The asphalt is 
a clod of earth, which at first is liquefied by heat, 
and is blown up to the surface and spreads out; 
and then again, by reason of the cold water, the 
kind of water the lake in question has, it changes 
to a firm, solidified substance, and therefore requires 
cutting and chopping; and then it floats, because 
of the nature of the water, owing to which, as I was 
saying, there is no use for divers ; and no person 
who walks into it can immerse himself either, but is 
raised afloat. ^ They reach the asphalt on rafts and 
chop it and carry off as much as they each can. 

43. Such, then, is the fact in the case ; but accord- 
ing to Poseidonius the people are sorcerers and pre- 
tend to use incantations, as also urine and other 
malodorous liquids, which they first pour all over 
the solidified substance, and squeeze out the asphalt 
and harden it, and then cut it into pieces ; unless 
there is some suitable element of this kind in urine, 
such, for example, as chrysocolla,^ which forms in 
the bladder of people who have bladder-stones and 
is derived from the urine of children. It is reason- 
able that this behaviour should occur in the middle 
of the lake, because the source of the fire and also 
the greater part of the asphalt is at the middle of 
it; but the bubbling up is irregular, because the 
movement of the fire, like that of many other sub- 
terranean blasts, follows no order known to us. 
Such, also, are the phenomena at Apollonia in 

2 Literally, " gold-solder." The translator does not know 
what the word means in the above passage, whether malachite 
(carbonate of copper), or borate of soda, or what. 

» See 7. 5. 8. 



44. Tov 8' ejnTTvpov rrjv '^^oopav elvac koI aXka 
r€Kjjb7]pia (l>epouai iroWd' /cal yap irerpa'^ Tiva<; 
iiriKeKav/juivai; Bei/cvvovat, Tpax€La<i irepl Moa- 
<jdha KoX aripayya^ iroWaxov koI yrjv T6(f)pct)8r], 
aTay6va<; re 7ricra7}<; ex XiaadBcov Xei^o/meva^ 
Koi 8va(oB6i<; iroppcoOev irorap^om ^eovTa<;, kutol- 
KLa<i T€ dvaT€Tpa/j,p6va<; aTTOpdBijv' Mare ttkt- 
reveLV toU OpvXovfiivoi^ viro tcov iy)(copia)v, to? 
dpa (VKOVVTO TTore rpiaKatSeKa TroXef? ivravOa, 

■^ OiV TrJ9 fjL7}Tp07r6\€a)<i ^oho/JLcop (Tco^otTO kvkXo<; 
k^rjKOvrd ttov aTaSlcov' vtto Be aecaficov /cal 
dva(f)var)/jLdT(ov 7rvpo<; Kal Oep/xcov vBdrcov dacpaX- 
TcoBcov re Kal 6ei(t)Bcov y Xlpvi] irpoireaoi, Kal 
Trirpai irvpiXrjinoi yevotvro, aX re iroXei^ at fxev 
KaraTToOelev, a? 8' iKXiiroiev ol Bvvdfievoi (fivyelv. 
^]^paTO(T6ev7)<i Be (fyrjai, idvavTia, Xipva^ovcr')]^ tt)? 
')(d)pa^, eKp7]yp.a(Tiv dvaKaXv(f)6rjvai rrjv irXel- 
(Trrjv, KaOdirep rrjv OdXarrav.^ 

45. "Eo-Tt Be Kal ev rfj TaBapiBi vBcop p,o)(6r]pov 
Xifivalop, ov TO, yevadfieva KT'tjvrj Tpixci<i Kal 

^ 6irXa<; Kal Kepara diropdXXeL. ev Be Tal<^ Ka- 
Xovp,evat^ Tapix^ai^^ rj Xi/uLvrj fiev TapL')(eia^ 
i'XOvayv dareia'^ Trapex^i, (f>v6L Be BevBpa Kapiro- 
^opa, firfkeai^i ipL^epr]' j^^pMvrai 3* AlyviTTioi rfj 
da^dXrw 7r/?09 ra? rapL')(^eia<; tmv veKpcov. 

46. Ilo/jL7n]Co<; /iiev ovv irepiKoy^a^ riva tojv 
C 765 i^iBiaadevrcov vtto tojp 'lovBaicov Kara filav 

^ QahaTTav, Corais emends to ©eTToAtov. 

2 Tapixi^ais F, Tapix^ias ; emended by Tzschucke. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 44-46 

44. Many other evidences are produced to show 
that the country is fiery; for near Moasada are to 
be seen rugged rocks that have been scorched, as 
also, in many places, fissures and ashy soil, and 
drops of pitch dripping from smooth cliffs, and 
boiling rivers that emit foul odours to a great distance, 
and ruined settlements here and there ; and there- 
fore people believe the oft-repeated assertions of 
the local inhabitants, that there were once thirteen 
inhabited cities in that region of which Sodom 
was the metropolis, but that a circuit of about 
sixty stadia of that city escaped unharmed; and 
that by reason of earthquakes and of eruptions 
of fire and of hot waters containing asphalt and 
sulphur, the lake burst its bounds, and rocks were 
enveloped with fire; and, as for the cities, some 
were swallowed up and others were abandoned by 
such as were able to escape. But Eratosthenes 
says, on the contrary, that the country was a lake, 
and that most of it was uncovered by outbreaks, as 
was the case with the sea.^ 

45. In Gadaris, also, there is noxious lake water; 
and when animals taste it they lose hair and hoofs 
and horns. At the place called Taricheae the lake 
supplies excellent fish for pickling ; and on its banks 
grow fruit-bearing trees resembling apple trees. 
The Aegyptians use the asphalt for embalming the 
bodies of the dead. 

46. Now Pompey clipped off some of the territory 
that had been forcibly appropriated by the Judaeans, 

^ i.e. the lake burst its bounds in a number of places, as did 
the Mediterranean at the Pillars (see 1. 2. 31), if the text is 
correct. But it is most probable that Strabo wrote "as was 
the case with Thessaly " (see 9. 5. 2, and Herodotus 7. 129), as 
suggested by Corais and Kramer (see critical note). 



aireBei^ev ^HpcoBrj ^ rrjv lep(D(Tvvr)V' rcov 5' oltto 
yivov<; t(9 ^ varepov 'lipa)8r}(;, dvr)p iiri^oopio^, 
7rapaBv<i eh rrjv Upcocrvvrjv, toctovtov Sii^veyKC 
TMV TTpo avTov, Kul fidXidTa rfj tt/oo? 'Pft)/xatoi'9 
ofJLLkia Koi TToXtreia, ware koI ^aaikei)^ ^XPV~ 
/jLariae, B6vro<; to fiev rrpcoTOV ^Avtcovlov rrjv 
e^ovorlav, varepov Be kuI Kalaapo^; rod ^e^aarov' 
T(ov 8' vlS)v TOv<; fiev avTo<; dvelXev, co? eiTL^ovXev- 
aavra^i avro), rou? Be reXevjMv BcaBo^ov^; dirk- 
\iire^ fjL€piBa(; avrol^ diToBov<^. Kalcrap Be koX 

TOV<; vlov^ eTL/JL7)(T€ TOV 'HpCoBoV KOI TrjV dBeX^rfV 

^a\(OfjL7)v Koi rr)V Tavrrjf; Ovyarepa Bepevi/crjv ov 
fievTOL evTvxn^^^ ^* Trat^e?, dXX' iv alriai^; 
iyevovTO, koX o fJiev iv (fivyfj BiereXec, irapd rot? 
^AXXo^pi^i TaXdrai^ Xa^cov OLKijatv, ol Be 
Oepaireia iroXXfi /juoXt^; evpovro KdOoBov, rerpap- 
X^ci^ d'TToBeL')(j9eiari<; e/carepo). 


1. 'TirepKeiTat Be r?}? *lovBaia<i koX t?)? KotXr;? 
Ivpia^ fi^XP^ Ba/3yXft)i^ta9 koI t?)? tov ^vcppdrov 
TTorafJiia^ irpo^ votov ^Apaf^ia irdda %ci)/3t9 tmv iv 
rfj MeaoTTOTa/jLia ^Krjvircov. irepl fiev ovv Tr}<; 
Meo-oTTora/Ata? fcal r&v ve/mo/jievcDv avrrjv iOvMV 
etprjrar rd Be irepav tov Evcppdrov rd jxev irpo^ rat? 
if€^oXal<; avrov vefiovrai ^a^vXwvLoi kuI to tcov 

* 'HpcaS-p, Corais emends to 'TpKav^. 
2 ris hzy TLoriv, other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 2. 46-3. i 

and appointed Herod ^ to the priesthood ; but later 
a certain Herod, a descendant of his and a native 
of the country, who sHnked into the priesthood, 
was so superior to his predecessors, particularly 
in his intercourse with the Romans and in his 
administration of affairs of state, that he received 
the title of king, being given that authority first 
by Antony and later by Augustus Caesar. As for 
his sons, he himself put some of them to death, on 
the ground that they had plotted against him ; and 
at his death left others as his successors, having 
assigned to them portions of his kingdom. Caesar 
also honoured the sons of Herod and his sister Salome 
and her daughter Berenice. However, his sons 
were not successful, but became involved in accusa- 
tions ; and one of them ^ spent the rest of his life 
in exile, having taken up his abode among the 
AUobroges Galatae, whereas the others,^ by much 
obsequiousness, but with difficulty, found leave to 
return home, with a tetrarchy assigned to each. 


1. Above Judaea and Coele-Syria, as far as 
Babylonia and the river-country of the Euphrates 
towards the south, lies the whole of Arabia, with 
the exception of the Scenitae in Mesopotamia. 
Now I have already spoken of Mesopotamia and 
the tribes that occupy it ; * but as for the parts on 
the far side of the Euphrates, those near its outlets 
are occupied by Babylonians and the tribe of the 

^ Hyrcanus, apparently. ^ Archelaus. 

3 Antipas and Philip. * 16. 1. 26 ff. 



XaXBalcov eOvo^ (e'iprjrai Be koI^ irepl tovtcov), 
TCL 8* ef>79 T^9 MecroTTOTayuta? P'^XP^ KotX.?;? 
Xvpia<;, TO fi€v T-Xrjaid^ov rw TTorafio) koL ttjv 
M-eaoTTorafiiav SKrjvLTai. Kare^ovGLv "Apa^€<;, 
BvvaaT6La<; aTTOTer/jLrjfiivot jXLKpa^ iv \v7rpol<; 
%ft)/)tot9 Blcl ra? avvhpia^;, j€Q)pjovvT€<; jxev rj 
ouBh rj p^LKpa, vo/jua^ 8e exovTe<; iravTohairSiv 
OpefM/jLUTcov, Kal ixakicna KafJbrjXoiv' virep he rov- 
TO)v epr^fio^i ean TToWrj' tcl Be tovtcov en vorico- 
Tepa exovcTLv oi rrjv evBalfiova koXov ixevrjv ^Apa- 
^iav oIkovvt€<;. ravrrj^; Be to fxev irpoadpKTLOV 
TrXevpbv t) Xex^^lcrd iariv eprj/jiof;, to B' ewov 
6 T\epaiKo<^ /coXtto?, to Be eairepiov 6 ^Apd^io^, 
TO Be voTiov r) fieydXtj OdXaTTa rj e^co tmv koXttcov 
d/jL^otv, f}v diraaav ^EpvOpdv /caXovaiv. 

2. 'O fiev ovv Ylep<nKo<; koXtto*; XeyeTai, Kal rj 
KUTO, TIepaa<; OdXaTTa' <f)i](Tl Be irepl auT% 
^EpaTOcrOevT}'^ ovt(o<;, otl to piev (TTopLa (prjalv 
elvac (TTevov outo)?, wq-t' ef 'Ap/jbo^cov, tov t% 
KappLavla^ d/cpcoTijpLov, TrJ? 'A/oaySta? d(j)opaTaL 
TO iv Ma«:at9* avro Be tov o-TO//.aT09 rj iv Be^ia 
TrapaXia 7repL(f>€pr]<; ovaa /caT dpx^'^ P'^v dirb T7J<; 
Kappiavla<; irpo^ eco pLiKpov, elTa 7rpo<; dpKTOV 
veveiy Kal p,6Td TUVTa 7rpo9 Tr]v ecnrepav P'CXpi' 
T€p7)B6vo<; Kal Trj<; €K^oXrj<i tov KvcfypdTOV nrepie- 
X^i' Be TTjv Te K.appiavi(t)v TrapaXiav Kal ttjv 
C 766 IlepcTOiv Kal ^ovaLcov Kal BajSvXcovLoyv aTrb 
puepov^, oaov pLvpicov ovaa^ aTaBicov' irepl 0)v Kal 
rjpiel^ elpTjKapLev' to B"* ivTevOev 6^779 iirl to GTopa 
irdXiv dXXoi ToaovTOL, KaOdirep Kal 'AvBpocrdevrj 

^ Kal is omitted by all MSS. except x. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 3. 1-2 

Chaldaeans, of whom I have already spoken ; ^ and 
of those parts that follow after Mesopotamia as far 
as Coele-Syria, the part that lies near the river, as 
well as Mesopotamia, is occupied by Arabian Scenitae, 
who are divided off into small sovereignties and live 
in tracts that are barren for want of water. These 
people till the land either little or none, but they 
keep herds of all kinds, particularly of camels. 
Above these people lies an extensive desert; but 
the parts lying still farther south than their country 
are held by the people who inhabit Arabia Felix, as 
it is called. The northern side of Arabia Felix is 
formed by the above-mentioned desert, the eastern 
by the Persian Gulf, the western by the Arabian 
Gulf, and the southern by the great sea that lies 
outside both gulfs, which as a whole is called Erythra.^ 
2. Now the Persian Gulf is also called the Persian 
Sea; and Eratosthenes describes it as follows: its 
mouth, he says, is so narrow that from Harmozi, 
the promontory of Carmania, one can see the promon- 
tory at Macae in Arabia; and from its mouth the 
coast on the right, being circular, inclines at first, 
from Carmania, slightly towards the east, and then 
towards the north, and, after this, towards the west 
as far as Teredon and the outlet of the Euphrates ; 
and it comprises the coast of the Carmanians and in 
part that of the Persians and Susians and Baby- 
lonians, a distance of about ten thousand stadia. 
I have already spoken of these peoples.^ And 
thence next to its mouth it extends another ten 
thousand stadia, as stated, Eratosthenes says, by 

V 16. 1. 6. 2 ^-.e. " Red " Sea. =» 15. 2. 14 £E. 

2 ovffa D, oda-av other MSS. 



\iyeiv ^7J(tI tov Sciaioi^, rov fcal Nea/o;^;^) avfi- 
irXevaavTa koX ^ Kad^ avToV oiare BrjXov ex 
rouTcov elvai, Siori fxiKpov aTroXeLTrerac tw fieyeOei 
T?}? Kara rov }Lv^€ivop ^aXttTTr/9 avrrj rj daXarra' 
Xeyeiv he ^ijaiv eKelvov TrepLireTrXev/cora aToXm 
TOV koXttov, otl airo TeprjBovo^ efr}? iv Se^ca 
exovTi TTjv 7]7r€ipov 6 7rapd7rXov<; 6X€t TrpOKeifxevrjv 
VTjaov "iKapov,^ koI lepov 'AiroXXcovo^i ayiov iv 
avry koI fxavrelov TavpoiroXov. 

3. UapaTrXevo-avTi Be Trj<; 'A/3a/9ta9 et? 5to-^tXt- 
ou? Kol T6TpaKoaLOv<; aTaBiov<; iv ^aOeL/coXjra) Kel- 
rat 7r6Xi,^T€ppa,^aXSaLcov ^vydBcov i/c BaySuXwi^o? 
ol/covvTO)V yrjv ^ dXpbvpiBa Koi i)(^6vT(ov dXivaf; Ta<i 
OLKLa^;, a?, iTrecBr) X€7rLBe<; roiv ciXmv acpio-rd/jLcvai 
Kara Tr)v iTriKavcnv Trjv iK r(ov rjXicov (Tvvexei'i 
aTroTTLTTTOvaLy /carappaLvovT€<; vBaai irvKva Tov<i 
Toi'xpv^ (Twexovai' Biixct Be r^? OaXuTrrji; 
BiaKoaiov^ araBiov^ rj 7r6Xi<;' ire^efJuiropoL B'' elalv 
oi TeppaloL to irXeov tmv ^Kpa^Lcov (^opricov koX 
dpcofMarcov.^ ^Api(TT6^ovXo<; Be rovvavriov <^7)a\ 
Tou<; Veppaiov^ ra iroXXa ax^Blai^ eh Tr)v Ba^Si;- 
Xcdviav i/jLTropeveadai, ixelOev Be tw ^v(ppdTrj ra 
(poprla dvairXelv eh Sdyjra/cov, elra Tre^fj ko/jll- 
^eaOai Trdvrrj. 

4. llXevaavTt B' iirl irXeov dXXat vrfcroL, Ti;/309 
KoX" ApaBo^iy elalv, lepa exovaai toU ^olvikikol<;^ 
6/jLoia' Kai <f)aaL ye 01 iv avTal<i olKovvre<; ra? 

6flQ)VVfJL0V<i TO)V ^OlVLKCOV Vrj(TOV<i Kul TToXci? 

aTTOLKOVf; eavTcov. Btexovcri Be at vrjaoi avrai 

1 /cat, Tyrwhitt inserts before Kae\ 

2 "iKapov E. "Uapiou other MSS. 
^ yrjv, Meineke, for t^v. 

* dpofidrwp i, dpo/xariKoiv other MSS. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 3. 2-4 

Androsthenes the Thasian, who made the voyage, 
not only with Nearchus but also on his own account ; 
so that it is clear from this that this sea is but little 
short of the Euxine in size ; and Eratosthenes says 
that Androsthenes, who sailed round the gulf with 
a fleet, states that in making the coasting voyage, 
with the continent on the right, one sees next after 
Teredon the island Icarus and a temple sacred to 
Apollo in it and an oracle of Tauropolus.^ 

3. After sailing along the coast of Arabia for a 
distance of two thousand four hundred stadia, one 
comes to Gerrha,^ a city situated on a deep gulf; 
it is inhabited by Chaldaeans, exiles from Babylon; 
the soil contains salt and the people live in houses 
made of salt; and since flakes of salt continually 
scale off, owing to the scorching heat of the rays of 
the sun, and fall away, the people frequently sprinkle 
the houses with water and thus keep the walls firm. 
The city is two hundred stadia distant from the sea ; 
and the Gerrhaeans traffic by land, for the most part, 
in the Arabian merchandise and aromatics, though 
Aristobulus says, on the contrary, that the Gerrhaeans 
import most of their cargoes on rafts to Babylonia, 
and thence sail up the Euphrates with them, and 
then convey them by land to all parts of the country. 

4. On sailing farther, one comes to other islands, 
I mean Tyre and Aradus, which have temples hke 
those of the Phoenicians. It is asserted, at least 
by the inhabitants of the islands, that the islands 
and cities of the Phoenicians which bear the same 
name are their own colonies. These islands are 

1 i.e. Artemis Taiiropolus. ^ Now Adjer. 

^ (pOiVlKois UDhy (pOlPlKlKlOlS 0, (pOlVlKlOlS XZ. 



TeprjBopo'i jiev Sexv/^^pov ttXovv, t-tJ? Se Kara to 
cTTOfxa uKpa^ T7]<i iv Ma/caf? rj/jLepTjacop. 

5. 'Atto Be T779 YiapiJLavia<; elprjKaai Kal Neapxo^; 
Kal 'OpOayopa^ vrjaov "flyvpiv^ /celaOai 7rpo<; vorov 
TreXayiav iv huaxO^ioi^ araBioif;, iv fj rac^o? 
'Epvdpa heiKwraLy X^jxa p^kya ayploi^ (polvt^i 
KaTcicjyvTov' rovrov he ^acnXevaaL rcov tottmv Kal 
air* avTOV rijv OaXarrav iTroovv/jLov KaraXiirelv' 
SrjXcjcrat, Se ravrd (f)7](TLv avroU MtO pcoTrdarrjv 
Tov ^Apatrov ^ rov ^pv<yia<^ aarpdirov, (f)vy6vTa 
fiev Aapelov, Siarpi'^avTa S' iv rfj vrjao), ov/ul- 
jjLL^avra Be avrot^i KaraxOelaiv eU rov HepcrLKOv 
koXttov Kal ^rjTovvra kuOoBov Be avroiv eh rrjv 

6. Ka^* oXrjv Be ttjv rrj^; ^EipvOpd<; irapaXiav 
Kara fiv6ov (fyverai BevBpa 6/jbOLa Bd(f>vr) Kal iXaia^ 
TaL<; fjLev d/jLTrooTLaiv oXa virepcpavrj yiyvo/aeva, Tal<i 
Be irXr]fifivpL(rtv ead^ ore oXa KaXvirroiJieva, Kal 
ravra tt)? v7r€pKetfMevr]<; 7779 dBevBpou ovar]<;, coare 

C 767 iTTLTeiveaOai ^ to irapdBo^ov. irepl fxev ovv r^? 
Kara Ilep(Ta<; OaXdrrrj^, rjv ia>av TrXevpdv e<f>ap.ev 
elvai rrjf; evBaijJLOvo^^ ^Kpapia<;, roiavra etprjKcv 

7. ^r]al B' 6 Nea/j^o? rov MiOpcoTrdarrjv 
ivTVX^^v avToh fjueja M.a^'i]vov' rov Be Ma^rjvrjv 
iirdpx^iv VTjCFOV tivo<; tmv iv tm UepaiKO) KoXTrof 
KaXetaOat Be ttjv vrjaov ^OdpaKra' * ei? ravrrjv Be 
TOV M.L6pa)7rdaT7)v KaTacjyvyovTa ^evLa^ tvx^^v 

1 "Clyvpiv, Kramer, for Tvpiv7]v CDFA/xz, Tvpfyrivfjp E, "Clyvpov 

^ 'Apa-iTov, Meineke, for 'AprjtVou. 
^ iniTeiveaeai, Corals, for eiriyipeaeai. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 3. 4-7 

distant a ten days' sail from Teredon and a one day's 
sail from the promontory near the mouth of the gulf 
at Macae. 

5. Both Nearchus and Orthagoras state that the 
island Ogyris lies in the high sea at a distance of two 
thousand stadia from Carmania, and that on it is 
to be seen the grave of Erythras, a large mound 
planted with wild palm trees ; and that Erythras 
reigned as king over that region and left the sea 
named after himself.^ Nearchus says that these 
things were pointed out to them by Mithropastes, 
the son of Aristes, which latter was satrap of Phrygia ; 
and that the former was banished by Dareius, took 
up his residence in the island, joined them when they 
landed in the Persian Gulf, and sought through them 
to be restored to his homeland. 

6. Along the whole of the coast of the Red Sea, 
down in the deep, grow trees like the laurel and the 
olive, which at the ebb tides are wholly visible above 
the water but at the full tides are sometimes wholly 
covered; 2 and while this is the case, the land that 
lies above the sea has no trees, and therefore the 
peculiarity is all the greater. Such are the statements 
of Eratosthenes concerning the Persian Sea, which, as 
I was saying, forms the eastern side of Arabia Felix. 

7. Nearchus says that they were met by Mithro- 
pastes, in company with Mazenes ; that Mazenes 
was ruler of an island in the Persian Gulf; that the 
island was called Oaracta; that Mithropastes took 
refuge, and obtained hospitality, in this island upon 

1 i.e. the " Erythraean " (Red) Sea. 
^ Coral Reefs, apparently. 

* 'OdpaKTUy Corals and Meineke, for AvpaKra moxz, AupaKra 
other MSS., Awpa Stephanus. 



Kara ryv i^ ^flyvpLo^i ^ yevofiivrjv a(f)oSov, Kol 
Sr) Kol (TVveKdelv ra> Ma^rjvrj^ (rvcrraOrjao/jLevov 
TOt? iv Tft) (TToXcp Ma/ceSocTi, rov Be Ma^rjvrjv koX 
Ka6'r)yeyiOva rov ttXov yevea-Oac. Xeyei Se Kal iv 
dpxj) Tov JIep<JL/cov irapdirXou vrjdovy iv f) fiap- 
yapLT7j<; ttoXi)? kuI 7ro\vTljJ>rjT6<; iaTCV, iv dWaL<; 
Be '\jrr]<f)ot tmv Bcavyayv Kal Xafxirpodv' iv Be Tai<; 
TTpo rod ^v(j)pdTOU vrj(TOL<; BevBpa (j)veaOaL Xi^dvov 
TTveovra, mv ra? pi^a<; KXoyjjLevcov oirov pelv 
Trayovpoov Be Kal i)(^ivo)v fxeyeOr), oirep kolvov iv 
irdat) rfj e^co OaXdrry' tov<; fiev yap elvai jiei^ov^ 
KavaioyVy Tov<i Be Kal BiKOTvXov<i' iiroKeVXav Be 
KTjTO'; IBelv TrevTrJKovra 7rr)'^(ov, 


1. ^Kpxv ^^ '^V^ ^Apa^La^i dTTo Trj<; Ba^vXavla^ 
iariv r} MaiKrjvrj'^ irpoKeirai Be Tavrr]^ rfj fiev 17 
eprjfjLo^ Ta)v'Apd/3cov, jfi Be rd eXrj rd Kard XaXBaL- 
0^9, d TTOiet TrapeK'y^eo/JLevo'; 6 l^vcppdrrj^i, rfj Be r} 
Kard Uepaa^ OdXarra, Bvadepo^^ ovaa Kai 
6jxixX(i)Br]^ KoX e7ro/jL^po<; dfjua Kal Kavp,aTi]pa, 
KaXXUapTTOf; ^ iajtv 6/jL(o<;' rj B' a/^TreXo? iv eXeav 

1 'Ciyvpios, Tzschucke and Kramer and Meineke, for 

2 yia^^v-p, Tzschucke, for ^AfiaC-hvv 

^ MaiKriv-n appears to be an error for Maia-r^v-f} (or Meo-rjv^). 
Cp. Mfff-hvvs (2. 1. 31) and Mea-nvuv (16. 1. 8). 
* Se, after Svadepos, Corais deletes. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 3. 7-4. i 

his departure from Ogyris ; that, furthermore, 
Mithropastes had a conference with Mazenes for the 
purpose of being recommended by him to the Mace- 
donians in the fleet ; and that Mazenes became guide 
in their voyage. Nearchus goes on to say that there 
is an island at the beginning of the Persian Gulf 
where quantities of valuable pearls are to be found ; 
and that in other islands there are pebbles of trans- 
parent and brilliant stones ; and that in the islands 
off the mouth of the Euphrates there are trees which 
smell like frankincense, and that juice flows from 
their roots when they are broken in pieces. And he 
speaks of the large size of the crabs and sea-urchins, 
which is a common thing in the whole of the exterior 
sea ; for, he adds, some are larger than hats ^ and 
others as large as a vessel holding two cotylae ; ^ 
and he says that he saw a whale stranded on the 
beach that was fifty cubits ^ in length. 

^"^M^^^l IV 

1 . Arabia commences on the side of Babylonia with 
Maecene. In front of Maecene, on one side, lies 
the desert of the Arabians ; and on another side lie 
the marshes opposite the Chaldaeans, which are 
formed by diversions of water from the Euphrates ; 
and on another side lies the Persian Sea. The 
country has foul air, is misty, and is subject both to 
rains and to scorching heat; but still its products 
are excellent. The vine grows in the marshes, as 

1 The Greek word implies the broad-brimmed felt hats 
worn by the Macedonians. 

2 i.e. nearly a pint. * About 100 feet. 

• 5^, Corais inserts. 



(pveraiy Ka\a/xLvaL<i piyjrlv einffaWofxevr)^ yr]<;, 
oar) SefatT* av to (fyvrov, ooare (f)opy]Tr)v yiveaOai 
7roX\dKL<;, elra kovtol<; aTTcoOelaOai ttoXiv eh Tr)v 
oUelav eBpav, 
^ 2. ^KirdveifJii he eirl xa? 'Eparocr^eVof 9 aTrocjid- 
(7649, a? 6f?J9 Trepl Trj<; 'A/)a/9ta9 e/cTideraL, cjyr^al 
he , Trepl r?)? irpoaapKrlov /cal ep7]/jLrj<i, ^rt? iarl 
fxera^v tt)? re evBaijiovo^ ^Apa^ia<; koI t^<? 
KofXoo-uyOft)?/ /tat Tcoi^ 'lou^atcoz^, P'e)(^pi tov fMV)(^ov 
Tov 'Apa/Siov KoXiTOV, BioTi diro 'Hpcocov TroXeo)?, 
^Tt? €(ttI 7r/oo9 Tft) NetXft) yLt'U^09 ^ toO ^Apafilov 
koXttov, 7r/909 /x€i^ T^i^ Nu^aTaicov Uerpav eh 
Ha^vXoyva 'irevTaia(T')(jXLOi e^aKoaioi, irdaa fxev 
irpo^ dvaroXa^ depLvd<;, Sid Se twp Trapa/cec/xevcov 
^Apa^Lcov edvCov Na^aralcov re Kal ^auXoraucop 
Koi 'Aypaicov' vTrep Be tovtcov rj RvBai/jLcov eariv, 
eirl /jLVpLov<; Kal BLa^iXiov<; eKKetfjuivrj araBLovf; irpo^ 
voTov fJLexpi' TOV ^ArXavTCKov TreXdjov;. e')(^ovcn B' 
avTr)v 01 fjuev Trpcbroi /jLerd tov<; Xvpov<; koI tov^ 
^lovBalov; dvOpwiroi yecopyol' jxera Be rovrovi 
Bta/jL/jLO^; eari yrj Kal Xvirpd, (j)OLVLKa(; e^ovaa oXi- 
70U9 Kal aKavdav Kal /mvpLKrjv Kal opvtcrd vBara, 
KaOdirep Kal y] TeBpwaia' aKrjvLTat 8' exovcrtv avryv 
C 768 ''Apa/9e9 Kal Ka/jLijXoffodKoL rd B' eGyara irpo'^ 
voTOv Kal avTalpovra rfj AWioiTLa ^pex^rai re 
OepLvoh ofi^poi<; Kal BLairopelraL 7rapa7rXr]aLO)<i rfj 
^IvBlkt], 7roTafiov<i 8' ey^ec KaravaXLcrKoixevov<; eh 
ireBia Kal Xifiva^. evKapTrla S' eo-rlv rj re dXXrj 

^ Corals and Meineke insert eV rep after i<TTi, and emend 
/xvx^s to fivxV) l>ut cp. ((TTi 5' 7) "AKcopos rh fivxairaTOU tov 
Qepnaiov kSAttov (Book VII, Frag, 20), and ovros {i.e. the 
recess of the Arabian Gulf referred to) bvojxdC^Tai rioo-ciSior. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 1-2 

much earth being thrown on hurdles of reeds as the 
plant may require ; so that the vine is often carried 
away, and then is pushed back again to its proper 
place by means of poles. 

2. But I return to Eratosthenes, who next sets 
forth his opinions concerning Arabia. He says con- 
cerning the northerly, or desert, part of Arabia, which 
lies between Arabia Felix and Coele-Syria and Judaea, 
extending as far as the recess ofthe Arabian Gulf, 
that from the City of Heroes,^ which forms a recess 
of the Arabian Gulf near the Nile, the distance in the 
direction of the Petra of the Nabataeans to Babylon 
is five thousand six hundred stadia, the whole of the 
journey being in the direction of the summer sunrise ^ 
and through the adjacent countries of the Arabian 
tribes, I mean the Nabataeans and the Chaulotaeans 
and the Agraeans. Above these lies Arabia Felix, 
which extends for a distance of twelve thousand stadia 
towards the south, to the Atlantic Sea. The first 
people who occupy Arabia Felix, after the Syrians 
and Judaeans, are_ farmers. After these the soil is 
sandy and barren, producing a few palnirtrees and 
a thorny tree ^ and the tamarisk, and affording 
water by digging, as is the case in Gedrosia ; * and 
it is occupied by tent-dwellers and camel-herds. 
The extreme parts towards the south, lying opposite 
to Aethiopia, are watered by summer rains and are 
sowed twice, like India ; ^ and the rivers there are 
used up in supplying plains and lakes. The country 

\ ^ Heroonpolis. 

2 i.e. north-east (cf. Vol. I, p. 105, note 1). 
^ Apparently the Mimosa Nilotica. 
* i.e. well-water (see 15. 2. 3). 
5 See 15. 1. 20 and 17. 3. 11. 


Kal fxeXcTOVpyeta SayjrLXrj, ^odKr^fjbdTayv re ac^Oovia 
irXfjv Ilttttcov koX tj/jllovcop koI vcjv, opved re 
Travrola ttXtjv ^(rjvodv koI dXeKTopiScoif. fcaroiKel 
Be rd jjueyiaTa rerrapa eOvrj rrjv icr'X^dTrjv \e')(66l- 
aav 'Xj^paV yiivaloL ^ fxev iv tm 7rp6<; rrjv 'EpvOpdv 
fiepet, TToXt? 8' avrSyv rj fjieylar)] Kdpva rj Kdp- 
vava' ^ ixofJievoL Be tovtcov 'Za^alot,, /j.r)Tp67ro\Lf{ 
5' avTOiv Mapuaffa' rpiToi Be KaTra0av€l<^, KaOrj- 
K0UT€<; 7r/309 rd arevd Kal rrjv Sidffaaiv rod 
^Apa/Siov koXttov, to Be /SaalXecov avrwv Td/uva 
KaXelrai' tt/oo? eco Be jidXiara Xarpa/jLcoTiTai, 
TToXiv B' exovcri ^d^arav. 

3. ^lovapxovvrai Be irdaai kul elaiv evBaip.ove<iy 
Karea Kevaa iJievai koXco^; lepol^ re Kal paaiXeioi'i' 
ai re oLKLat rat? Alyv7rTiai<; ioiKaai Kara rr]V 
TO)v ^vXcov evBeaiv' x^P^^ ^' eirexovaiv ol rerra/je? 
vofjiol yLteiJft) Tov Kar Atyvirrov AiXra' BiaBex^- 
rai Be rrjv ffaaiXeiav ov Trat? irapd '7rarp6<i, dXX 
09 dv 7r/)coTo? yevvr)6fj tcvl tcov em^avcov 7rat<; 
fierd T7JV Kardaraaiv tov fiaaiXe(o<s' d/ma yap tw 
KaTaaTaOrivai Tiva eh ttjv dpxv^ dvaypd<f)0VTai 
ra? eyKVov^ yvvalKa<; tcov eiTL^avwv dvBpwv, 
Kal ecpio-Taai (pvXaKa^;' rjTi^; 8'^ dv irpooTT] TeKr), 
TOV TavTTjf; * vlbv vopbo^ ecTTlv dvaXrjcpOevTa 
Tpe^eaOai /3acriXt/c&)9, co? BcaBe^ofievov. 

4. ^epet Be XifiavcoTov fxev r] KaTTafiavia, 
(Tfiypvav Be rj HaTpa/JLcoTLTi<i' Kal TavTa Be Kai ra 
dXXa dpcofjiaTa fieTa^dXXovTai toI^ eixiropoL^. 

1 Mivaioi E, M7}va7oi Dhi, Meivaloi other MSS. 

2 F has ^ Kapavav, CDh Kapava, ivx ^ Kapapd ; Emoz omit. 

3 5', after Tjrts, Corais inserts. 

* ravT-ns, the editors, for outtjs. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 2-4 

is in general fertile, and abounds in particular with 
places for making honey; and, with the exception 
of horses and mules and hogs, it has an abundance 
of domesticated animals; and, with the exception 
of geese and chickens, has all kinds of birds. The 1 
extreme part of the country above-mentioned is ' 
occupied by the four largest tribes ; by the Minaeans, 
on the side tov/ards the Red Sea, whose largest city 
is Carna or Carnana ; next to these, by the Sabaeajis, 
whose metropolis is Mariaba ; ^ third, by Catta- 
banians, whose territory extends down to the straits 
and'the passage across the Arabian Gulf, and whose 
royal seat is called Tamna ; and, farthest toward 
the east, the Chatramotitae, whose city is Sabata.^ 

3. All these cities are ruled by monarchs and are 
prosperous, being beautifully adorned with both 
temples and royal palaces. And the homes are 
like those of the Aegyptians in respect to the manner 
in which the timbers are joined together. The four 
jurisdictions cover more territory than the Aegyptian 
Delta ; and no son of a king succeeds to the throne \ 
of his father, but the son of some notable man who is 
born first after the appointment of the king ; for at \ 
the same time that some one is appointed to the [ 
throne, they register the pregnant wives of their ) 
notable men and place guards over them; and by \ 
law the wife's son who is born first is adopted and 1 
reared in a royal manner as future successor to the / 

4. Cattabania produces frankincense,^ and Chatra- 
motitis produces myrrh; and both these and the 
other aromatics are bartered to merchants. These 

1 Now Marib. ^ Also spelled Sabattha ; now Sawa. 

3 The gum of the libanus tree. 



epxovTUL Be 7rpo<; avTOv<; e'f Alkdvcov fiev el^ 
Mivatav iv e^Bo/JLijKOVTa r}fi€pat<;' eari 3' rj AtXava 
TToX,*? iv Oarepw fivxV '^^^ ^Apa^iov koXttou, tw 
Kara Td^av to) AlXavLTrj KaXovfiivw, Kaddirep 
elprjKaixev' Teppaloi ^ 3' eU rrjv XaTpa/xtortriz^ iv 
TerrapaKOvra r)/jLepai<i d^LKVOvvrai,. rou 3' 
*Apa0lov koXttov to puev irapa rijv ^Apa/Slav 
irXevpov dp^oiMevoi^ diro rov AlXavirov fxy^ov, 
Kaddirep ol irepl ^ AXe^avhpov dveypa^jrav kol 
^ / ^Ava^iKpdrri, fjLvpiwv koI tgt paKiay^iXiwv o-raSlcov 

^ iariv' etpr^raL he iirl irXeov. to he Kaia ttjv 
TpcDyXohvTiKrjv, oirep iarlv iv he^ia diroTrXeovaiv 
diro 'Hpoocov TToXeo)?, p^e-^pi' /^^v UroXep^atho^; koI 
Trj<; roiv iXe<^dvT(t)v Orjpa^y ivvaKia^^'Xioi 7rpo<; 
fjLearjp^ffplav ardhiot Koi puLKpov iirl ttjv ew 
ivrevOev he pexpi^ tcov arevMV, &>? rerpaKiaxiXiot 

C 769 fcal irevraKOdioi irpo^; ttjv eoo puaXXov. iroiel he 
aKpa ra areva 7rpb<; rrjv AlOioTTiav, /^apr] KaXov- 


he ^Ix^vo^dyoL. kul (paaiv ivravOa aTrjXr]v elvav 
Xe(TCi}arpto<; rov AlyvTTTiov, pijvuovcrav lepoU ypdpu- 
p^acTC TT)v hidffaaLV avTOV. (^aLveTai yap ttjv 
AWiOTTiha Koi Tr]V TpcoyXohvriKrjv 7rp(OTo<; /cara- 
arpeyjrdpLevof; ovro<;, elra hta^a<; 6t9 Tr}v ^Apa^lav, 
KavrevOev TTJV ^Aalav iireXOoiv ttjv avprnaGav' hio 
hr) iroKXaypv Seo-cocrr/Jto? ydpaKe<^ irpocrayopev- 
ovrai, KoX d(f>LhpvpaTd iariv AlyvirrLcov 6eo)v 
lepcov. ra he fcara Aeiprjv areva avvdyerai eZ? 
(TTahiov<; e^rjKOvra' ov p^rjv ravrd ye KaXelrat 
vvvl arevd, dXXa it pocnrXevaaaLv dTTcorepo), KaOo 
TO p,ev hiappud iari to pLcra^v tcov rjireipwv hta- 
1 reppa7oi EFmgo, ra$a7oi other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 4 

arrive there in seventy days from Aelana ^ (Aelana is a 
city on the other recess of the Arabian Gulf, the 
recess near Gaza ^ called Aelanites, as I have said 
before),^ but the Gerrhaeans arrive at Chatramotitis 
in forty days. The part of the Arabian Gulf along 
the side of Arabia, beginning at the Aelanites recess, 
is, as recorded by Alexander's associates and by 
Anaxicrates, fourteen thousand stadia, though this 
figure is excessive ; and the part opposite the 
Troglodytic country (which is on the right as one sails 
from the City of Heroes), as far as Ptolemais and 
the country where elephants are captured, extends 
nine thousand stadia towards the south and slightly 
in the direction of the east ; and thence, as far as the 
straits, four thousand five hundred stadia, in a direc- 
tion more towards the east. The straits are formed 
towards Aethiopia by a promontory called Deire,* 
and by a town bearing the same name, which is 
inhabited by the Ichthyophagi.^ And here, it is 
said, there is a pillar of Sesostris^ the Aegyptian, 
which tells in hieroglyphics of his passage across the 
gulf; for manifestly he was the first man to subdue 
the countries of the Aethiopians and the Troglo- 
dytes ; and he then crossed into Arabia, and thence 
invaded the whole of Asia ; and accordingly, for this 
reason, there are in many places palisades of Sesostris, 
as they are called, and reproductions of temples of 
Aegyptian gods. The straits at Deire contract to a 
width of sixty stadia. However, it is not these that 
are called straits now, but a place farther along on 
the voyage, where the voyage across the gulf between 

1 Now Kasr-el-Akaba. 2 j;[o^ Azzah. 

» 16. 2. 30. * " Neck." 

^ Fish-eaters. 


Koaioav ttov arahitov, ef Se vrjcroi avv€')(6L<; aWrj- 
\at<? TO Blap/jia eKTrXtjpovcrac (Trevoix; reXeo)? 
Sid7r\ov<; aTTokeiiTOvaL, hi wv (r')(^ehiaL<i ra cpoprla 
Kofjuit^ovai hevpo KaicelcTe^ /cal Xiyovai ravra 
arevd. fiera Be ra? V7]aov<; 6 ef% ttXoO? iariv 
iyKoXTTi^ovat rrrapa rrjv a/jivpvo(f)opov eiri rrjv 
fjueayfji^piav dfjua koX ttjp ew fJi^Xpi' Trpo'^ rrjv to 
KLVvd/JLco/Jbov (f)6pov(Tav, oaov 7r€VTaKi(T)(i\LCDV ara- 
hiwv' irepa he ravr')]<i ovheva d^'i')(dai (f)aaL 
/jLexpt vvv. 7roXei9 3' iv fiev rfj irapaKia fxr] 
TToXXaf} eluai, Kara he rrjp fieaoyatav 7roXXd<; 
olKOV/JLeva<; KaXm. ra jxev hrj tov ^^iparoaOevov^ 
ire pi rrj'i ^Apa^ia<i roiavra' irpoadereov Be koX tcl 
irapd T(ov dXXcov. 

o. *i>r)al h' ^Aprefiihwpo^ to avTiKelfxevov Ik 
Trj? 'Apa/3ta9 dfcpcoTijpLov rfj Aetpfj KaXelaOai 
^AklXuv' T0U9 Be irepl rrjv Aeipijv KoXoffov<i elvai 
Ta9 ^aXdvov<;. diro Be 'llpa)(ov 7roXea)9 nrXeovat 
Kara ttjv TpcoyXoBvriKrjv iroXiv elvai ^iXcorepav 
diro T7}9 dBeX(f)fj<; rod Bevrepov UToXe/xaiov 
TTpoaayopevOelaav, Xarvpov KTiaiia tov TrefKJ)- 
devTO'^ iirl rrjv BiepevvrjaLv tt}^ twv eXe(l)dvT(ov 
Oi]pa<i Kol T^9 T pwyXoBvTLKrj^' eija dXXrjv iroXiv 
^Apaivorjv elra Oepficov vBdrcop €/cffoXd<; iriKpMV 
/cal dXfjLvpoov, Kara irerpa^ rivo<; yylnjXrjf; exBi- 
B6i^TQ)V eh Tr]v BaXarrav, /cal TrXrjaiov opo^ iarlv 
iv TreBlw /jLtXT(oBe<;' elra Ml'09 opjJLOv, ov^ /cal 
^A<f)poBiTr)<; opfjLov KaXeladat, Xipueva /jueyav, tov 
eiairXovv e^ovTa a/coXioV irpoKetaOai Be vr}(TOV<; 
T/36t9, Bvo fjLtv eXalai^i KaTaaKLOv^;, fiiav B' tjttov 

1 oV is omitted by all MSS, except E. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 4-5 

the two continents is about two hundred stadia, and 
where are six islands, which follow one another in 
close succession, fill up the channel, and leave 
between them extremely narrow passages ; through 
these merchandise is transported from one continent 
to the other ; and for these the name " straits " is 
used. After the islands, the next voyage, following 
the sinuosities of the bays, along the myrrh-bearing 
country in the direction of south and east as far as 
the cinnamon-bearing country, is about five thousand 
stadia ; and to the present time, it is said, no one 
has arrived beyond that country ; and though there 
are not many cities on the coast, there are many 
in the interior that are beautifully settled. Such, 
then, is Eratosthenes' account of Arabia ; but I must 
also add the accounts of the other writers. 

5. Artemidorus says that the promontory on the 
Arabian side opposite to Deire is called Acila; and 
that the males in the neighbourhood of Deire have 
their sexual glands mutilated.^ As one sails from 
the City of Heroes along the Troglodytic country, 
one comes to a city Philotera, which was named after 
the sister of the second Ptolemy, having been founded 
by Satyrus, who had been sent for the purpose of 
investigating the Troglodytic country and the hunting 
of elephants. Then to another city, Arsinoe. Then 
to springs of hot water, salty and bitter, which flow 
down a high rock and empty into the sea. Near by, 
in a plain, is a mountain that is red as ruddle. Then 
one comes to Myus Harbour, which is also called 
Aphrodite's Harbour; it is a large harbour with a 
winding entrance, off which lie three islands ; two 
of these are densely shaded with olive trees, while 

1 See 16. 2. 37, and 16. 3. 5, 9, 10. 



Karda-KLov, /neXeaypiScov fjL€(T ttjv' eW^ e^rj^ rov 
^AKciOapTov koKttov, koX avrbv Kara ttjv SrjffatSa 
K€L/jL€Vov, KaOdirep rov Muo? opfiov, 6vTco<i ^ Be 
aKadapTOV Koi yap v^dXoi^ 'X^oipdai Kal pa'X^iaifi 
€KT€TpdxvvTai Kal iTvoal<^ KaraLyi^ovcratf; to 
C 770 TrXiov. evravOa Be IBpvaOac BepevLKrjv irokiv iv 
fidOei rov koXitov. 

■ 6. Mera Be rov koXttov t) ^0(f)LCt)Br)<; KaXov/ievT] 
vr)(TO<i diro rov av/jL^e/3r}K6ro<;, fjv 'qXevOepwae 
rojp epTrercov 6 ^aacXev^, dfia /cal Bia ra<; (j)Oopa<; 
rcov TTpoaop/jLL^ofjievcov dvdpoairwv ra<i eK rcav 
Bqpiwv Kal Bid rd roird^ia. XlOo<; Be iari 
Bia(f)avr}<; p^/9i'(7oei8e9 dTToariXjBwv'^ ^eyyo<;, oaov 
fxeB' r)/jLepav fiev ov pdBiov IBetv iari {irepiavyel- 
rat^ ydp), vvKrcDp o opcoaiv ol avXXeyovr€<;' 
Tre pi KaOdylravre<; Be dyyelov (Tr)yueiov xdpiv jxeO^ 
r}/jLepav dvopvrrovai' Kal rjv crvarrj/iia dvOpwircop 
diroBeBeiyfJievcov et? rr]v cfjvXaKyv rrj<; XiOeta^ 
TauT?7? Kal rr]v (Tvvaycoyrjv, (nrapKovfievov * vrro 
TO)V rrj<; Alyvirrov ^aavXecov, 

7. Mera Be rrjv vrjaov ravrrjv iroXXd ecrriv 
^\')(6vo<^dy(DV 7ez^?7 Kal No/iidBcov' el6* 6 t^<? 
X(oreipa<; Xifxrjv, ov eK klvBvvwv fieydXcov riv€<; 
(Twdevre<^ rcav r]yeix6v(ov arro rov o-v/jLfi€ffr]K6ro<; 
ovro)<; eKaXecrav. fxerd Be ravra €^dXXa^i<i iroXXr] 
rr}? 7rapaXia<; Kal rov koXttov' rov ydp irapd- 
ttXovv ovKeri avji^aivei rpayyv eliac, avvdnreiv 
re 770)9 rfj 'ApaySta, Kal to ireXayo^ raireivov 

^ oi/Tws F, ovTus T)k, ovTCi) othcr MSS. 

^ airoAd/JLirwv CEmoxz. 

^ unepavyuTai E (Kramer approving) ; v^piavyf^Tai other 



GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 5-7 

the third is less so and is full of guinea-fowls.^ Then, 
next, one comes to the Acathartus ^ Gulf, which 
also, like Myus Harbour, lies opposite Theba'is, and 
is really " acarthartus," for it is roughened by reefs 
and submarine rocks, and, most of the time, by 
tempestuous winds. And here, deep inland on the 
recess of the gulf, lies a city Berenice. 

6. After the gulf, one comes to the island 
Ophiodes,^ so called from the fact in the case ; but 
it was freed from the serpents by the king, both 
because of their destruction of the people who landed 
there and on account of the topazes found there. 
Topaz is a transparent stone that sparkles with a 
golden lustre — so dimly in the day-time, however, 
that one cannot easily see it (for it is outshone by the 
rays of the sun), but those who collect it see it at 
night, place a vessel over it as a sign and dig it up 
in the day-time. There was an organisation of 
people who were appointed by the kings of Aegypt 
to keep guard over this stone and the collecting of 
it ; and this organisation was supplied by them with 

7. After this island one comes to many tribes of 
Ichthyophagi and Nomads. And then to the 
Harbour of Soteira,* which was so called from the 
fact in the case by certain commanders who had been 
saved from great dangers. After this there is a 
great change in the coast and the gulf; for the 
coasting voyage is no longer rough, and in a way 
closely approaches Arabia; and the sea is as low, I 

^ Numida Meleagris. ^ i.e. " Foul." 

3 i.e. " Snaky." * i.e. " Saviour " (some goddess). 

* (TirapKovfievov, Corals, for cnTap\ovfxivov, 


elvat, (T')(eh6v ri Kal iirl hvo opyvid^;, irod^eiv re 
Tr)v eTTKpdveiav Sia(f)ai,vo/jLevov rod fiviov koI tou 
^VKOv<;, oirep TrXeovd^ei Kara tov iropov' ottov ye 
Kal BevBpa ^verac KaO' vBaTo<; irapd roh ivravOa* 
e^€L Be Kal kvvmv ttX^^o? tmv daXarricov 6 
7r6po<i' elO^ ol TavpoL, Bvo oprj tvttov riva 
iroppfodev BecKvvvra rot? fcooi? OfxoLov, elr dXXo 
6po<; lepov €)(^ov T7]<;"\a-iBo<;,X6aco(TTpio<; dcfjiBpu/jLa" 
elra vrjaof; iXaia Kardcpvro^; iTTLKXv^ofMevr]' fxed^ 
rjv T) nroXe/iai'? tt/oo? rfj Oijpa rcov iXecpdvrcov, 
Kriajia Kv/iyBovi rod Trefx^Oevro^ iirl rrjp Oripav 
VTTO ^iXaBek(fiOV, XdOpa ireptfiaXofievov ^ X^P' 
povi](T(p TLvl rdcjipov Kal irepL^oXop, elr eKOepa- 
'jrev(TavTO<; tou? KcoXvovra^ Kal Karea Kevacr fxevov^ 
(j)LXov<i dvrl BvcTfievcou. 

8. 'Ei^ Be T(p ixera^v eKBiBcdcnv dirocnTaajJia tov 
'Aara^opa KaXovfievov irorapiov, 09 eK Xi/jLvr]<; 
rr}v dpxv^ ^X^^ fiepo^ jxev tl eKBiBwaL^ to Be 
irXeov avfjL^dXXei t& NeiXca' elra vrjaoi e^ Aaro- 
fiLai KaXovfxevaL' Kal /juera ravra to Xct^alriKOV 
(TTofxa Xeyofievov Kal ev rfj pbeaoyala (^povpioVt 
Toaovxov^ 'iBpvfia' elra Xi/jL7]v KaXovixevo<i 
'KXala^ Kal r} XTpdrcovo^; vrjaoi' elra Xl/jLtjv 
^a^a Kal Kvvrjyiov eXe^dvTwv, ofidovv/jLov avro). 
r) 8' ev pdOei tovtcov X^P^ TrjveaaU Xeyerav' 

^ Trept^aXofievov, Corais, for Trepi^aXKcfievov. 

^ KaTea-Kevafffxevovs CT)Yhx. 

^ Toffovxov E, Corais, Kramer, and Meineke ; rh Souxou 
other MSS. C. Miiller plausibly conj. (ppQvpi6v n, "Zovxav 
Upufia (cp. -^ovxos, 17. 1. 38). 

* 'EAeo FDA., and E has at above €. 

1 " Tauri " means " Bulls." 

. GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 7-8 

might almost say, as two fathoms in depth ; and the 
surface is covered, grass-Hke, with sea- weeds and 
rock-weeds that are visible below the surface — a 
thing still more in evidence at the strait, where, 
among the plants, even trees grow down below the 
water; and the strait has also a large number of 
sea-dogs. Then one comes to the Tauri, two moun- 
tains which from a distance present the outlines of 
the animals.^ Then to another mountain, which has 
a temple sacred to Isis, a reproduction 2 built by 
Sesostris. Then to an island planted with olive 
trees and subject to inundation; and after this to 
Ptolemais, near the hunting-grounds for elephants, 
a city founded by Eumedes, who had been sent to 
the hunting-grounds by Philadelphus ; ^ Eumedes 
secretly enclosed a kind of peninsula with a ditch 
and wall, and then, by courteous treatment of those 
who tried to hinder the work, actually won them over 
as friends instead of foes. 

8. In the interval there empties a branch of the 
Astaboras River, as it is called, which, having its 
source in a lake, empties a part of its waters,* but 
for the most part joins the Nile. Then one comes to 
six islands called Latomiae ; ^ and then to the 
Sabaitic mouth, as it is called, and to a fortress in 
the interior which was founded by Tosuches. And 
then to a harbour called Elaea and to the island of 
Strato. And then to a harbour called Saba and to a 
hunting-ground for elephants of the same name. 
The country deep in the interior is called Tenessis ; 

2 i.e. of an Aegyptian temple. 

3 Ptolemy Philadelphus. 

* i.e. into the gulf. 

* Quarries. 



exovai 8' avTTjv ol irapa ^a/jL/jLiTi)(^ov (j)vydS€'i 
C 771 AlyvTrTLcoV iTrovofid^ovrat Se Xefji^plrai,^ oo<; av 
eirrjXvhe^' ^aaikevovro.i 8' viro yvvaiico^, vcp' rjv^ 
icFTL Koi T) M^epoT), irXiialov royv roircdv ovaa 
TOVTCov iv T(p NetXft) vr}ao<;, virep rj<; dWrj earl 
vP)ao<i ov TToXv diTwdev ev Ta> Trorafxcpi Karoc/cla 
Tojv avTMV TOVTCOV ^vydScov* aTTO Be Me/oo?;? 
cttI TTjifBe Tr)v OdXaTTav ev^oovw 68o<; rjfxepoiiv 
irevTeKaiBeKa. irepl Be ttjv M.€p6r)v koI 97 
avfi^oXrj Tou t€ ^AaTa^opa koI tov ^AaTdirov 
Kol eTi TOV ^AaTaa6/3a^ Trpo? top NelXov. 

9. HapoiKovai Be tovtol^; ol 'Vt^ocpdyot koI 
"EiXeiot TTpoaayopevofjLevoL Bid to eK tov irapa- 
Keifievov pt^OTOfiovvTa'; eXou? fcoTTTecv XiOoi^ kol 
dvairXda-creLv /id^a<;, rjXtdaavTe'i Be aiTeiaOai' 
XeovTo^aTa 5' eVrl Ta x^P^^' '^^^^ ^' ^"^^ Kvvo<i 
e7riToXr)V r)/xepaL<; viro kcovcottcov fxeydXcov i^eXav- 
veTav Ta Orjpia eK tmv tottcov. elal Be koX 
X7r€pfjLO(f)dyoi iTXrjaiov, 01 tmv aTrep/ndToyv iiriXi- 
iTovTwv diTO^ tS)V aKpoBpvcov TpicbovTai, aKevd- 
^0VT€<; TrapaTrXrjaLO)^;, coairep Td<; pL^a<; ol 'Fc^ocpd- 
yoi. fxeTa Be ttjv 'EXalav^ al ArjpLrjTpLOv^ a/co- 
iTLoX Kal ^cofiOL K6vcovo<;' €V Bk Trj fjueaoyaiq. 
KaXdfjLwv ^IvBiKOiv <f>veTai TrXrjdo^;' KaXecTai Be rj 
X^pci' KopaKLOV, r]v Be ti<; eu ^dOei 'FjvBepa, 
yvfjLvrjTMV dvOpcoircov KaTOiKia, t6^ol<; 'X^pco fievcov 
KaXafiivoL<i koi ireTTVpaKTcopievoL^ olaTol^' diro 

1 5€/x;8prToi, Corais, for SaS/jTrai F, ^efip^rai other MSS. 

2 ?is BFhrw. 

3 'k(TTaa6fia Corais, for 'AaToadfia margin of F, 'Affraydfia 
other MSS. 

* a.Tr6, Meineke, for vtt6. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 8-9 

and it is occupied by the Aegyptians who went there 
as exiles from Psammitichus. They are called 
Sembritae, as being foreigners.^ They are governed 
by a queen, to whom also Meroe, an island in 
the Nile near that region, is subject; and above 
this island, at no great distance, is another island 
in the river, a settlement of these same exiles. 
The journey from Meroe to this sea,^ for a well- 
girded traveller, requires fifteen days. Near Meroe 
is the confluence of the Astaboras and the Astapus, 
as also of the Astasobas with the Nile. 

9. Along these rivers live the Rhizophagi^ and 
the Heleii,* who are so called because they cut roots 
from the adjacent marsh, crush them with stones, 
form them into cakes, and then heat the cakes in 
the sun's rays and use them for food. This region 
is the haunt of Hons ; and the beasts are driven out 
of this region by large gnats on the days of the rising 
of the dog-star. Near by are also the Spermophagi,^ 
who, when the seeds fail, live on nuts, preparing them 
for eating in the same manner as the Rhizophagi 
prepare roots. After Elaea one comes to the Look- 
outs of Demetrius and the Altars of Conon ; and in 
the interior grows an abundance of Indian reeds ; 
and the country is called the country of Coracius. 
Deep in the interior was a place called Endera, a 
settlement of naked people, who use bows made 
of reeds and arrows hardened by fire ; and generally 

1 Cf. 17. 1. 2 and Herodotus 2. 30. 

2 i.e. the Red Sea, in the neighbourhood of Saba. 

3 Root-eaters. * Marsh-men. ^ Seed-eaters. 

^ EKalav E (with e above ai) ; 'EKeau otlier MSS. except ix. 
' Ariixiirpov F, At] fxrjrpos Ptolemaeus. 




BevBpoou Be ro^evovaL to, Orjpla to irXeov, ecrrt 3* 
ore KaX airo 7^9* irokv 8' eVrt irap avTOL<i 
7r\rjOo<i rcov dyplcov ffo&V airo he Trj<i tovtcov 
KaX Toiiv dWcov Orjpicov Kp€0(j)ajLa<i ^ J^codLv, eirav 
he /uLTjSev 0r)p€V(T(O(Ti, tcl ^rjpa Bep/jLUTa eV avOpa- 
KLd<i oTTTWi^TC? apKovvTai TTJ TOiavTjj Tpocfyfj. 
e6o<; S' iarlv aurot? aycjva ro^eCa^ irpOTiOevai 
T0?9 dv7]^0L<; TraiaL. fjuera 8e rov<i Kovcovo^ 
ffco/jLov^i 6 MrjXcvo^ Xi/jLT]v' {jirepKenaL S' avjov 
4>povpLOv Kopdov KoKovfievov koI Kvvrj'ytov rod 
Kopdov Koi dWo (ftpovpiov ^ /cat Kvvrjyia ttXclco' 
elra 6 ^AvTi(f>l'kov Xt/jirjv /cal ol virep tovtov 
Kp€0(l>djoi,^ KoXo^ol ra? ^aXdvov^ koL at 7U- 
vai/ce^ ^IovSaiKCj<i eKrer/jbrj/jLepai. 

10. ^'Ert S' virep tovtcov &)? tt/jo? fiearj/iifipLav 
ol Kvva/jLoXyoh vtto Be rojv ivTOTrlcov "Aypwc 
KaXovfxevoL, KardKo/J^oi, Karairco'yQyve'i, Kvva<i 
eKTp€(f)0VTe<; €Vfi€yeOei<;, oU Orjpevovat tou9 
e7repxo/^evov<; e/c T7J<; 7rXr]cnox(*ipov I36a(; *IvBikov<;, 
eW^ VTTO drjpicov e^eXavvofxevov^ etre airdvei vofMrj<i' 
Tf 8' €(f)oBo<; avTCOP diro Oepcvcov rpoir&v P'e^pi 
fxeaov 'X,€i/jL(avo<i. tw S' ^AvTKpiXov Xifievi €^r]<; 
eari Xl/jLtjv KaXovfiepo^ KoXofirop dXa-o<; koI 
Bep€VL/C7) ttoXl^; rj Kara Xa^d<; /cal Xa^ai, 7ro\t9 
€Vfji€yeOr]<;' elra to tov Kv/.Levov^ aXcro?. vrrep- 
K€LTai Be 7roXt9 Adpa^a'^ kol Kvv'r]yiov eXe^dvT(av 

^ Kpeo<paylas CF, Kpsaxpayias other MSS. 
2 The words Kopdov . . . <f>povpiov are omitted by all MSS. 
except EF. 

^ Kpe6(payci F, Kpedtxpayoi other MSS. 
* Acipafii moxz, Aipa^a other MSS. 

1 Meat-eaters. « See 16. 4. 5. ^ Milkers of bitches. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 9-10 

they shoot wild animals from trees, but sometimes 
from the ground ; and they have in their country a 
great multitude of wild cattle ; and they hve on the 
flesh of these and the other wild animals, but when 
they take nothing in the chase they bake dried skins 
on hot coals and are satisfied with such food as that. 
It is their custom to propose contests in archery for 
boys who are in their teens. After the Altars of 
Conon one comes to the Melinus Harbour, above 
which lie a Fortress of Coraus, as it is called, and a 
Hunting-ground of Coraus and another fortress and 
several hunting-grounds. And then to the Harbour 
of Antiphilus, and, above this, to the Creophagi,^ of 
whom the males have their sexual glands mutilated 
and the women are excised in the Jewish fashion. ^ 

10. Also above these, approximately towards the 
south, are the Cynamolgi,^ by the natives called 
Agrii, who have long hair and long beards and raise 
good-sized dogs. With these dogs they hunt Indian 
cattle which come in from the neighbouring territory, 
whether driven thither by wild beasts or by scarcity 
of pasturage. The time of their incursion is from the 
summer solstice to mid- winter. Next after the 
Harbour of Antiphilus one comes to the Grove of the 
Colobi,* and to Berenice, a Sabaean city, and to 
Sabae, a good-sized city ; and then to the Grove of 
Eumenes. Above the grove lie a city Daraba and 
the hunting-ground for elephants called " The one 

* " Colobi " means " persons " (who have their sexual 
glands) " mutilated." Cp. 16. 2. 37 and 16. 3. 5, 9. Diodorus 
Sieulus (3. 32) says: "All the Troglodytes are circumcised 
like the Aegyptians except those who, from the fact in the 
case, are called ' Colobi ' ; for these alone, who live this side 
the Strait, have all the part that is merely circumcised by the 
others cut off with razors in infancy." 




TO 77/309 TO) (f)p€aTL Kokovjievov' /CaTOLKOVai ^ 
^ E\€(f)avTO(l)dyoL, rrjv Orjpav iroiovjuevoL roLavrrjv' 
C 772 diro tcov BepBpcov IBovTCf; dyiXrjv Bid tou Bpv/xov 
^€poijL6vr]v, rfj fxkv ovk iTrLrldePTat, tov<; B* 
d7ro7rXav7]06pra<i iic roiv oirtaOev XdOpa irpo- 
aL6vT€<i vevpoKoTTovai' TLve<i Be koX To^evfMacnv 
dvaipouaiv avrou^ X^^V ^^^CLfifiivoif; o^ecdv' r) Be 
ro^eta Bid rpioiv dvBpcdv avuTeXelrai, Ta)V fiev 
KarexovTcov to ro^ov /cat irpo^e^rjKorwv to?? 
TToai, Tov 3' eXKovTo^ ti^v vevpdv' dXXoi Be 
aij/jLeicoadpuevoL rd BevBpa, ol<{ elcoOaai irpoaava- 
iraveadai, irpocnovTe'^ Ik Oaripov fiepov<i to o^tc- 
Xe;^09 viTOKoirrovaiv' irrdu ovv iLpoaiov to Oif^pLOV 
dirOKXlvr] 7rpo<; avTO, ireaovTo^i tov BevBpov TrinTTei 
Koi avTO, dva<TTrjvai Be firj Bvpa/juevov Bid to Ta 
cr/ceXr) Bir}veKe<; 6<jtovv e^eiv /cal dtcafjure^, KaTa- 
'jTr)Br)aavT€'^ diro tcop BevBpcov dvaTefxvovcriv avTo' 
TOV<; Be /cvvr)yov<; ol No/idBe<; aKaOdpTov; /caXovaip. 
11. 'TTrepKeiTui Be tovtcop edpo<i ov fieya 
'^TpovOo<j)dy(i)v, irap ol^ opvei^ elal /jLeyeOo<i 
eXd^(£>v exovT€<^, ireTdaOai fiep ov BvvdfjLevoi, 
6eovT€<i Be o^ew^, /caOdirep ol (TTpovOoKdfirjXoi,' 
dr]pevovai B' avTov<i ol fjueu t6^ol<;, ol Be Tat? 
Bopal<i Tcoi^ (TTpovOoiv aKeiracrOevTe'^ ttjv p,kv 
Be^idv fcaXvTTTOvai to) Tpa^r^XijjLaiw fiepei koi 
Kivovaiv ovT(i)<i, coairep Td ^coa KivecTai TOi? 
Tpa)(^r]Xot<;, Trj Be dptaTepa airep/jLa Trpo^eovaLi^ 
diro TTT^pa^ 7rap7}pT')]fiev7j<;, /cal tovto) BeXed(TavTe<; 
Td ^(pa et? (pdpayya<i avpcoOovcriv' evravda 8* 


'XpVTai Be Koi viroaTopvvvTai ^ Td BepjxaTa TUVTa. 
^ Cmoxz read vvoffTpwvvwTat. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. lo-ii 

near the well " ; they are inhabited by the Elephanto- 
phagi,^ who engage in the chase of elephants. When 
from trees they first see a herd of elephants moving 
through the forest they do not then attack them, but 
stealthily follow the herd and hamstring those 
that have wandered from the rear of the herd. Some, 
however, kill them with arrows dipped in the gall of 
serpents. But the shooting of the bow is performed 
by three persons ; two of these step to the front and 
hold the bow, and the third draws the string. Others, 
noting the trees against which the elephants are 
wont to rest, approach them from the other side 
and cut the trunks of these trees low down. So when 
the elephant approaches and leans against it, the 
tree falls and the elephant falls too ; and since the 
elephant is unable to arise, because its legs have only 
a continuous and unbending bone, they leap down 
from the trees and cut the animal to pieces. The 
Nomads call the hunters '* Acatharti."^ 

11. Above these is situated a tribe of no large size, 
that of the Struthophagi,* in whose country there 
are birds of the size of deer, which, though unable to 
fly, run swiftly, like ostriches. Some hunt them 
with bows and arrows, whereas others, covered with 
the skins of birds, conceal the right hand in the 
neck of the skin and move it in the samcway as the 
birds move their necks, and with the left hand they 
pour forth seeds from a bag suspended to the side, 
and with these seeds they bait the creatures and run 
them together into gullies, where men with cudgels, 
standing over them, slaughter them. And their 
skins are used both for clothing and for bed-covers. 

Elephant-eaters. ^ ^ g_ " Unclean." 

^ Bird-eaters. 



TToXe/jLOvai he tovtoi<; ol ^LfjLol^ KoKov/nevoi At- 
6ioire<i, fcepaaiv opvycov ovrXot? 'X^pwfxevoi. 

12. YiXr^dLoX'^poi he rovTOL<; elal /jteXav core pot 
T€ Twv aW(ov Kol ^pa)(VT6poL fcal ffpwx^vfiia)- 
raroi ^AKpiBo<f)dyoL' ^ ra yap reTrapaKovra cttj 
a7ravi(o<; vTrepriOeaacv, d7ro67)pLov/iievr)f; avrwv rrj<; 
aapK6<;' ^(oan S' diro d/cpiBcov, a? ol eapivoX XtySe? 
KoX ^€(f)vpoi, TTveovTes fieyaXoi, avveXavvovaiv 
6fc9 Tou? TOTTou? TOUTOU?* iv Tttt? %apa8/)af9 he 
i/j,l3aX6vT€<; vXrjv KairvcoBr) koX v(f)d^^avT€^ /mi- 
Kpov ^ . . . • vTrepirerdixevat * yap ^ rbv Kairvov 
(TKOTOVvrai Kal TriiTTovaL' ^ avyKoyfravTC^ S* avra^ 
fieO^ dXfjLvplSo'; /jid^a^; iroLovvrai Kal XP^^vraL. rov- 
T(ov 8' eprj/jio^ virepKenai fJueydXr), vo/iid<; Sai^tXet? 
exovaa, eKXeiffiOela-a 8* vtto irXr}6ov<; aKOpTricov 
Kal ^aXayyiwv to)v rerpayvdOcov KaXov/juevcov, 
eTnTroXdaavTO'i irore Kal direpyaaafievov rot? 
dvdp(07roi<; (l)vyr}V iravreXTj, 

13. Mera he Eu/xei^ou? Xijxeva /^e^/ot Aeiprjf; '^ 
Kal Toyv Kara ra? ef vrjorov^ arevcov ^l)(^Ouo(f)dyoL 

C 773 Kal Kp€o<l)dyoi ^ KaroiKovcn Kal KoXo^ol /^expi' 
T^9 fJL€(Toyala(;. elal he Kal drjpai TrXetou? iXe- 
<f)dvT{t)p Kal TToXei? darjfioi Kal vr)oia irpb Tfj<; 
7rapaXla<;. vofjidhe^ 8* ol irXeiov^;, oXiyot 8' ol 

* 'S.t^ioi, the editors, for :S,i\\oi ; E has ^loi written above, 
first hand. 

2 'AKpido(})dyoi is omitted by the MSS. but is added by first 
hand in margin of F. 

* Here the MSS. have a lacuna of about ten letters. 

* virepTreTUfievai Dhi, vnepireTO/xei'ai E, VTrepmraeB^vroav Z 
(first hand), vv^pir^raad^KTwv mo and z (second hand). 

^ yap, omitted by moz. 

* moz have e?TO aKorovfiivwv koX iznrrovffwv. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 11-13 

The Aethiopians called " Simi " carry on war with 
these people ; they use as weapons the horns of 

12. Neighbouring this people are the Acridophagi,^ 
who are blacker than the rest and shorter in stature 
and the shortest-lived; for they rarely live beyond 
forty years, since their flesh is infested with parasites.^ 
They live on locusts, which are driven into this region 
in the spring-time by strong-blowing south-west and 
western winds. They cast smoking timber in the 
ravines, lighting it slightly (and thus easily catch 
the locusts),^ for when they fly above the smoke 
they are blinded and fall. The people pound them 
with salt, make them into cakes, and use them for 
food. Above these people lies a large uninhabited 
region, which has pastures in abundance. It was 
abandoned by reason of the multitude of scorpions 
and tarantulas, the tetragnathi,* as they are called ; 
these once prevailed and caused a complete desertion 
by the inhabitants. 

13. After the Harbour of Eumenes, as far as 
Deire and the straits opposite the six islands,^ the 
country is inhabited by the Ichthyophagi and the 
Creophagi and the Colobi,* who extend as far as the 
interior. In this region are several hunting-grounds 
for elephants, and insignificant cities, and islands 
lying off the coast. The greater part of the people 

1 Locust-eaters. ^ Literally "wild creatures." 

^ This is obviously the meaning of certain Greek words lost 
from the MSS. (see critical note). 

* i.e. four-jawed. * 16. 4. 4. 

* i.e. " Mutilated " people (see 16. 4. 5). 

' Atjp^s E. 

* KpfO(t>dyoi CF, Kpioxpdyoi other MSS. 



y€(opyovvT€<i' nrapa rtat Be tovtcov (fyverai crrvpa^ 
ovK oXiyo^;. avvdyovcri Be Tal<; d/uLTrcoriaLV ol 
^\')(^dvo^dyoL Tou? t'^^O?* 67nppLYavT€<; Be TaL<; 
TreV/oat"? KaroTncocTL irpo^ top rfKiov, elr ef otttt;- 
aavT€<; ra^ dKdv6a<; jxev awpevouai,, rrjv Be adpKa 
TraTTjaavre'^ fid^a'i Troiovvrai, TrdXiv Be TavTa<; 
rj\ui^ovT€<; acTovvrat' ;\;e«yLfca)ro? B^ dBuparrjcravTe'; 
avvdyeiv Tov<i i-)(6v<^y ra? aeacopev/xivaf; aKdvOa^; 
K6yjravT€<: /xd^a^ dvaTrXdrrovraL Kal ')(^po)VTai, 
Ta9 ^€ veapa^ eKfiv^ciycnv. evioi Be ra? K6y^a<^ 
ixovaa^ rrjv adpKa airevovaL Kara^dWovre^ el<; 
')(apdBpia Kal avardBa^ 6aXdTTrj<;, elr IxOvBia 
7rapappi7rTovvT€<; ^ Tpo(firjv, avTol^i 'x^pwvTai ev ttj 
Twv l^Ovoov (Tirdvei' can B^ avTol<i Kal Ix^ooTpo- 
(f)€La iravTola, d(f) mv rapievovTai. evioi Be twv 
Tr)V avvBpov irapaXiav olkovvtcov Bid TreWe 
r)/jL€pot)v inl rd vBpela dva^aivovai iravoLKl ^ fierd 
iraiavKTfxov, pi^evre^i Be Trprjvel^ irivovcri ^o(ov 
Blktjv €0)9 €f<TUfjL7rav(t)(T€co^ rrj^i yaaTp6<^, elr diria- 
(Tiv iirl OdXarrav irdXiV oLKovai B' ev (T7rrjXaioi<; 
rj fidvBpaif; (neyaaTal<i diro Bokcov fiev Kal arpay- 
Tijpcov Twv K7jT€i(ov ocTTecov Kal aKavOwv, (f)vXXdBo<; 
8' eXatvrjf;. 

14. 01 Be ^eX(M)vo<^dyoL tol<; baTpdKOi<; avTwv 
(TKeird^ovTaL /jL€ydXoL<; ovacv, ooare Kal TrXetaOai, 
ev avToU' evioL Be rov <f)VKOv^ dvo^e^XTj/jbevov 
TToXXou Kal6lva<; vyjrTjXd^; Kal XocpcoBetf; ttoiovvto^, 

1 TrapoirTS>VT€s CEFr {ir^pippiirTovvres, second hand in F). 

2 F reads iravotKciov, Meineke -navolKioi. 

^ The^styrax" (or ** storax ") shrub, or tree, produces a 
sweet-smelling gum or resin used in frankincense. 

^ i.e. fish-ponds and the like. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 13-14 

are nomads; and those who till the soil are few in 
number. And in some parts of their country styrax ^ 
grows in no small quantities. The Ichthyophagi 
collect the fish at the ebb-tides, throw them upon 
the rocks, and bake them in the sun ; and then, 
when they have thoroughly baked them, they pile 
up the bones, tread the flesh with their feet and make 
it into cakes ; and again they bake these cakes and 
use them for food. But in stormy weather, when 
they are unable to collect the fish, they pound the 
bones which they have piled up and mould them into 
cakes and use them for food; and they suck the 
bones when fresh. But some, who have shell-fish, 
fatten them by throwing them down into gullies 
and pools of sea-water, and then, throwing in minnows 
as food for them, use them for food when there is a 
scarcity of fish. They also have all kinds of places 
for hatching and feeding fish,^ from which they 
parcel them out. Some of the people who inhabit 
the part of the coast that is without water go inland 
every five days, families and all, with a shouting of 
paeans, to the water-reservoirs, throw themselves 
upon the ground face downwards, drink like cattle 
until their stomachs are filled out as tight as drums, 
and then return to the sea again. They live in 
caves, or in pens roofed over with beams and cross- 
beams, consisting of the bones of whales and small 
fish ,8 as also with olive branches. 

14. The Chelonophagi * live under cover of turtle- 
shells, which are so large that they are used as boats ; 
but some of these people, since the sea-weed is 
thrown ashore in great quantities and forms high 
and hill-like heaps, dig beneath these and dwell 

3 Cf. 15. 2. 2. * Turtle-eaters. 



V7ropvTTOVT€<; ravra^ vitolkovo-l. rov<; Be veKpov^ 
pLTTTOvai Tpo(f)rjv roh 1-^0v(tiv, avaXafifiavo fievov^ 
viro tS)V 7rXrj/jL/juvpiB(ov. tmv Be vrj(T(Dv tlv€<; 
Tpeh e(j)e^ri<i Kelvrat, rj fiev 'KeXcovcov, rj Be ^wKwVy 
7] o' 'lepaKcov Xeyo/nevr]' irdaa 8' y irapaXia 
^oivLKa^ ^ re e;)^€t koX iXaicova^ xal Ba<l)VMva<;, 
ov^ rj evTO<; tmv arevcov fiovov, dWa koX Tr}<; 
e«T09 ttoWt], €(TTi Be Ti? Kal <t>L\L7nrov vrjao^;, 
KaO rjv virepKeiTai to UvOayyeXov KaXovfjuevov 
rcov eXe<f}dvTwv KvvrjyioV elr 'Apoivorj iroXtf; Kal 
Xifir)v, Kal fierd ravra rj AecpTJ' Kal rovrcov 
vTrepKeirai Orjpa tmv eXecpdvrwv. dirb Be rrjf; 
A€Lpy]<; r) e</)ef% eariv dpcofiarotpopo';, Trpcorr] fiev 
t) Tr)v afivpvav (f)epovaa {Kal avTij fxev ^l')(Pvo<j>d- 
ywv Kal K.p€0(l)dy(ov), (j^veo Be Kal irepaeav^ Kal 
(TVKa/jLivov AlyviTTiov' vTrepfceiraL Be 77 At%a 
O^pa rS)v eXe^dvTwv' 7roXXa)(^ov 8' elal avardBe^ 
TMV OjJL^pLwV vBdrWV, (JdV dva^7)pav6€L(T(t)v ol 
eXe(f)avT€'s ral^ TTpo^oa-Kiai Kal tol<; oBovcti, 
C 774 (f)pe(opvxou(Ti koI dvevpLcrKovaiv vBcop. ev Be rrj 
irapaXia ravrij /^e^/ot tov^ Tlv6oXdov^ dKpco- 
TTjpiov ^ Bvo Xifivat eicrlv ev/ieyedei^;' r) jjuev dXfiv- 
pov vBaro^;, f)v KoXovai ddXarrav, rj Be yXvKeo^, 
^ Tpe(j)eL Kal Linrovf; irora/iiLOv^ Kal KpoKoBeiXov;, 
irepl rd %etX,77 Be irdTrvpov opMvraL Be Kal t^ei<i 
irepl Tov TOTTOV. tjBt] Be Kal ol TrXrja-iov t% 
aKpa^ T^9 Tlv6oXdov ^ rd aco/mara oXoKXrjpol 

^ (jyoiVLKcovas E. ^ wepaeay the editors, for irepffaiav. 

^ TO D. * TlidoXdov y.z. 

^ aKpwTi]pia Dhixz. * IlidoXdov Dxz. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 14 

under them. They throw out their dead as food for 
the fish, the bodies being caught up by the flood- 
tides. Some of the islands, three of them, follow 
in succession : Tortoise Island, Seal Island, and 
Hawk Island, as it is called ; and the whole of the 
coast has palm-trees, olive groves, and laurel groves, 
not only the part inside the straits, but also most of 
the part outside. And there is also an island called 
PhiHp's Island, opposite which, above the coast, lies 
the hunting-ground for elephants called the Hunting- 
ground of Pythangelus. Then one comes to Arsinoe, 
a city and harbour ; and, after these, to Deire ; 
and above these lies a hunting-ground for elephants. 
The next country after Deire produces aromatics, 
the first that produces myrrh (this country belongs 
to the Icthyophagi and Creophagi), and it also 
produces both persea ^ and the Aegyptian sycaminus.^ 
Above this country lies a hunting-ground for 
elephants, called the Hunting-ground of Lichas. 
In many places there are pools of rain-water ; and 
when these dry up, the elephants, with their trunks 
and tusks, dig wells and find water. On this coast, 
extending as far as the promontory of Pytholaus, 
there are two lakes of fair size, one of which has salt 
water and is called a sea, whereas the other has 
fresh water, supports both hippopotamus and 
crocodiles, and has papyrus round its edges ; and 
the ibis is also to be seen in the neighbourhood of 
this place. Beginning with those who live near the 
promontory of Pytholaus, the people are wholly 
free from mutilation ^ of the body. After these, one 

^ A tree with such luscious fruit that Cambyses transplanted 
it to Persia (see Diodorus Siculus 1. 34). 
2 Mulberry tree. 
8 See 16. 3. 5, 9. 


elari' fiera Be tovtov<; rj Xi.^av(OT0^6po<;' ivTavOa 
CLKpa earl Koi lepov alyeipotiva e^ov- ev Be rfj 
fieaoyaia irorafiia rt? "I(nBo<; Xeyofievrj koX 
aWr) Ti9 NetXo9, afKJyo) fcal a/iivpvav fcal Xi/Sa- 
vov 7rapaTr€(f)VK6Ta exovaai. ecnt Be koX Be^a- 
fievri Tt? rot? eK tmv opMV vBaai TrXrjpov/jbevr) koX 
jieTCL ravra Aeoi^ro? (tkotttj^ koi HvOayyeXov 
Xifiriv' r) 6* efr;? e%€t /cat '\]r€vBo/ca(rai,av.^ avv- 
e%ft)9 8' elal irordfiiai re TrXeiou? exovaai Xt/3a- 
vov irapairet^vKOTa Kal iroTafiol fJLexpt' t% Kipva- 
fJLWjJLO^opov' 6 B' opt^ayv ravrrjv 7roTa/JLO<^ <f>ep€i 
Kal (jyXovv irafiiroXw elr dXXo<; Trora/AO? Kal 
Aacpvov^ Xi/irjv Kal TTora/jLia 'AttoXXwz^o? koXov- 
fxevr), e^ova-a tt/oo? rat Xi^dvM Kal (Tfivpvav Kal 
KiVvd/JLcofiov' TOVTO Be TrXeovd^ei ^ fiaXXov irepl 
TOv<; ev pdOev tottou?* elO^ 6 'EXe^a? to opo^, 
eKKeifxevov et? ddXarTav, Kal Bicopv^ Kal i(f)e^r]^ 
^vy/jLOv ^ Xifi7]v /Jieya<; Kal vBpevfxa, to l^vvo- 
K€<f)dX(i3V KaXovjxevov, Kal TeXevjalov dKpwTrjpLov 
Trj<i irapaXla^; TavTf)^, to Notou Kepa^. Kd/x- 
yfraVTi Be tovto 0)9 iirl fiearj/jL/Spiav ovKeTi, 
(^rfaiv, e^ofjuev Xipievwv dvaypa^a<; ovBe tottcov 
Bia TO fiyjKeTi elvai yvcopifjiov, ev Be Trj €^rj<; 

^ AdovTos (TKOTTT], Corais, for XeovToaKonrj CDFA, \(ov7oaKOTr-i\ 
E, AeovTos KwiTTf s, AdovTos Kcifif] Casaubon. 

2 i|/eu5o/fao-iaj/ F. 

^ v\€ovd(€i F (first hand in margin) ; ir\4ov aKfid(fi other 

* yvfivov CDEFhir ; but \\/vyfiov first hand in Fr. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 14 

comes to the country that bears frankincense ; and 
here is a promontory and a temple that has a grove 
of poplars. In the interior he the river-land of Isis, 
as it is called, and another river-land called Neilus, 
both of which produce both myrrh and frankincense 
along their banks. Here, too, there is a kind of 
reservoir which is filled by waters from the moun- 
tains; and after this one comes to the Lookout of 
Leon and the Harbour of Pythangelus ; and the 
next country has, among other things, pseudo-cassia. 
And one comes to several river-lands in succession 
that produce frankincense along the rivers, and to 
rivers that extend as far as the cinnamon-bearing 
country; and the river which bounds this country 
produces also the flowering rush in very great 
quantities. Then to another river and to the Daphnus 
Harbour and to the River-land of Apollo, as it is 
called, which produces, in addition to frankincense, 
both myrrh and cinnamon; but the cinnamon is 
more abundant in the neighbourhood of the places 
that are deep in the interior. Then to Elephas,^ 
the mountain, which juts out into the sea, and to a 
trench, and, next thereafter, to the large Harbour 
of Psygmus, and to a watering-place ^ called the 
Watering-place of the Cynocephali,^ and to the 
last promontory of this coast, Notu-ceras.* After 
rounding this promontory approximately towards 
the south, we no longer, he says, have any record of 
harbours or places, because the promontory is not 
known from here on, and the same is true of the 
coast next after it. 

^ Elephant. 2 ^ well, apparently. 

3 i.e. the " Dog-headed " people. 
* i.e. Horn of the South. 



15. EtVl Be ^ Kol (TTTJXat kol ^(o/xol HvOoXdov 
teal Aixct' fcal HvdayyiXov /cat A€ovto<; teal 
^apifJLOpTOV Kara rrjp ypa)pt/JLOV irapaXiav tjjv 
UTTO A€Lprj<; fjicxpt NoTOi/ Kepcof;, to Se Bidcrrrj/jLa 
ov yp(i)pi/jLov. TrXrjdvei 8* i\e(f>aaiv r) X^P^ '^^^ 
Xiovai TOt? KaXovp.€voi^ fivpfiri^ip' aTrearpa/jL- 
fieva B* €Xovat to, alSoia, Kal ^/^fo-octSet? Tr}V 
Xpoav, yjrLXorepoi Be tcov Kara ttjv 'Apafflav 
^epei Be kol irapBdXeL^ dXKL/xov<i Kal pivofcep(DTa<i» 
ovTOL Be fiiKpov aTToXeLTTOPTai Twp eXe(})dpTQ)p ol 
pi,P0Kep(DT6<i, ovx>^ uyairep WpTe/jLiBcopo^i (f>rjaLP, 
iirl aecpdp to) /jl7]K61, Kulirep ecopaKepai (f)r}(Ta^ 
€P ^ KXe^apBpeia , dXXd ax^Bop ri oaop . . .^ t^ 
vyjrei, diro ye rov v<j)^ rjfiwp 6pa6ePT0<i' ovre 
TTv^tp TO xp^P'^ €/jL^epe^, dXX^ eXe^apri fxaXXop' 
/jLeye6o<; B^ earl ravpov /jLop(l)7) S' iyyvTara 
avdypov, Kal fxaXiara Kara ttjp Trporo/jLyp, ttXtjp 
T^9 pipo^i, on eari Kepa^ atfiop arepecoTcpop 
6(TTeov TraPTO^' ^p^rat 5' ottXq), Kaddirep Kal 
G 775 T0t9 oBovaip 6 avaypo^' ex^i' Be Kal tvXov<; Bvo, 
o)? dp (Tireipa^i BpaKoprcop diro r?)? pdxG(o<i fiexpt 
rrj<i yaaTpo<; TrepiKeifiepa^y t7)p fjuep TTyoo? to) Xocfxp, 
rr)p Be TTyoo? rfj 6a(f)vi. ck p,ep Br) rov 1/9 tj/j^ojp 
opaOePTo^i ravrd (pap^p rjp^eh, €K€ipo(; Be irpoa- 
Biaaa<f>el, Biori, Kal eXe(f)aPTop,dxop lBi(o<i earl 
TO ^a)OP irepl t^9 pop.i)<^, vttoBupop ttj irpoTop,?) 
Kal dpaKetpop ttjp yaaTepa, cap /jlt) TrpoXrjcfyOfj 
TTj Trpo^oo-KiBt Kal ToU oBovai. 

^ 56, Corais inserts. 2 j,^^^ Corais inserts. 

^ Obviously some number of cubits {tttjxvs) or spans 
{airidafj.'fi) has fallen out of the MSS. 

1 See the description of "gold-mining ants " in 15. 1. 44. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 15 

15. One comes also to pillars and altars of 
Pytholaus and Lichas and Pythangelus and Leon 
and Charimortus along the known coast, extending 
from Deire as far as Notu-ceras, but the distance is 
unknown. The country abounds in elephants, 
and also in lions called ants,^ which have their 
genital organs reversed, and are golden in colour, 
but are less hairy than those in Arabia. It also 
produces fierce leopards and the rhinoceros. The 
latter, the rhinoceros, is but little short of the 
elephant in size, not, as Artemidorus says, ** in length 
to the tail " ^ (although he says that he saw the animal 
at Alexandria), but falls short, I might almost say, 
only about ... in height,^ judging at least from 
the one I saw ; nor does their colour resemble that 
of box- wood, but rather that of the elephant; 
and it is of the size of a bull ; and its shape is most 
neaily like that of the wild boar, particularly in its 
foreparts, except its nose, which has a snub horn 
harder than any bone ; and it uses its horn as a 
weapon, just as the wild boar uses its tusks ; and it 
also has two hard welts extending round from its 
chine to its belly, like the coils of serpents, one of 
which is on its withers and the other on its loins. Now 
I am giving this description from the one I saw ; but 
Artemidorus goes on to explain that the creature is 
especially inchned to fight with the elephant for 
places of pasture, thrusting its forehead under the 
elephant and ripping up its stomach, unless it is 
prevented from so doing by the proboscis and tusks 
of the elephant. 

2 i.e. from head to tail. 

^ The measure of the difference in height is missing from 
the manuscripts. Artemidorus must have given it in terms 
of either cubit or span (see critical note). 



16. Tipoprai 8' iv tovtol^; toI<; totto^? kuI al 
Kafirfko'7TaphaXei<i, ovBev ojxolov exovaai TrapSaXer 
TO yap ttolklXov Trj<; XP^^^ vefipiaL jjlclKXov €oik€ 
pay8SwTo?9 (J'TTL\oL<i Karea-TLy/jLevai^' reXeo)? Be ra 
OTTicrOia TaireivoTepa rcov ifxirpocydicdv iarlv, ware 
8oK€LV avyKaOrjadai tw ovpaiw fjuepeu, to v-^o<i 
^oo<; exoPTi, TO, Se i/jLTrpoadca cTKeXrj tmv KUfjirj- 
\ei(ov ov XeiTTeTai' Tpd'xv^o<; 8' eh v-^o^ i^r^pfievo'i 
opOo^i, TTjp Kopv(f)7]v Se TToXv v7T€p7r€T€aTepav e^et 
T^9 KafirjXov St,a Be ttjv aavpp,eTpiav TavTtjv 
ovBe Ta%09 olfiat toctovtov elvai irepl to ^^ov, 
oaov €ip7]/cev ^ApTeplBwpof;, avvirep/SXijTOP ^r;o-a9* 
aXX* ovBe Otjplov ecTLV, dWa ^oaxrjp^a jidWov 
ovBe/jLiav yap dypiOTrjTa efKJyaivei. yivovTaL Be, 
(fyrjai, koX (7<f)iyye<; kol fCvvoKecpaXoi koI kyj^ov 
XeovTo<; /.tev TrpoacoTTov e%oi/T69, to Be Xolttov 
(T(op,a 7rdvd7]po<;, fMeyeOo^ Be Bop/cdBo<;' koX Tavpoi 
B' elalv dypioi /cal aapKO^dyoi, jxeyedeL ttoXv 
T0U9 Trap rjixlv uTrepffe^Xrj/jievoi kol Td^ei, Trvppol 
Ti]v XP^^^' icpoKOVTTa^ 3' eVrt pZyiia Xvkov 
/cal Kvv6<i, C09 (f)'>](Tiv ovTO^. a B' 6 'i,Krjy\no^ Xeyei 
M.7]Tp6Bo)po<; ev Ta> irepl avvrjOeia^; /St^Xiw pivOoi<i 
eoLKe Kal ov (j^poPTiaTeop avTcov. Kal Bpa/covTcov 
B' eLprjfce peyedi] TpidicovTa Trrj^^i^^ o ^ApT€/jLLBa)po<; 
eXe(f>avTa^ Kal Tavpov<; x^ipovpevcov, p^eTpidaa<; 
TavTTj ye' ol yap 'IvBlkoI /jLvOcoBeaTepoL Kal ol 
Ai^vKol, 0I9 ye Kal iroa eTrtTrecpvKevai, Xeyerai. 

17. ^ofiaBiKo^ p,ev ovv y^t09 TOiv TpcoyXo- 

^ i.e. camel-leopards. 

^ The Papio sphinx, a large baboon. 

* i.e. " Dog-heads " (the Papio hamadryas, a sacred baboon). 

* The Papio cebus (also referred to in 17. 1. 40). 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 16-17 

16. In this region, also, are found camelopards,^ 
though they are in no respect Hke leopards ; for the 
dappled marking of their skin is more like that of a 
fawnskin, which latter is flecked with spots, and 
their hinder parts are so much lower than their front 
parts that they appear to be seated on their tail- 
parts, which have the height of an ox, although their 
forelegs are no shorter than those of camels ; and their 
necks rise high and straight up, their heads reaching 
much higher up than those of camels. On account 
of this lack of symmetry the speed of the animal 
cannot, I think, be so great as stated by Artemidorus, 
who says that its speed is not to be surpassed. 
Furthermore, it is not a wild beast, but rather a 
domesticated animal, for it shows no signs of wildness. 
And in this country are also found, he says, sphinxes ^ 
and cynocephali ^ and cebi,* which last have the face 
of a lion, and a body otherwise like that of a panther 
and with the size of a gazelle. The country also 
has bulls that are wild, carnivorous, and far surpass 
those in our part of the world in size and speed ; and 
their colour is red. The crocuttas ^ is a mixed 
progeny of wolf and dog, as Artemidorus says. But 
what Metrodorus of Scepsis says in his book on 
Habits is like a myth and should be disregarded. 
Artemidorus also speaks of serpents thirty cubits in 
length which overpower elephants and bulls ; and 
his measurement is moderate, at least for serpents 
in this part of the world, for the Indian serpents 
are rather fabulous,® as also those in Libya, which 
are said to grow grass on their backs.'' 

17. Now the Troglodytes live a nomadic life ; and 

^ Apparently a species of hyena. 
« See 2. 1.9 and 15. 1.28. ' See 17. 3. 5. 




BvT(OP, rvpavvovvrat, Be Kad^ eKaara, kolvoX he 
KoX yvvaLKe<; /cal reKva nrXrjv to?? TVpdvvoi,<;, tw 
Be TTjv Tvpdvvov (ftOeCpavn irpo^arov r) tr^ixia 
ecni. (TTLpi^ovTai ^ 8' eTn/jbeXco^ at yvvac/cefi, 
irepUeLVTai Be toI^ rpax^^oi<i /cojx^a dprl 
^aaKavLcov. TroXefMOvai Be irepl t?)? vo/j,r]<;, Kar 
dp'x^af} fJLev BL(jd9ovp>evoL rat? %e/)<TtV, elra XiOoL^t 
orav Be rpavfia yev^jrai, koX ro^evfiaai koI 
jia'^aLpiaL' BiaXvovai Be ^vvaiice^iy eh yLtetrof? 
TTpolovaai Kol Berjaeci TrpoaeveyKaaac Tpo(f>7] S' 
etc re aapKOiv kol tmv oarecdv KOTrTo/juevcov dvajul^ 
Kal eh ra? Bopd<; eveiXovfievcov,^ elr OTrrayfiepoyp 
fcal aXX&)9 7roX,Xa%a)9 a-Keva^o/iiepcop vtto toop 
C 776 p-ayeipcop, 01)9 kcCKovglp liKaOdpTOV^' m<jt€ p,r) 
Kpeo^ayeip pLOPop, dWd kol ocrrocpayeip koI 
B€ppLaTO<f)ay€tP' %pc5i^Tafc Be Kal too alpbart koX 
Tu> yaXaKTi Karap^L^apre^i. ttotop Be roh p-ep 
TToWoi? diro^peypLa iraXiovpov, roh Be Tvpdppoi^ 
p^eXiKparop, utt' dpOov^ tlpo<; eKirie^opbepov rov 
p.e\iTO<;. ecTTL B' avroh ')(^eip.cbp p,ep, rjpiKa ol 
€Tr)a-Lat iTPeovcn (Karopu^povpraL ydp), depo<i B^ 
6 A-OiTTo? ')(^p6po^. yvpLPrjrat Be /cal Bepparo(f)6poi, 
Kal (TKVTaX7)(j)6pot, BiareXovaLP' elal 5' ov KoXoffol 
p,6pop, dXXd Kal TreptTerpLrjpLepoi nph, KaOdirep 
AlyvTTTioi. OL Be Meya^dpot KWiOTre^ rot? poird- 
XoL^ Kal TvXov^ TTpocTTLOeaai aiBr}pov<;, 'X^pooprai 
Be Kal Xo7%af9 Kal dairiaLP a)p,opupaipai<;, ol Be 
XoiTTol AWioire^i t6^ol<; Kal Xoy^aif;. OdirTOvai 

^ (Tri/jLfii^ovTai E. 

* iveiXov/iievcov, Corais, for avtKovfxivwv CF, avuXovfiivuv 
other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 17 

their several tribes are ruled by tyrants ; and both 
wives and children are held in common except those 
of the tyrants ; and the fine for anyone who corrupts 
the wife of a tyrant consists of a sheep. The women 
paint their eyelids carefully with stibi ;^ and they wear 
shells for amulets round their necks. The Tro- 
glodytes go to war about pastm'age, at first pushing 
their way through with their hands and then with 
stones, and also, when a wound is inflicted, with 
arrows and daggers ; but the fighters are reconciled 
by the women, who advance into the midst of the 
combatants and ply them with entreaties. Their 
food consists of flesh and bones which are first 
chopped up together and wrapped in skins and 
then baked, or prepared in numerous other ways 
by the cooks (whom they call " unclean "), so 
that they not only eat the flesh, but also the 
bones and the skin; and they also use the 
blood mixed with milk. As for beverages, most of 
the people drink a brew of buckthorn ,2 but the tyrants 
drink a mixture of honey and water, the honey being 
pressed out of some kind of flower. They have 
winter when the Etesian winds blow (for they have 
rains) ; but the rest of the time is summer. They 
always go lightly clad, wear skins, and carry clubs ; 
and they not only mutilate their bodies,^ but some 
of them are also circumcised, like the Aegyptians. 
The Aethiopian Megabari have iron knobs on their 
clubs, and also use spears and shields made of raw- 
hide, but the rest of the Aethiopians use the 
bow and arrow and lances. Before burying their 

^ Lat. stibium, i.e. the sesquisulphide of antimony, a dark 
pigment. ^ Rhamnus paliurus. 

3 See 16. 4. 5 and Diodorua Siculus 3. 32. 




^€ Ti-ve<i T(t)v TpcoyXoBvTMv, pd^BoL<; iraXiovpivai^ 
B^aavra top av'X^eva tcov vexpcov tt/jo? ra crKeXr)' 
eireira evdv^ KaraXevovaiv ^ iXapoi, jeXcovref; 
dfxa, 60)9 dp Tov a(OfjLaro<i rrjp oyfrip d7roKpvyfrci)(Ti.p' 
elr e7ri6€PT€<i Kepa<i alyetop dirlaaip. oSoLTropovac 
he pvKTCop etc rSip dppevwp Spe/JL/Jidrcop Kcahcopa'^ 
i^dyjraPTe'i, oiar e^iaraaOaL rd Orjpia rat yfr6(j)cp' 
/cat \afjL7rd(7t Be ^ koX rofot? eVl ra Oqpla XP^^J^'^cii, 
Kol BiaypuTTPOvat Be tcop 'ttoc/ipIcop ^dpip, (pBy tipi 
')(pd)/jLepot 7rpo<i rep irvpL 

18. TaOr' eliroup irepl tcop TpcoyXoBvT&p koL 
T(op 7rpoa)(^(op(op AWlottcop iirdpeLatp iirl T01/9 
"Apa^a<;' teal irpwrovf; eireiai, tou? top 'Apd/Scop 
KoXirop dcpopL^oPTWi /cal dpTiKeifiepov^ rot? Tpwy- 
XoBvTai^, dp^dfiepo^ diro tov YioaeiBLov. ^rjal 
Be ipBoTepco KelaOai tovto tov AlXapLTOv fivxov' 
avpexv ^^ "^^^ Yioo-eiBLOv (f>oiPiK(bpa elpai evvBpop, 
Tifidadal T€ KO/bLiBrj Bid to irdaap ttjp kvkXw 
Kav/j.aTr)pdp re kuI dpvBpop /cal da/ciop vTTdp')(^€LP, 
ePTavda Be /cal ttjp ev/capiriap tmp ^oivl/ccop elpai 
6av/jLaaTrjp' TrpoeaTrj/caai, Be tov dXaov<i dprjp /cal 
yvpY}, Bid yepov<; aTroBeBeLy/jiepot, BepfiaTO^opoL, 

Tp0<f>rjP dirO tmp (f>OlPLK(OP €XOPT€<i. /COLTd^OPTat 

B' eirl BepBpoyp /caXv^OTrotrjad/jLepoi Bid to ttXyjOo^ 
TOip Otjplcjp. eW^ e^rj<; €(tti prj(TO<; ^co/ccop, diro 
TOV 'TrX7]0ov<i TMP drjpLMP TOVTcop MPO fxacT jXePT) . 
TrXrjalop 5' avT7]<i d/cpwTTjpLOP, BiaTelpei tt/jo? 
Tr)P UeTpap Tr)p tmp ^afiaTaiMP /caXovfiePMP 

^ KaraXevovaiv, Tzschucke, for KaraXiyovaiv. 
2 5c Eo^, T6 other MSS. 

1 So Diodorus Siculus (3. 33). 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 17-18 

dead, some of the Troglodytes bind the neck 
of the corpses to the legs with twigs of the 
buckthorn, and then immediately, with merriment 
and laughter,^ throw stones upon them until the 
body is hidden from sight ; and then they place 
a ram's horn on the barrow and go away. They 
travel by night, first fastening bells to the male 
cattle, so as to drive away the wild beasts with the 
noise ; and they also use torches and bows to repel 
the wild beasts ; and, for the sake of their flocks, 
they also keep watch during the night, singing a 
kind of song near the fire. 

18. After saying all this about the Troglodytes 
and the neighbouring Aethiopians, Artemidorus 
returns to the Arabians ; and first, beginning at 
Poseidium, he describes the Arabians who border on 
the Arabian Gulf and live opposite the Troglodytes. 
He says that Poseidium lies farther in than the 
Aelanites Gulf; and that contiguous to Poseidium 
there is a grove of palm trees, which is well supplied 
with water and is highly valued because all the 
country around is hot and waterless and shadeless; 
and that here the fertility of the palms is wonder- 
ful; and that a man and" a woman have charge 
of the grove, being appointed to that charge 
through hereditary right. They wear skins, and 
live on dates from the palm trees ; but on 
account of the number of wild beasts they build 
huts in trees and sleep there. Then, next, one 
comes to the Island of Phocae,^ which was so 
named from the number of seals there. Near the 
island is a promontory, which extends to the Rock 
of the Nabataean Arabians, as they are called, and 

2 Seals. 



^Apd^cov KoX TTjv WaXaKTTivrjv ^copav, eh rjv 
^ivaloi re koI Feppaloi /cal irdvre'i ol ttXtjo-lo- 
X^poi' TO, T(x)v dpcofidrcov (fiOpTia kojul^ovo-lv. elr' 
dWr] irapaXia, irporepov jxev M.apavLTCov koXov- 
fievrj, S)v 01 fxev rjaav >y€(i)pyoi, tiv€<; Be crKrjvtrai, 
C 777 vvv Be VapLvBaiwv, dveXovroav eKeivov^ BoXm' 
eireOevTO yap auroU, irevraerrjpcKrjv riva iravrj- 
ryvpiv eTTLreXovdiy koX tovtov^ t6 Bie(f)0eipav koX 
Tov<; dWov<; eTTeXOovre^; dpBi]v BieXvfjurjvavTo. 
el6^ 6 AiXavLTr](; ^ koXtto^; koX rj Naffaraia, ttoXv- 
avBpo<i ovcra^ X^P^ '^^^ ev^0T0<;' olkovctl Be fcal 
VYjaov^ 7rpoKeL/jieva<i TrXTjaiov ol irporepov fiev 
KaO' rjo-vxtav rjaav, varepov Be ax'^Biai'^ eX^fi^ovro 
rov<; eK rr]<; Alyvirrov irXeovra*^' BiKa^; 5' ericrav, 
eTTeXOovro'i aroXov koi eKiropdrjcravro^ avrov<;. 
ef % B' earl ireBiov evBevBpov re /cal evvBpov Kal ^ 
jSoa/crj/jbdrcov rravroiwv fiearov, aXXcov re /cal 
rjfjitovcov' /cal /cafii]Xa)V dypiwv^ Kal eXd(ficov Kal 
BopKdBwv irXrjOo^ ev avrw, Xeovrh re Kal irap- 
BdX€i<; Kal XvKOL avxvoi. rrpoKeirai Be vrjao^ 
KaXovfievT] Ala' elra atoXtto? oaov irevraKoaiwv 
araBiwv, opeac irepiKXeLo/jbevo^; Kal Bvaeia^oXrp 
arofiarr TrepiOLKouai Be OrjpevriKol dvBpe*; rwv 
X^paaicov dypevfjbdrcov. eZr' epTj/juoi rpei<; vrjaoc 
7rX^pei<; eXaccov, ov rcov irap* rjfjbiv, dXXd rwv 
evroTTicov, a9 KaXovpuev AWioTTLKd^;, (av ro Bdxpvov 
Kal larpLKYj^i Bwd/jueco^; iariv, e<^e^rj<; S* earlv 

1 Al\avtTVS E, 'EXaulr-ns other MSS. 
^ T], before X'*'P«> "^oz omit. 
' Kal, after eiiv^pov, Dh omit. 

* The MSS. read ti/hiSuwv aypiwv Ka\ Kajn-f'Xw. Kramer, 
citing Diodorus Siculus 3. 42, transposes h-ypitov as above. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 18 

to the Palaestine country, whither Minaeans and 
Gerrhaeans and all the neighbouring peoples convey 
their loads of aromatics. Then one comes to 
another coast, which was formerly called the 
coast of the Maranitae, some of whom were 
farmers and others tent^dwellers, but is now 
calleiS" the coast of the Oarindaeans, who de- 
stroyed the Maranitae by treachery ; for the 
Garindaeans attacked them while they were cele- 
brating some quadrennial festival, and not only 
destroyed all the people at the festival but also 
overran and exterminated the rest of the tribe. 
Then to the Aelanites Gulf, and to Nabataea, a 
country with a large population and well supplied 
with pasturage. They also dwell on islands situated 
off the coast near by ; and these Nabataeans formerly 
lived a peaceful life, but later, by means of rafts, 
went to plundering the vessels of people sailing from 
Aegypt. But they paid the penalty when a fleet 
went over and sacked their country. One comes 
next to a plain which is well supplied with trees and 
water and is full of all kinds of domestic animals — 
mules among others ; and it has a multitude of wild 
camels, deer, and gazelles, as also numerous lions, 
leopards, and wolves.^ Off this plain lies an island 
called Dia. Then one comes to a gulf about five 
hundred stadia in extent, which is enclosed all round 
by mountains and a mouth that is difficult to enter ; 
and round it live men who hunt the land animals. 
Then to three uninhabited islands, full of oUve trees, 
not the kind in our country, but the indigenous kind, 
called Aethiopic, the sap of which has medicinal 
power. Next in order one comes to a stony beach, 

^ Jackals, perhaps. 



alyiaXo<; XlOcoBtj^, Ka\ fxera rovrov rpa^ela ical 
SvcnrapaTrXevaTOf; oaov 'X^iXicov (TraBiwv irapaXla 
airdvei Xifjuivwv koX dyKvpo^oXicop- opo^ yap 
irapareiveL rpa^v Ka\ v^^rrfXov eW vircopeiaL 
a7rtXaSa)8€i<; ^ /^€)(pi' Trj^ OaXdTrr]<;, rot? irrja-iai^ 
/jbdXcaTa koI Tal<; tots eirofjippiaL^ djSoijOrjTOv 
irape^ova-at top kIvBvvov. 6^7)9 8' earl koXtto^; 
vrjaov; e%ft)i^ (T7ropdBa<;, /cat avve^S}^ ^ Oli'd ^Irdfi- 
/jLov /jLeXaivr)^ rpet? ayav vyjrrjXol, fcal fiera rovrov^ 
^apfioda^;^ Xifirjv oaov araBicov top kvkXov CKaTov, 
arevov koX eTrLKivBvvov e^fov rov eiairXovv iravTl 
aKd(f)€i. pel Be koX 7roTa/i6<; eh avrov ev pLeaw 
Be V7]ao<; evBevBpof; koX yeco pyr)aifJbo^. elr earl 
irapaXia rpax^la, koI fiera ravrijv koXttoi Ttve<; 
KoX %«/5<z No/maBcov dirb /cafirjXcov i'X^ovTwv rov 
^iov Koi yap TroXe/jbovaiv an avrojv Kal oBevovai 
Kal rpe(f)ovraL rw re ydXaKri '^pco/juevoL Kal rah 
aap^l. pel 5e irora/jLO^; Bi* avrwv yjrrjy/iia ')(^pvaov 
Karacf^epeov, ovk taaai 8* avro Karepyd^eaOar 
KoXovvrai Be Ae^ai, ol /lev vofidBe^, 01 Be Kal 
yecopyoL ov Xiyo) Be riov eOvtov ra ovo/iara ra 
TToXXd * Bia rrjv dBo^lav Kal dfxa droirlav r?)? 
iK(j)opd^ avrcov. i^ofxevoL 8' elalv rjfMepcorepoi 
rovrcov dvBp€<;, evKparorepav olKovvre<; yrjv Kal 
yao evvBp6<^^ ean Kal evo/jL0po<;' ')(^pva6<; re 
C 778 opVKro^ yiverai irap avroh ov yjrr}y/jbaro<;, dXXa 
^(oXaplcov ')(^pvaov KaOdpaew^ ov ttoXX-t)? Beojxe- 

1 ff-m)\aid)h(is moxz, Tzschucke, Corals. 
^ avveX^7s CEx. 

^ E reads Xapix6\as, F XapnoOas. 

* iroWd, Meineke, for TraXaid. Letronne conj. &\\a, 
Kramer irKtlw. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 18 

and after that to a stretch of coast about one thousand 
stadia in length which is rugged and difficult for 
vessels to pass, for lack of harbours and anchoring- 
places, since a rugged and lofty mountain stretches 
along it. Then one comes to foot-hills, which are 
rocky and extend to the sea ; and these, especially at 
the time of the Etesian winds and the rains, present to 
sailors a danger that is beyond all help. Next is a 
gulf with scattered islands ; and continuous with the 
gulf are three exceedingly high banks of black sand ; 
and after these lies Charmothas Harbour, about one 
hundred stadia in circuit, with an entrance that is 
narrow and dangerous for all kinds of boats. A river 
flows into it; and there is an island in the middle 
of it which is well supplied with trees and fit for 
tillage. Then one comes to a rugged stretch of 
coast ; and after that to certain gulfs and to a country 
of nomads who get their livelihood from camels ; for 
they carry on war from the backs of camels, travel 
upon them, and subsist upon their milk and flesh. 
A river flows through their country that brings down 
gold-dust, but the inhabitants do not know how to 
work it. They are called Debae ; and some of them 
are nomads, whereas others are also farmers. I am 
not giving most of the names of the tribes because 
of their insignificance and at the same time because 
of the oddity of the pronunciations. Next to the 
Debae are men more civilised than they ; and the 
country these live in has a more temperate climate ; 
for it is well watered, and well supplied with rains. 
Gold obtained by digging is found in their country 
— not gold-dust, but gold nuggets, which do not 
require much purification; the smallest nuggets 

^ Dhi read ed^evSpos instead of e^v^pos. 



V(ov,^ /jL6<y€0o<; 8' ixovrcov e\d')(^LCFT0V fiev irvp^vo^, 
fxeaov he fieaTrlXov, fieyiarov Be Kapvov Tpijaavre^ 
Be ravra ivaWa^ XiOoi's Sia(f)avecn,v 6pp>ov<^ iroi- 
ovvrai hieipovre^ \ivov,^ irepiTiOevTaL Be irepl to 1)9 
Tpaxv^ov^ /cal fcap7rov<;- ircoXovcn Be koX irpo^ 
Tou? aarvyeiTova^ evwvov rov '^(^pva-op, TpiirXdaiov 
dvTiBiB6vre<; ^ rov X^I'Xkov, BiTrXdaiOV Be rov dpyv- 
pov Bed re ttjv diretpiav t^? epyaaia'^ fcal rrjv 
(TTrdvLV Tcov dvTiXafjL^avopLevojv, ojv rj %/3eta 7r/)o? 
Tou? ^LOV<; dvajKaLorepa. 

19. ZwdTTjet S* 77 Twi^ Xaffaucov evBai/jLOPeardrr}, 
jxeyicTTOv edvov^, irap ol? koX a/jLvpva koI \ipavo<; 
KoX Kivvd/jbcofjLOV' iv Be rfj irapaXia Kal ^dXaaixov 
Koi dWri Ti9 TToa acpoBpa evoi)B7]<;, ra^^ B' e^lrTjXov 
TTjv oBfirjv exovcra' elcrl Be Kal <^oivLK€^ evcoBet^i 
fcal KdXa/jLO^, o<f)€i<; Be (nrLdap,iaiOL, (f>oivtKot rrjv 
Xpoav, TTpoaaXXop.evoi koi fiexpi' Xayovo^, to 
Bfjy/jLa €X0PT€<; dvrjKearov. Bt,a Be rrjv d^Ooviav 
roiv KapTTMv dpyol Kal pdOv/noi Tol<i 0loL<f elalv 
ol dvOpfOTTOi. KOLTd^ovTai Be eirl tcov pi^wv tcov 
BevBpwv eKTe/jLVOVT€<; ol ttoXXoI Kai Bi]/jlotikoL^ 
BiaBexop^evoi B^ ol crvveyyv<; del to, (f>opTLa, Toi<i 
fxeT avTOv^ TrapaBtBoao-t fiexpi' %vpia<; Kal Mecro- 
7roTafjLLa<;' Kapovfievoi B' virb tS)V evayBuSyv, aXpovai 

^ Seo/icrwj/ uXy Seo/xevov other MSS. 

2 Mucf E. 

^ avTiSiSovTes Ea;, avTid6vr€s other MSS. 

* The words oi . . . brifioTiKol are omitted by moz. 


GEOGRAPWY, i6. 4. 18-19 

have the size of a fruit-stone, the medium that 
of a medlar, and the largest that of a walnut. 
They make collars with these nuggets, perforating 
them and stringing them alternately with trans- 
parent stones by means of thread; and they 
wear them round their necks and wrists. They 
also sell the gold at a cheap price to their 
neighbours, giving it in exchange for three times the 
quantitj^^^^if^Biass and double the quantity of sjlver, 
because of their lack of experience in worlcing gold 
and because of the scarcity of the things received 
in exchange, which are more important for the 
necessities of life. 

19. Bordering upon these people is the very fertile 
country of the Sabaeans, a very large tribe, in 
whos'fe country myrrh and frankincense and cinnamon 
are produced ; and on the coast is found balsam, as 
also another kind of herb of very fragrant smell, 
which quickly loses its fragrance. There are also 
sweet-smeUing palms, and reeds ; and serpents a 
span in length, which are dark-red in colour, can 
leap even as far as a hare, and inflict an incurable 
bite. On account of the abundance of fruits the 
people are lazy and easy-going in their modes of life. 
Most of the populace sleep on the roots of trees 
which they have cut out of the ground.^ Those who 
live close to one another receive in continuous 
succession the loads of aromatics and deliver them 
to their next neighbours, as far as Syria and Mesopo- 
tamia ; and when they are made drowsy by the sweet 
odours they overcome the drowsiness by inhaling 

^ Surely a strange sort of bed — if the Greek text is correct. 
In 16. 4. 18, Strabo says that the Arabians, "on account of 
the number of wild beasts, build huts in trees and sleep there." 



TOP Kapov acr(l)aXTOV OvfjLtd/uLarL kol rpdyov irotyy- 
covo<;. rj Be TroXf? tmv Xaffalfov, rj Maplafia,^ 
Ketrac fiev iir 6pov<; evhevhpov, ^aaiXea 8* 6%et 

KVplOV TMV KpL(T€(OV Kttl T(bv dXXcOV €K Sc TMV 

^adiXelwv ^ ov 6e/JLt<; i^ievau,^ rj KaraXevovartv * 
avTOV irapaxpTJp.a ol 6)(Xol Kara ri Xoyiov ev 
XKiBfi 5* earl yvvaiKela Kal avro^; kol ol irepl 
avrov TO. Be irXrjOr] ja /juev yewpyec, rd 8' e/jUTro- 
peverat rd dpdy/jbara rd re eTTLxdopia Kal rd diro 
rrj<; AWco7rLa<;, TrXeoi/re? eV avrd Bid tcov arevchv 
BepfxaTivoi<; iTo\oioi<;' roaavra 8' eVrt to itXtjOo^, 
wo-t' dvTl (f>pvydvcov Kal t?}? Kavaiixov vXr)^ 
Xp^o'Oai Kivva/JL(o/j,fp Kal Kaaaia^ Kal rot<; dWoi<;. 
yiverai 8' ev roh Xa^aloLf; Kal to Xapifivov, 
evwBeararov OufxiafJia. €k Be rr/^ ifiiropla^ ovroi 
T€ Kal Teppaloi irXovaLUiTarot irdvrwv elaiv, 
e^ovai re TrafjbTrXrjOrj KaraaKevrjv ■)(^pv(T(DfJbdToav 
re Kal dpyvpayfidrfov, kXcvmv re Kal TpnroBwv 
Kal Kparrjpcov auv eKircop^ao-i Kal rfj tmv oIkwv 
TToXvTeXeia' Kal ydp Ovpcofiara Kal rolxoi fcal 
6po(f)al Be eXe^avTo<s Kal ^pucrou Kal dpyvpov 
XiOoKoXXrjTov Tvyxdvei BiaTreiroiKiXfieva. ravra 
pev irepl tovtcov efprjKe, rdXXa Be rd p,ev irapa- 
ttXtjo-lo)^ Tft) *EpaToa6ev€L Xeyer rd Be Kal irapd 
TMV dXXcov laropcKMv TrapaTiOrjcn . 
C 779 20. ^EpvOpdv yap Xeyeiv Tivd<f ttjv OdXarrav 
cLTro Trj<; XP^^d^ '^1^ ep.(f)aivop.evrj<; KaT dvaKXaaiv, 
etre diro tov yXlov Kard Kopvcprjv ovto<; €lt€ an 6 

^ Maplafia, Tzschucke, for Mepiaffa CFmowxz, Mepidfia E, 
Mepia Tyhi. 

2 fiaaiKelau, the editors, instead of &\Xwv BaaiKeav. 
' i^ifvai, Kramer, for i^clvai. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 19-20 

the incense of asphalt and goats' beard. The city 
of the Sabaeans, Mariaba, is situated upon a well- 
wooded mountain ; and it has a king who is authority 
in lawsuits and everything else ; but it is not lawful 
for him to leave the palace, or, if he does, the rabble, 
in accordance with some oracle, stone him tojdeath 
on the spot. Both he himself and those about him 
live in effeminate luxury ; but the masses engage 
partly in farming and partly in the traffic in aromatics, 
both the local kinds and those from Aethiopia ; to 
get the latter they sail across the straits in leathern 
biJats. They have these aromatics in such abundance 
that they use cinnamon and cassia and the others 
instead of sticks and firewood. In the country of 
the Sabaeans is also found larimnum, a most fragrant 
incense. From their trafficking both the Sabaeans 
and the Gerrhaeans have beconie richest of all ; and 
they have a vast equipment of both gold and silver 
articles, such as couches and tripods and bowls, 
together with drinlong-vessels and very costly 
houses ; for doors and walls and ceilings are varie- 
gated with ivory and gold and silver set with precious 
stones. This is Artemidorus' account of these 
peoples, but the rest of his statements are partly 
similar to those of Eratosthenes and partly quoted 
from the other historians. 

20. For example, he .says that some writers call 
the sea " Erythra " ^ from the colour it presents as 
the result of reflection, whether from the rays of the 
sun when it is in the zenith, or from the mountains, 

^ i.e. the Erythraean (Red) sea. 
* KaTa\evov(rip, Leopardi, for KaraKvovaiv. 



Ta)v opoav ipvOpaLvo/jiivcov ex t% d7roKav(Te(o<i'^ 
d/ji(pOT€p(o^ yap elKa^eiV'^ KTrjalav Be top KvlBiov 
irrjyrjv laropelv eKhthovaav et? Tr]v daXajTav 
ip€vOe<i Kal /jLLXTc!)Be<; vScop- ^Ayadapxi^Brjv Be top 
ifceivov ttoXlttjv irapd ripo^; Bofof,^ Ilep<rov* to 
yevo^y laToprjaat, Bloti Ilepai]<i tl^ ^Epvdpa<;, 
liTTro^op^iov TLVo<i VTTO XeaLPTjf; otcrrpa) KaTa(T)^o- 
/jLepr](i^ i^€\a6ePT0<; yueX/ot OaXdrTt]^ /cdKcWep et? 
PTjcrop Tipa BidpavTo^, cr^eBlap Trrj^d/juepo'; tt^owto? 
TrepaicoOeirj irpb^ ttjp prjaop' IBodp Be KaXco^i oIkyj- 
aifiop, TTjP fiep dyeXrjp eh rrjp HepalBa diraydyoi 
TrdXiPy diroLKovf; 5' e/cet arelXai re koX ra? dXXa<^ 
prjaov<i Koi rrfp irapaXiap, eirdipvixop Be iroirja-eiep 
eavTOv TO ireXayo<i. tou? Be Ile/oo-e&x? vlop diro- 
(fyaipeadat top ^EpvOpav, rjyijaaaOaL re tmp tottcop. 
XeyeTai 8' vtto tlpwp tcl diro tmp aTePcop tov 
^ Apa^lov koXttov p-ixpi' 'rr)^ Kippa/jLa)p.o(f)6pov t^9 
e(TxdT7]<i irepTaKtax^'Xicop aTaBicop, ov/c 6VKpipa)<i, 
€LT eirl poTov eW ^ eirl rd^ dpaToXd'i. XeyeTai 
Be Kal Blotl o a/jLdpayBo<i Kal 6 /S^pvXXof; ep toi<; 
Tou XP^^^^^ fieTuXXot'i eyyipeTai. elat Be Kal 
aXe? evQ)B€L<i ep " Apa-^iP, w? ^tjctl IT ocre^Scoi^to?. 

21. TipoiTOL B' virep r/}? XvpLa(i lSla/3aTaloi Kal 
Xa^atot Tr)p evBau/jiOPa ^ Apa^iap pefioPTai Kal 
TToXXdKL^ KaTeTpexop avTrj^, Trplp rj 'Fco/xalcop 
yepeadav' pvp Be KdKecpoi 'Pco/jLalot^ elalp virrjKOOL 
Kal ^vpoi. fxrjTpoiroXifi Be tmp Na^aTalayp eaTlp 

^ Instead of anroKavafoos, x reads iKKavaeus, Eustathius 
{Ad. Dionys. 31) Kauaeoos, Oorais eiriKavaecos* 
2 eUdCei moz ; so Corals. 
8 Bc6|ou Dh, 'Ej8d<rou C and marg. F. 

* lUpaov, Casaubon inserts. 

* KaTao-xo/i^vTjs moz, KaTaaxof-^vov other MSS. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 20-21 

which have been reddened by the scorching heat; 
for, he continues, conjecture runs both ways about 
the cause ; but Ctesias the Cnidian reports a 
spring, consisting of red and ochre-coloured water, 
as emptying into the sea; and Agatharcides, a 
fellow-citizen of Ctesias, reports from a certain 
Boxus, of Persian descent, that when a herd of 
horses had been driven out of the country by a 
passion-frenzied lioness as far as the sea and from 
there the herd had crossed over to a certain island, 
a certain Persian, Erythras by name, built a raft and 
was the first man to cross to the island ; and that 
when he saw that it was beautifully adapted to 
habitation, he drove the herd back to Persis, sent 
forth colonists to that island and to the others and 
to the coast, and caused the sea to be named after 
himself; but other writers, he says, declare that 
Erythras was the son of Perseus, and that he ruled 
over this region. Some writers say that the distance 
from the straits of the Arabian Gulf to the extremity 
of the cinnamon-bearing country is five thousand 
stadia, without distinguishing clearly whether they 
mean towards the south or towards the east. It is 
said also that the emerald and the beryl^re found in 
the gold mines. Andwiere are alsdiragrant salts 
in the country of the Arabians, as Poseidonius says. 
21. The first people above Syria who dwell in 
Arabia Felix are the Nabataeans and the Sabaeans. 
They often overran Syria "Before they became 
subject to the Romans; but at present both they 
and the Syrians are subject to the Romans. The 
metropolis of the Nabataeans is Petra,^ as it is 

1 Rock! 
« dr' . . . cTt' E, otr ... oUt' other MSS. 


7) Tier pa KoXovfjiev^y Kelrai yap eirl ')(^ayplov 
ToXKa ofiakov /cat iiriirehov, kvkXw he irerpa 
^povpoufjievov, TOL p,ev 6/cto? airoKprjp^vov Kal 
dnroTOfiov, ra 3' eVro? iT7]'ya<^ d(j>06pov<; e^ovTO<i 
eU T€ vhpeLav kuc Kijireiav. e^co Be rov Trepi^oXov 
%a>/)a €pr)/iio<; rj irXeiaTr], Kal fidXiaTa r/ tt/oo? 
^lovhaia' ravrrj Be Kal iyyvTaTco eVrt rpi&v rj 

T€TTdp(OV 6B6<i rj/JL€p(x)P 6i9 ' IcplKOVVTa,^ et9 Be TOP 

(pocvcKcopa irevTe, ^acnXeverai, p.ev ovv vtto TLV0<i 
del Tcop ifc rov ^aaiXiKov yevov<;, ex^ei S* 6 
^aaiXev^; eiriTpoirov t(ov eraipcov tlvu, koXov- 
jxevov dBeXcpoV acpoBpa 3' evvop^elrai. yevoiievo^ 
yovv irapa Tol<i IleTyoatoi? ^ ^AOijvoBcopoi;, dprjp 
(f)iX6ao(f)0<; Kal rjjjuv eralpo^^ Bcrjyecro davpLa^wv 
eupeip yap iTnBrj/jLovvra^i ecfir} ttoXXou? puev 'Pco- 
fiaLcop, 7roXXov<i Be Kal tcop oXXcjp ^epcop' rov? 
fiep ovp ^epoufi opdp KpiPop,epov<i iroXXaKi^ Kal 
7rpo<i dXXi]Xov<; Kal tt/oo? toi'9 i7rL)((opLOV(i, tcop 8' 
eiT i')(^w pioip ovBepa<i dXXr)XoL<i eyKoXovpra^, dXXd 
TrjP irdaav elp^pijp dyoPTa<; 7rpo<i eavTOv<i. 
C 780 22. IloXXa Be Kal rj to)p *P( eirl toi)? 
"Apapa^i arpareia pecoo-rl yeprjOelaa e<f>' rj/icop, cop 
yyepLODP rjp Al'Xto? TdXXo<i, BiBdaKei twp t?)? %a)/oa9 
IBicop^dTcop. TOVTOP B' eirep^-^ep 6 Xej^aajo^ Kat- 
aap BiaTreipaaop^epop t(op eBpwp Kal tmp roiroyp 
TovTcop re Kal tcjp AWioTTiKOiP, opcop^ Trjp re 
TpcoyXoBvTCKr)P ttjp irpoae^i] ttj AlyvTrro) yei- 
Topevovaap tovtol^, Kal top ^ApdjSiop koXttop 

^ 'UpiKovvra E (with x above «), ^EpiKovvra CDFAm;, 'Upi- 
Xovvra moz. 

2 Tfirpaiois marg. i, nerpiois EFs, varpiois other MSS. 

3 6pwv F, opwv other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 21-22 

called ; for it lies on a site which is otherwise smooth 
and level, but it is fortified all round by a rock, the 
outside parts of the site being precipitous and sheer, 
and the inside parts having springs in abundance, 
both for domestic purposes and for watering gardens. 
Outside the circuit of the rock most of the territory- 
is desert, in particular that towards Judaea. Here, 
too, is the shortest road to Hiericus,^ a journey of 
three or four days, as also to the grove of palm 
trees,^ a journey of five days. Petra is always ruled 
by some king from the royal family ; and the king 
has as Administrator one of his companions, who is 
called " brother." It is exceedingly well-governed; 
at any rate, Athenodorus, a philosopher and com- 
panion of mine, who had been in the city of the 
Petraeans, used to describe their government with 
admiration, for he said that he found both many 
Romans and many other foreigners sojourning there, 
and that he saw that the foreigners often engaged in 
lawsuits, both with one another and with the natives, 
but that none of the natives prosecuted one another, 
and that they in every way kept peace with one 

22. Many of the special characteristics of Arabia 
have been disclosed by the recent expedition of the 
Romans against the Arabians, v/hich was made jn n 
my own time under Aelius Gallus as commander. \ 
He was sent by Augustus Caesar to explore the i 
tribes and the places, not only in Arabia, but also in [ 
Aethiopia, since Caesar saw that the Troglodyte ' 
country which adjoins Aegypt neighbours upon / 
Arabia, and also that the Arabian Gulf, which ■ 

1 Jericho. 2 gee 16. 4. 18. 




arevov ovra reXeo)? rov Sieipyovra airo twv 
TpcoyXoBvTwv rov<; "Apa^a<;' TrpoaoiKeiovadai Brj 
hievoTjOrj TouTOL'9 y) KaTaarpe^eaOat. rjv Be rt ■*• 
Koi TO 7ro\v')(^p7j/jidTov(i aicoveiv eic Tramo^ ')(p6vov, 
77/309 dpyvpov /cat ')(^pvaov ra dpoo/juara hiaride- 
fiivov<; Koi ttjv iroXvTeXeardTrjv Xtdiav,^ dvaXLa- 
KOVTa<i T(ov Xa/JL^avofievcov rot? efco /xrjSiv »/ yap 
(piXoL^ rjXint.e TrXovaioi^ 'XprjaeaOaL^ rj i-^Op(ov 
/cparrjaeiv irXovcriwv. iirijpe 8' avrbv koI r) 
irapd Tcov Na^aralcov e'XTTt?, (plXcop ovtwv koI 
avfjL7rpd^€LV diravO^ vina'XvoviMevwv. 

23. 'EttI tovtol^ jiev ovv eareiXe rr/i; arpajeiav 
6 VdWo<i' i^rjTrdrrjae 8' avrov 6 tcov Na/Saratwi^ 
€7rtT/)07ro9 SfX.\at09, L'7ro(7%6/>tei^o9 fiev yyijcreaOaL ^ 
T'qv oBop Kol yopriyriGeiv diravTa fcal av/juird^et-v, 
diravTa B' i^ eiri^ovXr)'^ 7rpd^a<i, koX ovt€ irapd- 
ttXovv da(j)aXrj fMtjvvcov, ovd^ oBov, dXXd dvoBiai<i 
Kal KVKXo7TopLai<; kol irdvTCOv diropoif; ')(wpioL<i, rj 
paxi'CLL<s dXifjievoi^ Trapa^dXXcov rj ')(oipdB(ov 
v<pdXcov jJL€aTaL<; rj TevayooBeai,' irXelaTov Be at 
7rXr)fjLfjLVpLBe<; eXvirovv, iv tolovtol^ kol tuvtu 
ywpioL^, Kal at d/jUTrcoTei^. irpcoTOV jxev Brj tovO^ 
d/JidpTrjfia avve^rj to fxaicpd /caTaaKevdaaadat 
TrXola, fjLrjBevo^i 6Vto9 /^^S* eaojjbevov KaTa OdXaT- 
Tav TToXefjiov. ovBe yap kuto, yrjv a(p6Bpa iroXe- 
fxiaTai elaiv, dXXd KdirrfXci jxdXXov ol "Apa^€<i 
Kal e/jLTropLKOL, p,r}Ti ye KaTa OdXaTTav. 6 8' ovk 
eXaTTOv oyBorjKovTa ipavirrjyi^aaTO BUpoTa Kal 

1 Instead of 5e n, CDFh read S' ^rt. 
^ \idelav Koxz. 

^ XpT]<Te(TQai E, xP^<^ao'^«' other MSS, 
* rjyr,ae(r6ai, Corais, for riy^iaacrOai. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4- 22-23 

separates the Arabians from the Troglodytes, is 
extremely narrow. Accordingly he conceived the 
purpose of winning the Arabians over to himself 
or of subjugating them. Another consideration was 
the report, which had prevailed from all time, that 
they were very wealthy, and that they sold aromatics 
and the most valuable stones for gold and silver, but 
never expended with outsiders any part of what they 
received in exchange ; for he expected either to deal 
with wealthy friends or to master wealthy enemies. 
He was encouraged also by the expectation of 
assistance from the Nabataeans, since they were 
friendly and promised to co-operate with him in 
every way. 

23. Upon these considerations, therefore, Gallus 
set out on the expedition ; but he was deceived by 
the Nabataean Administrator, Syllaeus, who, 
although he had promised to be guide on the march 
and to supply all needs and to co-operate with him, 
acted treacherously in all things, and pointed out 
neither a safe voyage along the coast nor a safe 
journey by land, misguiding him through places 
that had no roads and by circuitous routes and 
through regions destitute of everything, or along 
rocky shores that had no harbours or through waters 
that were shallow or full of submarine rocks ; and 
particularly in places of that kind the flood-tides, as 
also the ebb-tides, caused very great distress. Now 
this was the first mistake of Gallus, to build long 
boats, since there was no naval war at hand, or even 
to be expected ; for the Arabians are not very good 
warriors even on land, rather being hucksters and 
merchants, to say nothing of fighting at sea. But 
Gallus built not less than eighty boats, biremes and 

A a2 


TpLYjpeL'i fcal (j)aa7]\ov^ Kara KXeoTrarplBa rrjv 
Trpo? Tjj TTaXaia Stcopvyt, rfj diro tov NetXof. 
yvov<; Be BL€^€U(T/jievo(; ipauTrrjy^craTO a/cevayojya 
i/carov koX TpiaKovra, oh eirXevaev e'X^cov irepl 

fJLVpLoV<i TTe^OV<i TCOV eK T?}? KlyVTTTOV 'Pco/jiaLcov 

Kol TOiv (TV/jL/jLd')(^cov, o)v rjaav ^lovBaloL fiev irevra- 
Koaioi, Na^aratOL Be 'X^lXioi pLera tov XvXXaiov. 
TToWd Be iraOoov kuI TaXaiircopijOeU irevreKaiBeKa- 
rato? TjKev eh Aev/crjv /cco/jbrjv t^9 l^a^aruLcov 7779, 
e/jbTTOpiov /Jbiya, iroWa tmv irXoloov aTro/SaXoov, (av 
evia fcal avravBpa viro BvcrirXoia^i, TroXepLiov B' 
ov86v6<;' TOVTO 8' cLTreipydaaro 7) tov XvXXaiov 
C 781 Kaicia tov piet^fj (j>r](7avT0<; dvoBevTa elvai aTpuTo- 
TreBoL^; eh ttjv AevKrjv Kcopirjv, eh r)v kol ef ^? ol 
KajLLrjXepLTTopoc ToaovTW rrXrjdev dvBpoiv kol Kaput]- 
Xcov oBevovaiv dacj^aXctx; kuI €V7r6p(o<i eh HeTpav 
Kal^ eK IleV/Qa?, waTe pur) Biacpepeiv puTjBev cTTpa- 

24. Xwe/Saive Be tovto tov puev /3a(TLXeco<; tov 

^OPoBa pLT) TToXif (f>p0VTL^0VT0<; TCOV KOLVCOV, KOl 

pidXta-Ta TMV KaTa nroXepLOv (koivov Be tovto nrda-t 
Toh ^Apd^(i)v ^aaiXevaLv), diravTa Be eirl tjj tov 
eTTiTpoirov TToiovuepov e^ovaia ^ tov XvXXaiov 
TOVTov 5' diravTa BoXw aTpaTrjyovvTO<; /cal 
^rjTOvvTO^, ft)? olpuai, KaTOiTTevaau pev ttjv X^P^^ 
Kal avve^eXelv Tiva<; uvtmv ttoXci^ kol edvq pLCTa 
TCOV *F(opiai,cov, avTov Be KaTaaTrjvai Kvpiov 
aTrdvTdyv, d(f)avia9€VT0)V i/ceLVcov vtto Xipiov Kal 
KOTTOV Kal voacov Kal dXXwv, oacov BoXo) irape- 
aKevaaev eKelvo'^, eh yovv ttjv AevKrjv Kcapbrjv 

^ Kai, before 4k, Casaubon inserts, 

2 i^ova-ia omitted by MSS. except moz. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 23-24 

triremes and light boats, at Cleopatris,^ which is near 
the old canal which extends ^ from the Nile. But 
when he realised that he had been thoroughly de- 
ceived, he built one hundred and thirty vessels of 
burden, on which he set sail with about ten thousand 
infantry, consisting of Romans in Aegypt, as also of 
Roman allies, among whom were five hundred Jews 
and one thousand Nabataeans under Syllaeus. After 
many experiences and hardships he arrived in four- 
teen days at Leuce Come ^ in the land of the Naba- 
taeans, a large emporium, although he had lost many 
of his boats, some of these being lost, crews and all, 
on account of difficult sailing, but not on account of 
any enemy. This was caused by the treachery of 
Syllaeus, who said that there was no way for an 
army to go to Leuce Come by land ; and yet camel- 
traders travel back and forth from Petra to this place 
in safety and ease, and in such numbers of men and 
camels that they differ in no respect from an army. 
24. This came to pass because Obodas, the king, 
did not care much about public affairs, and particu- 
larly military affairs (this is a trait common to all the 
Arabian kings), and because he put everything in the 
power of Syllaeus ; and because Syllaeus treacher- 
ously out-generalled Gallus in every way, and 
sought, as I think, to spy out the country and, along 
with the Romans, to destroy some of its cities and 
tribes, and then to establish himself lord of all, 
after the Romans were wiped out by hunger and 
fatigue and diseases and any other evils which he 
had treacherously contrived for them. However, 
Gallus put in at Leuce Come, his army now being, 

^ Also called Arsinoe (Suez); see 17. 1. 25. 
2 i.e. to the gulf. ^ ^- g « White Village." 



Karrjpev, ijBr} (TTO/JbaKaKKj} re Kol (TKcXoTVp^r) ^ 
'Tr€ipa^ofji€vr)<; r?)? arpaTcd^;, i'jrix^opioc'; TrdOeac, 
Twv fxev irepl to arofia, tmv Be irepl ra aKekrj 
irapdXvaiv riva BrjXovvrcoi/ e/c re tmv vBpeiwv /cal 
^oravMv. 'j^vay/cdaOr) yovv to re 6epo<^ koX tov 
')(€i,pjS)va BiareXecrai avrodi, tou? daOevovvTa^; 
dvaKr(o/jL€uo(i. i/c fiev ovv rrj<; AevKrj*; K(t}/jLi]<; eh 
Uerpav, evrevdev h' eh 'PivoKoXovpa^ t/)? tt/jo? 
AlyvTrro) ^oivLKrjf; rd (fyopria KOfiL^eraiy KavrevOev 
eh TOV<; dXXov<;' vvvl Be to irXeov eh ri]v 'AX,6- 
^duBpeiav tS> NetXft)* Kardyerai 3' ^ eK Trj<; 
'A/3a/8m<? kuI rr]<; 'lvBtK}]<; eh Mfo? op/xov eW^ 
v7repdeaL<; * eh Kotttov t^? @7]^aiBo<; KajJbrjXoLf; 
ev BiciipvyL TOV NelXou Ket/jbevrjv ^ elr'' ^ eh 
^ AXe^dvBpeiav. irdXiv eK t7]<; Aev/C7j<i /ccojjLrjf; 6 
TdXXo'^ dva^ev^a<; rrjv arparidv Bid roiovrcov 
rjei ')(^copio)v, Mcrre koI vBcop KajirjXoL^ KOfiL^eiv 
fjLovdrjpia tS)V 'Y]ye\xovoiiV tt}? oBov' Bioirep TroXXah 
ryfjcepai^ rjKev eh ttjv ^Apera yrjv, <Tvyyevov<; T(p 
\^/36Ba' eBe^aro fxev ovv avTov 'A/oeTa? (^lXlkm<; 
KoX Boopa TrpoarjveyKev, rj Be tov ^vXXauov ivpo- 
Boaia Ka/celvyv eTTOirjo-e Tr]v ^(^dypav BvanropevTov 
TpiaKOVTa yovv rjixepaL^ BirjXOev avTrjV, ^etd(; Kal 
<f>oivLKa<; oXtyov; Trapexovaav Kal /SovTvpov dvT 
eXaiov, Bid to.? dvoBla^;' r) S' ef^?, rjv enrrjei, 
NofJbdBcov rjv Kal ep7}/jL0<; '' Ta TroXXd co? dXTjOoj'i, 

^ <TKe\orvpBr], Casaubon, for a-KeXoripBr]. 
^ 'PivoKoXovpa, the reading of all MSS. here (cp. readings in 
16. 1. 12 and 16. 2. 31). 

^ NelXco- KarayfTai S', Groskurd, for NeiAw icard'yeTai to. 5'. 
^ virepOea-Ls, Tzschucke, for V7r€p64<reis. 
^ K€ifi4vi)v E, Keifiepri other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 24 

sorely tried both with scurvy and with lameness in 
the leg, which are native ailments, the former dis- 
closing a kind of paralysis round the mouth and the 
latter round the legs, both being the result of the 
native water and herbs. At all events, he was 
forced to spend both the summer and the winter 
there, waiting for the sick to recover. Now the 
loads of aromatics are conveyed from Leuce Come 
to Petra, and thence to Rhinocolura, which is in 
Phoenicia near Aegypt, and thence to the other 
peoples ; but at the present time they are for the 
most part transported by the Nile to Alexandria; 
and they are landed from Arabia and India at Myus 
Harbour; and then they are conveyed by camels 
over to Coptus in Thebais, which is situated on a 
canal of the Nile, and then to Alexandria. Again 
Gallus moved his army from Leuce Come and 
marched through regions of such a kind that water 
had to be carried by camels, because of the baseness 
of the guides; and therefore it took many days 
to arrive at the land of Aretas, a kinsman of Obodas. 
Now Aretas received him in a friendly way and 
offered him gifts, but the treason of Syllaeus made 
difficult the journey through that country too ; at 
any rate, it took thirty days to traverse the country, 
which afforded only zeia,^ a few palm trees, and 
butter instead of oil, because they passed through 
parts that had no roads. The next country which 
he traversed belonged to nomads and most of it was ' 

1 Or zea, a kind of coarse grain. 

^ elir', Kramer inserts, from conj. of Letronne. 
' epr]fjLos moz, fpr]fxa other MSS. 



iKoKelro Se ^ Kpaprjvrj' fiaai,\€v<; 8' ^v SaySo)?* ^ 
Kal ravTi^v avohiai<; BiijXOe KaTaTplyjra<; r}/uL6pa<; 
irevW-jKOVTa jJiexpi iroXeco^ Neypdvcov ^ Kal ')(^(*)pa<; 
elpTjvLKTj^i re Kal dyaOr]<i. 6 fiev ovv fiaortXevf; 
€<j)v<y€V, r) Be TroXf? ef €(l)68ov KaTeXrjcjyOr)' eKeWev 
7]iJbepai^ ef rjKev eirl tov avvayjrdvrcov 
5' avTodi TMV I3ap0dpa)v et9 pLd')(^Tjv, ire pi fivpiov<; 
C 782 auTMv eireaov, tmv Se 'Vcopalcov Bvo' i^pcovro 
<ydp direipco^i tol<; 07r\oi<;, diroXe/jLot reXeco? ovre^, 
Tofoi? re Kol Xoy^au^ Kal^ ^L(f)€cn, Kal (r(f)evS6vai,<;, 
01 irXelaroL 8' avrcov dp.(f)iar6p,0L<; TreXeKeaiv 
€vOv<; Be Kal rrjv ttoXlv elXe KaXovp.evijv ^AaKa, 
diToXei(^6elaav ^ vivo tov ffaaiX€a)<i. ivrevOev eh 
"AOpovXa itoXlv rjKe, Kal ^ Kparrjaa'; avrr}^ 
aKOVLTi, (f)povpaif ep^^aXoav Kal 7rapaaK€vdaa<; 
€(f)6Bia ^ auTov Kal (poiviKcov €t? ttoXlv Mapalaffa ^ 
TTporjXOev edvov<; tov Pap^p^aviTcaPy^ ol rjaav vtto 
^iXaadpa). ef fiev ovv r)pepa<; irpoo-ffaXoyv eVo- 
XiopKei, X€i'\jrvBpLa<; B^ ova7]<; direaTrj' Bvo pev ovv 
rjpepcov oBov aTrea^e Trj<; dpcopaTO(f)6pov, KaOdirep 
TMV alxpcLX(*iTcov uKovetv r)v' ef Be p^rjvcov xpovov 
iv Tat9 6BoL<; KaTeTptyfre, ^avXwf; dyop^evo^;' eyvco 
S* dvaaTpe(j>a)v, 6^{r€ ^ ttjv eTri^ovXrjv KaTapaOoDV 
Kal KaO' eTepa^ 6Bov<; eiraveXdcav' evvaTa2o^ p,ev 

1 Instead of SayScos, Dh read 2a)8as, 2dBo5 morwxz. 

2 Instead of Neypdvcay, F has ' Ay pdvwv, CT)hix 'Aypavoou, 
moz Neypavwv. 

^ Kal, Corais inserts. 

^ diro\€i(pde7(rav, Corais, from conj. of Casaubon, for a-vWi}- 

^ Kai, Corais inserts. 

* i(p65ia moz, omitted by other MSS. except x, which has 



GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 24 

truly desert ; and it was called Ararene ; and its 
king was Sabos ; and in passing through this country, 
through parts that had no roads, he spent fifty days, 
arriving at the city of the Negrani ^ and at a country 
which was both peaceable and fertile. Now the king 
had fled and the city was seized at the first onset; 
and from there he arrived at the river in six days. 
Here the barbarians joined battle with the Romans, 
and about ten thousand of them fell, but only two 
Romans ; for they used their weapons in an inex- 
perienced manner, being utterly unfit for war, using 
bows and spears and swords and slings, though most 
of them used a double-edged axe ; and immediately 
afterwards he took the city called Asca, which had 
been forsaken by its king ; and thence he went to a 
city called Athrula ; and, having mastered it without 
a struggle, he placed a garrison in it, arranged for 
supplies of grain and dates for his march, advanced 
to a city called Marsiaba, which belonged to the 
tribe of the Rhammanitae, who were subject to 
Ilasarus. Now he assaulted and besieged this city 
for six days, but for want of water desisted. He was 
indeed only a two days' journey from the country 
thet produced aromatics, as informed by his captives, 
but he had used up six months' time on his marches 
because of bad guidance, and he realised the fact 
when he turned back, when at last he had learned the 
plot against him and had gone back by other roads ; 

^ Negrana. 

' yiapa-va^ai CDh, Mapava^a moxz. Kramer conj. Ma/iafia. 
® '¥a,uQavfiTS>v F, 'Vajxavirwv Cicx. 
' oi//e, Xylander, for u\pei. 



'yap €69 l^eypava ^ r)K€v, oirov rj fid')(r} avfju^e^T]- 
/c€i, €v8€KaTalo<; S* eKeWev el<i 'ETrra (fypeara 
KokovfJieva airo rod avfJL^e^rjKOTO^' ivrevOev tjSt] 
Bl^ elprjvLKTj^ ^ et9 ^daWa Kcofjurjv Kal ttoXlv dWi]v 
M.a\60av TT/Do? irorafjiw /ceijuivrjv djuKvelrat' elra 
hi iprjix7]<^ oXija vBpeta e)(ova-7]<; 680^ M'^XP'' 
'Eypa? ^ /ca)/jLr]<;. ean 8e rrjf; '0/3oSa"* /celrai 8' 
eVl OaXdrTrj<;. rrjv Be irdaav oBov e^rj/coaraLOf; ^ 
e^r)VV(J€ Kara rrjv iirdvoBov, dva\(t)aa<i ef [Jbrjva<i 
iv Tjj ef dp)^rj<; 6Ba>. evrevOev 8' iirepaiwa-e ryv 
(TTpanav evBeKaralo^^ el<; Muo? op/jLov, eld^ 
viT€p6el<^^ eh KoTTTOv fjuera tmv ovrjOijvai'^ Buva- 
fjLevoyv KUTTJpep eh ^ AXe^dvBpeiav' rov^ B* dWov<; 
direfiaKev, ov^ vtto iroXe/xlcov, dWa vocrcov Kal 
KOirwv KOI Xifxov Kal iJiO')(6r]pia<^ rcov oBmv' eirel 
Kara iroXeiMov eirrd ye fiovov^ ^ BLa(f>Oaprjvai, 
avve/3rj. Bt* a? alria^ ovB^ eirl iroXv 7rpo<; rrjv 
yvMCTiv rcov roircov a>u7)(Tev rj arpareia avri]' 
fiLKpa B^ oyu.(W9 (TvvrjpyTjaev. 6 B' atno^ rov- 
rcov 6 SvWato<; eriae BiKa<; iv 'Vco/jLy, irpoairoiov- 
/jLevo<; fiev (piXlav, eXejx^^^'^ ^^ tt/do? ravry ^ ry 
irovrjpia Kal aXXa KaKovpya)V Kal d7ror/jbr]del'; r-qv 

25. T^i^ fiev ovv dp(oixaro(j)6pov Biaipovaiv eh 
rerrapa^ fjuepiBa^;, wairep elpijKa/juev' rojv dpcofid- 

^ Neypava F, ^Avdypav w, * hvdypava other MSS. 
^ 6ipi7»'t/c7js, Corais, for clpTjvris. 

^ iic have'T7pas, moz^eypas (cp. Steph. Byz. s.v. ^idOpnnra^, 
* 'OySciSa CT>hx. 

^ €^7}KO(Tra7os, Casaubon, for kl-qKoar-^v moz, llry/coorc^*' other 

^ inrepOds, Corais, for virepOeffis. 

' ourieTivai E, wvndrji/ai other MSS., crcodrivai Meineke, from 
conj. of Kramer. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 24-25 

for on the ninth day he arrived at Negrana, where tlie 
battle had taken place, and thence on the eleventh 
day at Hepta Phreata, as the place is called, f^om 
the fact that it has seven wells ; and thence, at Ikst, 
marching through a peaceable country, he arriv^ed 
at a village called Chaalla, and again at another 
village called Malotha, which is situated neair a 
river ; and then through a desert country, which had 
only a few watering-places, as far as a village called 
Egra. The village is in the territory of Obodas ; aiad 
it is situated on the sea. On his return he acconii- 
plished the whole journey within sixty days, although 
he had used up six months in his first journey. 
Thence he carried his army across the Myus HarboUr 
within eleven days, and marched by land over to 
Coptus, and, with all who had been fortunate enough 
to survive, landed at Alexandria. The rest he had 
lost, not in wars, but from sickness and fatigue 
and hunger and bad roads ; for only seven men 
perished in war. For these reasons, also, this 
expedition did not profit us to a great extent in our 
knowledge of those regions, but still it made a slight 
contribution. But the man who was responsible 
for this failure, I mean Syllaeus, paid the penalty atj 
Rome, since, although he pretended friendship, he; 
was convicted, in addition to his rascality in thisl 
matter, of other offences too, and was beheaded. ' 
25. Now writers divide the country that produces 
aromatics into four parts, as I have said before ; ^ 

1 16. 4. 2. 

* 76 (x6vous E, omitted by moz, yeiofxivov F, y^vo;x4v(jiP other 

* Tavrri, Casaubon, for ourp. 



Tcov Be \L/3avov fiev kol a/jLvpvav i/c BivBpcov 
yLvecrdaL (j)aaL ^ Kaaaiav ^ Be koX e/c Xifjuvcov.^ TiV€<i 
Be rrjv irXeiw e'f ^IvBoiV elvai, rov Be Xi^dvov 
^eXriarop rov irpo^ rrj UepaiBc. /car aWrjv Be 
Bialpeaiv avfiiraaav Tr]v EvBal/iiova irevrax^ 
cT)^l^ovaiv eh fiaai\eia<;, o)v r) fiev tov<; pba')(^ifjLov<; 
ex^i fcal TTpoayayviara^ airavTcov, rj Be rov<i yecop- 
70U9, Trap* wv 6 alro<; eh tov<; dWov^ eladyeraL, 
T) Be rot*? ^avavcrorexi'ovvTa^;, koX rj fxev djiypvo- 
C 783 (f>6po^, T} Be \L^ava3TO(f)6po<i, at B' avral kol rrjv 
Kaaaiav * kol to KCVpd/jLco/jLOv Kal rrjv vdpBov 
(pipovai. Trap' dWijXcov B' ov jjueracfiOiTa ra iiri- 
TTjBev/jLara, aXX' iv tol<; irarptoi^ Btafxevovo-tv 
eKaaroL olvo<; 8' €k (J>oivlk(jC)V 6 irXeiwv. dBeX^ol 
Ti/jLicorepoi tCov reKvwv. Kara Trpeaffvyeveiav Kal 
fiacTiXevovaiv ol etc rov yevov<; Kal dWa<; dpx^^ 
dpXovat' Koivrj Krrjcn^; dTraac to?? avyyepeai,, 
KvpiO(; Be 6 TTpea^vraro^i' pia Be Kal yvvrj irdaiv, 
6 Be (f)Odaa^ elaioov p,LyvvTai, irpoOeh tt}? Oupa<; 
rr]v pd^Bov' eKdarw yap Belp pal3Bo(f)opeLv edo^;' 
vvKTepevei Be irapa rw TTpea^vrdrw. Bib Kal 
7rdvT€<; dBeXcpol irdvTwv elai. pLiyvvvrai Be Kal 
firjrpdai' P'Oix^ ^^ ^tjpLia OdvaTO^' /jiOLxb<; B^ 

^ After (paa-i, Mej^er {Bot. Erleut. zur Strabo's Geog. p. 130), 
would add the words KiwdfiwiuLov 5e (k Oaixvcov. 

^ Kaaaiav, Jones, following the MSS., instead of Kaaiav, 
the spelling adopted here and elsewhere by Kramer and 

^ \iluLva)v, Corais emends to Qanvoov ; so Groskurd, Kramer 
and Meineke, who cite Theophrastus Hist. Plant. 9. 5, 
Pliny Hist. Nat. 12. 43, Celsus 0. 23. 1, 2, but not Arrian 
{Exped. 7. 20. 4), who (cited by C. Miiller) says: iJKoveu iv 
fjL^u Toov XifjLvSov r^v Kaffiav yivecrOai avTo7s, dirh 5e rwu SeVSpcov 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 25 

and, among the aromatics, they say that frankincense 
and myrrh are produced from trees ^ and that cassia 
is produced also from marshes. ^ Some say that 
most of the latter comes from India and that the best 
frankincense is produced near Persis. But, accord- 
ing to another division, Arabia Felix is split up into 
five kingdoms, one of which comprises the warriors, 
who fight for all ; another, the farmers, who supply 
food to all the rest ; another, those who engage in 
the mechanical arts ; another, the myrrh-bearing 
country, and" another the frankincense-ISearing 
country, although the same countries produce cassia, 
cinnamon, and nard. Occupations are not changed 
from one class to another, but each and all keep to 
those of their fathers. The greater "part of their 
wine is made from the palm. Brothers are held in 
higher honour than children. The descendants of 
the royal family not only reign as kings, but also 
hold other offices, in accordance with seniority of 
birth ; and property is held in common by all kins- 
men, though the eldest is lord of all. One woman 
is also wife for all ; and he who first enters the house 
before any other has intercourse with her, having 
first placed his staff before the door, for by custom 
each man must carry a staff; but she spends the 
night with the eldest. And therefore all children 
are brothers. They also have intercourse with their 
mothers ; and the penalty for an adulterer is death ; 

^ Possibly the Greek for " and cinnamon is produced from 
bushes " has fallen out of the text here (see critical note). 
2 i.e. as well as from bushes (but see critical note). 

rrjj' fffJLvpt/av re Koi rhv Xi&avosrSv, 4k Se tmv ddfxvat/ rh Kivvanw- 
fjLoy re/jLvecrOat. 

* Kaaaiav all MSS. except F, which has Kaalav. 


idrlv 6 ef aWov yivov^;. 6vydrr]p Be ro)V ^aai- 
\€(i)v TLVo<; davfiaarrj to koXXo^, e^ovaa a86\(f)ov<i 
irevTeKaiheKa ipSivra^ avTrj<^ iravra^^, koX Bia 
TOVT a8ta\eL'7rrco<; aWov eir aWro irapiovra &)? 
avrrfv, fcd/nvovcra r}Brj, TrapaBeSorat vor)p,arL XP^1~ 
aaadai tolovtw' iroLya-afievr] pd^Bov^ opLoLa^ Tat? 
€K€LVcop, or i^LOi ^ Trap aurr)^ ti<;, del riva Trpov- 
ridei rr)? Ovpa^; rrjv ofiolav eKeivr), koI fiiKpov 
varepop d\Xr]v, elr dWrjv,^ aro^^a^o/juivrjy otto)? 
/JL7] itcelvr) Tr)v irapaTrXijaiav exoL 6 peWwv irpo- 
atevuL' fcal Brj irdvrtov ttotc Kar dyopav ovrwv, 
€va Trpoaiovra rfj Ovpa Koi IBovra rrjv pd^Bov, €K 
/lev TavTTj'i eiKdaai, Biotl irap avrrjv rt? etr)' i/c 
Be Tov Tovf a8eX<^ou9 7rdvTa<; iv rfj dyopa Kara- 
XiTTelv virovofjaai p^oixoV Bpa/iovra Be 7rpo<; tov 
irarepa /cat eTrayayovTa^ eKelvov iXejx^rjvai 
KaTa'\\revadp,evov t?}? dBe\(^rj<i. 

26. ^(ixfipove^ B' elalv ol NajSaTaloL /cat (CTrjTi- 

Kol, M<JT€ KoX BrjflOCTLa TO) fieV pLELOOaaVTl TTJV 

ovaiav ^rj/jLia KecTai, tu> 3' av^tjaavTi Ti,p,ai, 
oXtyoBovXoL S* 6vTe<i vtto tmv avyyevcov Bia- 
KOvovvTai to irXeov i) vir dXXrjXwv rj avToBid- 
KovoL, cSaT€ KoX fiixp'' "^^^ ^acTiXewv BtaTeiveLv to 
eOo<i. avcTo-LTia Be iroiovvTaL kuto, Tpta/caiBeKa 
dvdpco7rov<;, p^ovaovpyol Be Bvo tm avp^TroaLO) 
eKdaTw. 6 Be fiaaiXev<^ ev 6yK(p * peydXo) ttoXXo, 
(Tvvexet^ o-vixTTOdLa' iriveL S' ovBel^ irXeov twv 

^ i^r)€i moz. 

2 elr' &\\vv omitted by MSS. except F. 

^ €irayayay6vTd, Corais, for dirayayora. 

* 6yK(f, Jones hesitates to emend to oiKCf, the emendation 
of Tyrwhitt generally accepted by later editors. 

^ (Tvvex^i Eic, avvfxv other MSS., (rwexv iroiel moz. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 25-26 

but only the person from another family is an 
adulterer. 1 A daughter of one of the kings who 
was admired for her beauty had fifteen brothers, 
who were all in love with her, and therefore visited 
her unceasingly, one after another. At last, being 
tired out by their visits, she used the following 
device : she had staves made like theirs, and, when 
one of them left her, she always put a staff like his 
in front of the door, and a little later another, and 
then another — it being her aim that the one who 
was likely to visit her next might not have a staff 
similar to the one in front of the door ; and so once, 
when all the brothers were together at the market- 
place, one of them, going to her door and seeing the 
staff in front of it, surmised that someone was with 
her; and, from the fact that he had left all his 
brothers in the market-place, he suspected that her 
visitor was an adulterer; but after running to his 
father and bringing him to the house, he was proved 
to have falsely accused his sister. 

26. The Nabataeans are a sensible people, and 
are so much inclined to acquire possessions that they 
publicly fine anyone who has diminished his posses- 
sions and also confer honours on anyone who has 
increased them. Since they have but few slaves, 
they are served by their kinsfolk for the most part, 
or by one another, or by themselves ; so that the 
custom extends even to their kings. They prepare 
common meals together in groups of thirteen personsj 
and they have two girl-singers for each banquet. 
The king holds many drinking-bouts in magnificent 
style, but no one drinks more than eleven cupfuls, 

1 The Greek indicates merely the male adulterer. 



evheKa ttottjp'kov aXk(p koI aWw '^(^pva-a) i/circojUiaTi, 
ovTco 8' ffacTiXev^; icm B7}/jlotlk6<;, Mare irpo<; tm 
avToSia/covtp koX ttotc ^ avTihiaKovov rot? aX\oL<i 
Kal avrov ylvea-Oat' 7roWdKi<; Be kol iv rw Brj/jio) 
hiBaxTLv €vOvva<;y ead' ore Kal i^erd^erat ra irepl 
Tov l3iov' ol/€i]a€i<; Be Bid \lOov TroXureXet?, al Be 
7r6\eL<; drei^KTToi Bi elprjvrjV euKapirof; t) ttoWtj 
ttXtjv eXaloVy 'X^pcovrac Be <rr)a-afjbiv(p. Trpoffara 
C 784 \evK6Tpi)(^a, /9o69 fieydXoi, Xirircov d(j>opo<i rj %c6/?a' 
Kd/j,r]\oi Be Tt]v virovpyiav dvr eKeivwv 7rape')(ov- 
rar dxLTCDve<; B' ev Trepi^oofjLaa-i Kal /3\avTioi<; 
TTpotacn, Kal ol ^acnXel'^, ev Tropcpvpa 8' ovror 
elaaycoytfjua B' earl rd /nev re\eco<;, rd S' ov 
TravT€\(o<i, aXX«9 re Kal einxeopLd^ei,^ Kaddirep 
')(pvab<; Kal dpyvpo<;^ Kal rd iroWd tmv dpco- 
fidrcov, x^^'^(>'^ ^^ f^^^^ ai,Br}po<; Kal en 7rop(j)vpd 
ia-dtj^, CTTVpa^, KpoKo^, Koardpiay ropevfia, ypa(f>'q* 
iT\d(TfjLa ovK e'mj(^oi}pi,a' Icra Koirpiai'^ rjyovvrai 
rd veKpd aoo/nara, KaOdirep 'HpaKXeiTo^ (f)r](Ti* 
Ne/cu69 KOTTLcov eK^XrjTOTepor Bio Kal irapd rov^ 
K07rp(ova<; KaTopvTTOvcn Kal tov<; ^aaiXel^;. 
tjXlov TijjbwcrLv eirl tov B(o/jLaTO<; IBpyad/xevoi 
^(OfjLov, cnrevBovTe^ ev avrw KaO* rjfiepav Kal 

27. Tov Be iroLTjTov Xeyovro^, 

AlOloird'i 0^ iKO/jLijv Kal XiBovlov^ Kal 

^ TTore, Corals, for t6, 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 26-27 

each time using a different golden cup. The king is N 
so democratic that, in addition to serving himself, he j 
sometimes even serves the rest himself in his turn. / 
He often renders an account of his kingship in the 
popular assembly ; and sometimes his mode of life 
is examined. Their homes, through the use of stone, 
are costly ; but, on account of peace, the cities are 
not walled. Most of, the country is well supplied 
with fruits except the olive; they use sesame-oil 
instead. The sheep are white-fleeced and the oxen 
are large, but the country produces no horses. Camels 
afford the service they require instead of horses. 
They go out without tunics, with girdles about their 
loins, and with slippers on their feet — even the kings, i 
though in their case the colour is purple. Somethings ' 
are imported wholly from other countries, but others 
not altogether so, especially in the case of those that 
are native products, as, for example, gold and silver 
and most of the aromatics, whereas brass and iron, 
as also purple garb, styrax, crocus, costaria, embossed 
works, paintings, and moulded works are not produced 
in their country. They have the same regard for the 
dead as for dung, as Heracleitus says : " Dead bodies 
more fit to be cast out than dung " ; and therefore 
they bury even their kings beside dung-heaps. They 
worship the sun, building an altar on the top of the , 
house, and pouring libations on it daily and burning / 
frankincense. ' 

27. When the poet says, " I came to Aethiopians 
and Sidonians and Erembians," ^ historians are 

1 Od. 4. 84. 

^ ^TTixft'ptaC^i E, ivix'^P'^o-C^^^ other MSS. Kramer conj» 
'6ti before the verb, Corais rd. 

* Xpvcrhs Koi &fyyvpos E, xp^(^^^ 'f"* 6.pyvpov» 



Stair opov(7t,, fcal rrrepl to)v ^lBovlcov fxeVf elre tlvcl^ 
')(^prj Xeyeiv Toyv iv ro) UepcrtKa) koXttw Karot- 
xovvTcov, a>v airoLKOi ol irap r/filv XcBovioi, Ka- 
Sdirep Kol TvpLov<; riva^ €K6L vrjcTKOTa'^ [(rropovai 
Koi *ApaS/oi'9, o}v diroL/cov^ tov<; Trap' rj/julv (jiacTLV, 
€Xt avTov<; tov<; ^iBovlov<;' dWd paXkov irepl 
Twv 'Epep^cov 7] ^iJTrjaLf;, etre tou? TpcoyXoSvra^ 
ifTTOVOTjTeov XeyeaOai, KaOdirep ol rrjv eTvp,oko<yiav 
fiia^ofievot diro rod eh rrjv epav ip^ffalveiv, oirep 
iarlv eh rrjv yfjv, etre tov<; "Apa^a^. 6 p,€P ovv 
ZtJvcov 6 r;/i6Tepo9 p,eTaypd(j>€i o£;t&)9* 

Koi ^i8ovLov<; "Apay^tt? re. 

TTLOavcoTcpov Be IlocretSctfi/to? ypd(f)eL tw irapa 
pLiKpov dWd^at 

Koi XiBovLOv^; KOL *Apap,/3ov<;,^ 

ft)9 Tov TTOLTjTOv T0U9 i^vv "Apa^a<; ovTO) fcaXe- 
aavTo^f Kaddirep kol vtto tmv dXkcop oavopd^ovro 
Kar avTov. (f>rjal Be ravra rpia eOprj, avvexv 
dX\rj\oi<; IBpvpbeva, opoyeveidv rtva ep^cpaiveiv 
'7rp6<; aXXT]Xa, kol Bia tovto^ 7rapaKei,p,evoL<; 
x)v6pa(TL KeKXrjcrOaL, rov^ pLev 'AppevLov;, tov<; Be 
^ Apapaiov^,^ tov^ Be ^ Apap,^ov^'^ (acrirep Be diro 
eOvov^ ^ evo^ ^ viroXapL/Sdveiv ecmv eh rpia BLrjprj- 
aOau Kara rd^ twv KXipdrcov Bia<f)opd<; del /cdl 
/jbdXXov e^aXXarropLevcov, ovrco fcal roh ovopuaarL 

^ 'Apa/xfiovs, Corais, for 'Epe/xfiovs, 
2 TovTo, Groskurd, for t6. 

^ 'Apa/xaious marg. F, Kramer; 'Apiixiovs F, 'ApdBous i, 
^Apafiiovs other MSS. 

* 'Apafifiovs marg. F, 'Ep€fx.&ovs elsewhere in MSS. 
^ For oTrb (Opovs, Corais reads iridavws. 

GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 27 

entirely at loss to know, in the first place, in regard 
to the Sidonians, whether one should call them a 
certain people who dwelt on the Persian Gulf, from 
whom the Sidonians in our part of the world ^ were 
colonists, just as they speak of Tyrians there, 
islanders, as also of Arabians, from whom they say 
those in our part of the world were colonists, or 
whether one should call them the Sidonians them- 
selves; but, secondly, the inquiry about the Erem- 
bians is more doubtful, whether one should suspect 
that the Troglodytes are meant, as do those who 
force the etymology of " Erembi " from eran 
emhainein^ that is, go into the earth, or the Arabians. 
Now our 2 Zeno alters the text thus : " and to 
Sidonians and Arabians " ; but Poseidonius more 
plausibly writes, with only a slight alteration of the 
text, " and Sidonians and Arambians," on the ground 
that the poet so called the present Arabians, just as 
they were named by all others in his time. Posei- 
donius says that the Arabians consist of three tribes, 
that they are situated in succession, one after another, 
and that this indicates that they are homogeneous 
with one another, and that for this reason they were 
called by similar names — one tribe " Armenians," 
another " Aramaeans," and another " Arambians.'* 
And just as one may suppose that the Arabians were 
divided into three tribes, according to the differences 
in the latitudes, which ever vary more and more, so 
also one may suppose that they used several names 

^ i.e. those on the Mediterranean. 
2 See Vol. I, p. 153, and footnote 1. 
^ i.e. of our Stoic School. 

^ kv6s, inserted by editors from conj. of Tyrwhitt. 



')(^p7](Taadat irXeioaiv avO^ €v6<;. ouS' ol ^Epe/jLvov<i 
ypd(povT€<; iriOavoi' tmv yap AWioircov fidWov 
iSiov. XeycL Be /cal tou? 'Aptyitou? 6 iroiTjrrj^, 01/9 
(f>riai IIoa€LS(t)vto<; he-)(ecrdat helv /jlt] tottov tlvcl 
T?)? %vpLa<i rj Ti}? KiXiKia<i rj aWr]<; rivo^ 77)9, 
C 785 aWa ttjv ^vpiav avrijv ^ Apa/naloi, ^ yap ol iv 
avrfj, Td')(a 3' ol " Kk\r)ve<^ ' Apt/zatoL'? ^ eKciXovv 
rj *ApLfjLov<;. al 8e rcov ovofidrcov yLteraTTTcocref?, 
Kal fidXiara tcov ^ap^api/CMv, TroWal' /caddirep 
TOP Aapi^KTjv Aapelov i/cdXea-av, rrjv he ^dp^ipiv ^ 
VLapvaariv,^ ^Arapydriv ^ Be rrjv ^AOdpap,^ Aep- 
KCTcb 8* avTTjv KTT/crta? KaXel. rrj^ he tmv 
^Apd^wv evBaifioi>La<i Kal 'AXe^avSpov av Tf9 
TTOirjaaiTO fidpTVpa rov Biavorjdevra, a><; (pacrt, 
Kal l^aaiXeiov avrrjv TroirjaacrOai, fiera rrjv ef 
'IvBmv eirdvoEov. iraa-ai fxev ovv al eiri'X^eiprjcreL'; 
avTov KareXvOTjaav, reXevrrjaavTO^; irapaxp'^ficL 
TOP pioV fJLia B* ovv Kal avrt] tmv eirL')(^eLprjae(idv 
rjv, el fiev eK0VT€<; 7rapaBe')^oLiro avrov' el Be [irj, 
rt)9 7roXe/Jiy](Tovro<;' Kal Br) opcov firjre irporepov 
fit]0^ varepov 7r€/j.\jravTa^ 0)9 avrov 7rpea^eL<;, 
irapecTKevd^eTO tt/jo? top woXefiov, oiairep elpy- 
Kafiev iv Tot9 e/nTrpoa-Oev. 

^ 'Apafxdtoi, Corais, for 'Aptfxaioi. 

^ ^Api/j-aiovs, Corais, for 'Apa/j.aiovs. 

3 ^dpCvpiv F. 

* Uapv(Tarf]v D first hand. 

^ ' At apydrinv D first hand. 

^ "Adapav 'DhL, 'AOdpa other MSS. 


GEOGRAPHY, i6. 4. 27 

instead of one. Neither are those who write 
" Eremni " 1 plausible; for that name is more 
peculiarly applicable to the Aethiopians. The poet 
also mentions " Arimi, " ^ by which, according to 
Poseidonius, we should interpret the poet as mean- 
ing, not some place in Syria or in Cilicia or in some 
other land, but Syria itself; for the people in Syria 
are Aramaeans, though perhaps the Greeks called 
them Arimaeans or Arimi. The changes in names, 
and particularly in those of the barbarians, are 
numerous : for example, they . called Dareius 
" Darieces," Parysatis " Pharziris," and Athara 
" Atargatis," though Ctesias calls her " Derceto." 
As for the blest lot of Arabia,^ one might make even 
Alexander a witness thereof, since he intended, as 
they say, even to make it his royal abode after his 
return from India. Now all his enterprises were 
broken up because of his sudden death ; but, at any 
rate, this too was one of his enterprises, to see whether 
they would receive him voluntarily, and if they did 
not, to go to war with them ; and accordingly, when 
he saw that they had not sent ambassadors to him, 
either before or after,* he set about making prepara- 
tions for war, as I have stated heretofore in this 
work. 5 

1 Black (people). 2 7;;^^ 2. 783. 

3 It was called "Arabia the Blest," " Arabia Felix." 

* i.e. his expedition to India. ^ 16. 1. 11. 

[End of Vol. VII.] 




Abisarus, country of, 49 

Acesines River, the, 47, 49 

Adiabene, 193, 225 

Adrapsa (Gadrapsa ?), 147 

Aelana, 313 

Aelius Gallus, the Roman commander, 

353, 355 
Aeschylus, on the mother of Memnon, 

Aethiopians, the, complexion and 

hair of, 39 
Agrippa, 265 
Alexander Balas, conquered by 

Ptolemy Philometor, 247 
Alexander the Great, 3, 5, 7, 13, 41, 

43, 47, 55, 59, 61, 107, 113, 133, 139, 

143, 145, 163, 165, 167, 169, 189, 

199 (his death), 205, 209, 211, 267, 

269, 289, 313, 373 
Alexandria, 359 
Anaitis, temple of, 177 
Andromeda, myth of, 275 
Androsthenes the sailor, 303 
Anea, temple of, 197 
Antigonia, 243 
Antigonus, 243 
Antilibanus, Mt., 213, 259 
Antiocheia near Daphne, 241, 243 
Antiochus Hierax, 259 
Antiochus the Great, 223 
Antiochus the philosopher, 277 
Antipater the Tyrian, 271 
Antony, 237, 299 
Apameia, 241, 249, 251 
Apollodorus, author of the Parthica, 

Apollomatis(Sitacene), 173, 193 
Apollonius, the Tyrian philosopher, 

Arabia, 161, 237, 299, 307, 353 
Arabia Felix, 237, 309, 365, 373 
Arabian Scenitae, the, 233, 235, 301 

Arachoti, the, 141, 143, 145 

Aradus, 257, 267, 303 

Araxes River, the, 165 

Arbela, 195, 197 

Arbies, the, 129 

Ariana, 129, 145 

Aristobulus (see Dictionary in vol. v), 

23, 27, 29, 35, 39, 105, 107, 109, 

165, 167, 209, 211, 303 
Aristobulus, son of Alexander, 289 
Aristotle, on child-bearing in Aegypt 

and on rivers in India and Aegypt, 

37 ; on the Silas River, 67 
Aristus of Salamis, the historian, 167 
Armenians, the, 225 
Arsaces, house of, 237 
Arses, last successor of Dareius, 189 
Artacene, 197 
Artemidorus (see Dictionary in vol. ii), 

on the Ganges River, 125; 281, 

315, 335, 337, 341, 349 
Artemita, 219 
Arii, the, 143 
Assacanus, country of, 47 
Assyria, 193, 225 
Astaceni, the, 47 
Astyages the Mede, conquered by 

Cyrus, 169 
Atargatis, Syrian goddess, 235 
Athena Cyrrhestis, 247 
Aturia, 193, 195, 197 

Babvlon, 163, 169, 195, 197, 201, 219 

Babylonia, 193, 203, 215, 217 

Babylonians, the, 225 

Bactriana, 43, 145, 147 

Bagoiis the eunuch, 189 

Bambyce, 235 

Bandobeng, 45 

Belus, tomb of, 199 ; temple of, 223 

Berenice, daughter of Salome, 299 

Berytus (Beyrout), 263, 267 

A complete index of the whole work will appear in the next volume. 



Bessus, pursuit of, by Alexander, 145 
Boethus, the Sidonian philosopher, 

Borsippa, 203 
Boxus the Persian, 351 
Brachmancs (Brahmans), the, 99, 123 
Bucephalia, 49 
Byblus, royal residence of Cinyras, 263 

Caesar Augustus, 5, 237, 299, 353 

Calachene, 193 

Calanus, the Indian sophist, 109, 119, 

Cambyses, son of Cyrus, 189 
Cappadocia, sacrifices in, 177 
Caprus Kiver, the, 197 
Cardaces, the, 181 
Carmania, 151, 153, 221 
Carmel, Mt., 275 
Carna (Caruana), 311 
Carrhae, 231 

Casius, Mt., 211, 213, 273, 275, 279 
Cassius, 249 
Cathaea, 53 
Cattabania, 311 
Caucasus, the, 19 
Cayster Plain, 23 
CeciUus Bassus, 253 
Chaarene, 147 
Chaldaeans, the, 203 
Chalonitis (near Mt. Zagrus), 193 
Chatramotitis, 311 
Chazenfi, 193 

Choaspes River, the, 45, 159, 161 
Cidenus the Chaldaean, 203 
Cinyras, tyrant of Byblus, 263 
Cleitarchus (see Dictionary in vol. ii), 

Cleopatra (Selene), 241 
Cleopatris (Suez), 357 
Coele-Syria, 211, 239, 261, 265 
Commagene, 231, 239, 241 
Coniaci, the, inhabitants of Taprobane 

(Ceylon), 21 
Cophes River, the, 45 
Copratas River, the, 163 
Cossaea, 221 
Craterus, general of Alexander, 133, 

135, 147 
Crassus, slain at Sinnaca, 231 ; 237 
Ctesias (see Dictionary in vol. i), on 

India, 17; 351, 373 
Ctesiphon, 219 

Cyrus the Great (see Dictionary in 
vol. v), expeditions of, 7, 9, 135, 
145; 157,165,169,189 

Cyrus River, the, 165 

Damascus, 265 

Dareius, 43, 167, 169, 185, 189, 197, 

305, 373 
Delmachus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 

on India, 19 
Deire, Strait of, 313, 315 
Demetrias, 197 

Democritus, on the Silas River, 67 
Diodotus, brother of the Sidonian 

philosopher Boethus, 271 
Diogenes, on abstaining from meat, 

113, 219 
Dionysus, invader of India, 7, 9, 11, 13 
Dolabella, the general, 249 
Dolomene, 193 
Drangae, the, 141, 143, 145 


Ecbatana, 169, 219 

Edessa (Bambyce), 235 

Elephas, Mt., 333 

Elymaei, 173, 193 

Emoda Mountains, 49, 125 

Eratosthenes (see Dictionary in 

vol. i), 211, 215, 229, 231, 297, 301, 

303, 309 
Eucratidas, Indian King, 5 
Eumedes, founder of Ptolemais, 319 ; 

harbour of, 327 
Euphrates River, the, 161, 205, 213, 

229, 235 
Euripides, on India, 9 
Evergetae, the, 145 

Gabae, 159 

Gadaris, 297 

Gadrapsa {see Adrapsa). 

GaUlee, 281 

Gandaritis, 45 

Ganges River, the, 19, 47, 61, 121 

Garmanes (Sramans), the, 99 

Gaugamela, 197 

Gaza, 277, 279 

Gedrosia, 133, 153 

Gedrosii, the, 139 

Gennesaritis Lake, 261 



Gerrha (Adjer), 303 
Gerrhaeans, the, 3ly 
Gindarus, 247 
Gordyaeans, the, 193, 231 
Gordyenc, 233 

Gordys, son of Triptolemus, 233 
Gorgus, the mining expert, 53 
Greeks, ruled by Persians, 187 

Heracleia, 247 

Heracleitus, 369 

Heracles, invader of India, 7, 11, 13 ; 

worshipped at Pyre, 269 
Herod, 281 

Herodotus, on the Nile, 23 
Hierapolis (Bambycc), 235 
Hiericus (Jericho), 281, 291, 353 
Homer, 9, 43, 95, 187, 267, 287, 369, 

Hyarotis River, the, 47 
Hydaspes River, the, 47, 49, 55 
Hypanis River, the, 47, 55 
Hypasii, the, 47 
Hyrcanus, son of Alexander, 289 

Ichthyophagi, the, 131, 313, 317 
Idanthyrsus the Scythian, overran 

India, 'description of, 3-129; caste 

system in, 67-83 
Indians, the, complexion and hair of, 

39 ; simple life of, 87 
Indus River, the, 15, 17, 19, 55, 59 
lope (Jaffa), 275 
Isis, temple of, 319 
Ituraeans, the, 263 

Jerusalem, 275, 281, 283 
Jordan River, the, 261 
Judaea, 239, 267, 281, 289 

Laodiceia, 241, 249 
Libanus, Mt., 213, 259 
Lycurgus the lawgiver, 287 
Lycus River, the, 195, 261, 263 
Lydians, the, 187 

Macedonians, the, 187, 197, 201 

Macras Plain, the, 261 

Magi, the, 119, 157, 167, 177, 183, 189, 

Malli, the, 57 

Mandanis the sophist. 111, 113 
Mariaba (Marib), 311, 349 
Masiani, the, 47 
Masius, Mt., 231 
Masoga, 47 

Massyas Plain, the, 263 
Megasthenes (see Dictionary in vol. i), 

on India, 7, 9, 21, 63, 65, 67, 81, 91, 

93, 95, 97, 99, 101, 119 
Medes, the, 187, 195, 225 
Medus River, the, 165 
Megillus, on India, 29 
Meleager, native of Gadaris, 277 
Menippus the satirist, native of 

Gadaris, 277 
MeroS, 321 

Mesopotamia, 227, 233, 299 
Metrodorus of Scepsis, 337 
Minos the Cretan King, 287 
Moasada, 297 
Mochus, the Sidonian, 271 
Moses, the Aegyptian priest and 

founder of Jerusalem, 283, 285, 

289, 291 
Musicanus, country of, 33, 57, 59 
Mygdones, the, 231 
Myus Harbour, 315, 363 


Nabataeans, the, 351, 367 
Nabocodrosor, leader of army to 

Pillars of Heracles, 7, 9 
Naburianus the Chaldaean, 203 
Nearchus (see Dictionary in vol. 1), 

7, 19, 23, 27, 33, 41, 59, 115, 117, 

129, 133, 149, 151, 155, 161, 173, 

303, 305, 307 
Negrana, 361, 363 
NicoJaiis Damascenus, on the Indian 

ambassadors to Caesar Augustus, 

125, 127 
Ninus, 193 

Ninus, founder of Ninus, 195 
Nisibis, 231 
Nysaei, the, 47 



Omanus, temftle of, 177 

Onesicritus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on India, 17, 21, 29, 31, 33, 39, 49, 
53, 91, 111, 113, 115, 135, 153, 163, 
167 . . . 

Ophiodes, the island, 317 >•' 

Opis, 205 

Oreitae, the, 129, 139 

Orontes River, the, 155, 163, 245, 251 

Pacoras, invaded Syria, 237 ; 247 
Palaestine, 343 
Palibothra, 17, 63, 125 
Pandion, Indian King, 5 
Paraetaceni, 173, 221 
Pannenio, father of Philotas, 145 
Paropamisadae, the, 141, 143 
Paropamisus Mountain, the, 141, 143, 

Parthians, the, 173, 219, 225, 233, 237 
Pasargadae, 159, 165, 169 
Pasitigris River, the, 161 
Pataleng, 19, 23, 57, 59 
Patrocles, on India, 17 
Pelusium, 279 
Persepolis, 159, 165 
Persian Gates, the, 163 
Persian Gulf, the, 155, 301 
Persians, the, 173, 179, 187, 189, 195, 

205, 271 ' . . . 

Persis, 155, 161, 163, 169, 171 
Petra, 351, 353, 357, 359 
Peucolaitis, 47 

Pharnapates {see Phranicates), 247 
Philodemus the Epicurean, native of 

Gadaris, 277 
Philotas, son of Parmenio, 145 
Phoenicia, 239, 265, 267, 285 
Phraates, 237 

Phranicates (Pharnapates ?), 247 
Pindar, on the Hyperboreans, 97 
Plato, myths of, 103 ; on King Minos, 

Polycleitus (see Dictionary in vol. v") 
159, 161, 213 ^' 

Polycritus (Polycleitus?), 185 
Pompey, 231, 241, 249, 263, 279, 289, 

Porticanus, country of, 59 
Porus, country of, 5, 49, 51, 127 


Poseidonius (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on the springs of naphtha in 
Babylonia, 217 ; native of Apameia, 
255; on the fallen dragon in the 
Macras Plain, 261 ; on the dogma 
about atoms, 271 ; on the sorcerers 
about the Dead Sea, 295: on 
Arabian salts, 351 

Pramnae, the, Indian sophists, 123 

Prasii, the, 63 

Prometheus, storv of, 13 

Psammitichus, 321 

Ptolemais (Ace), 271, 319 

Ptolemy Philadelphus, 319 

Ptolemy Philometor, conqueror of 
Alexander Balas, 247 

Pythagoras, doctrines of, 113 

Pytholails, promontory of, 331; 
pillars and altars of, 335 

Sabaeans, the, 347, 349, 351 

Sabata (Sawa), 311 

Sabus, country of, 57 

Salome, Herod's sister, 299 

Samaria, 281 

Samosata, 241 

Sandracae, 197 

Sandrocottus, the King, 63, 95, 143 

Sarpedon, the general, 273 

Scenae, near Babylon, 235 

Selene (Cleopatra), 241 

Seleuceia in Pieria, 241 

Seleuceia on the Tigris, 201, 219, 243 

Seleucis, 241 

Seleucus Callinicus, 243, 259 

Seleucus the Chaldaean, 203 

Seleucus Nicator, Syrian King. 5. 

143, 201, 241, 243, 251 
Semiramis, the queen, 7, 135, 195 
Seres, the, 61, 63 

Sesostris the Aegyptian, 7, 313, 319 
Sibae, the, 57 
Sidon, 257, 267, 269 
Silas River, the, 67 
Simonides, on the Hyperboreans, 97; 

on the burial-places of Memnon, 159 
Sinnaca, 231 

Sirbonis, Lake, 279, 281, 293 
Sitacene (Apolloniatis), 173, 221 
Socrates, on abstaining from meat, 113 
Sopeithes, country of, 51 
Sophocles, on Mt. Nysa, 9 


Strato, Tower of, 275 

Sudinus the Chaldaean, 203 

Saez (see Cleopatris). 

Sunna, Parthian general, slayer of 

Crassus, 231 
Susa, 157, 159, 163, 169 
Susis, 157, 169, 171, 215 
Sydracae, the, 57 
Syllaeus the Nabataean, 355, 357 
Syria, 239, 285 
Syrians, the White, 193 
Syrians, the, 193, 195, 351 

Tigris River, the, 161, 205, 213, 229 
Timagenes, on the raining of brass 

from the sky, 97 
Tithonus, father of Memnon and 

founder of Susa, 157 
Titius, praefect of Syria. 237 
Triptolemus, 233, 243 
Troglodytes, the, 313, 337, 341, 355, 

Trvphon Diodotus, King of Syria, 

251, 253, 263 
Typhon, the myth of, 245 
Tyre, 259, 267, 303 

Tamna, 311 

Taprobane (Ceylon), 21 

Taurus, the, 19o, 229 

Taxila, 47 

Taxiles, King of Taxila, 47, 113 

Tearco, the Aethiopian, 7 

Theodectes, on the complexion and 

hair of the Aethiopians, 39 
Theodorus the rhetorician, native of 

Gadaris, 277 
Tigranes, 225, 231, 241, 249 
Tigranocerta, 231 


Uxii, the, 163, 173 

Xerxes, 199 

Zagrus River, the, 203, 221 

Zeugina, the, 193, 231 

Zeno, the Stoic philosopher, 271, 371 




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Stralxj _ 

The geography of ^trabo